New South Wales
|Population||4,840,600 (2014)1 (1st)|
|• Density||380/km2 (980/sq mi) (2013)2|
|Established||26 January 1788|
|Area||12,367.7 km2 (4,775.2 sq mi)(GCCSA)3|
|Time zone||AEST (UTC+10)|
|• Summer (DST)||AEDT (UTC+11)|
|State electorate(s)||various (49)|
|Federal Division(s)||various (24)|
Sydney //6 is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.7 Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds the world's largest natural harbour, and sprawls towards the Blue Mountains to the west.8 Residents of Sydney are known as "Sydneysiders". Sydney is the second official seat, and second official residence, of the Governor-General of Australia and the Prime Minister of Australia.
The Sydney area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for tens of millennia.9 The first British settlers arrived in 1788 to found Sydney as a penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Since convict transportation ended in the mid-19th century, the city has transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. The population of Sydney at the time of the 2011 census was 4.39 million, 1.5 million of which were born overseas, representing many different nationalities and making Sydney one of the most multicultural cities in the world.310 There are more than 250 different languages spoken in Sydney and about one-third of residents speak a language other than English at home.1112
Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing and tourism. Its gross regional product was $337 billion in 2013, the largest in Australia.13 There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Asia Pacific's leading financial hub.14151617 In addition to hosting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics, millions of tourists come to Sydney each year to see the city's landmarks.18 Its natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Bondi Beach, and the Royal Botanic Gardens. Man-made attractions such as the Sydney Opera House and the Sydney Harbour Bridge are also well known to international visitors.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Urban structure
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
- 7 Government
- 8 Infrastructure
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from south east Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity occurred in and around Sydney for at least 30,000 years.9 The earliest British settlers called them Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.19 Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan.19 The principal language groups were Darug, Guringai, and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, and cooking fish.20
Development has destroyed much of the city's history including that of the first inhabitants. There continues to be examples of rock art and engravings located in the protected Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park.21 The first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.202223 He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors.20 Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement. He spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain.
Establishment of the Colony
The United Kingdom had for a long time been sending its convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies. That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Overrun with prisoners, Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years earlier. Captain Arthur Phillip was charged with establishing the new colony. He led a fleet (known as the First Fleet) of 11 ships and about 850 convicts into Botany Bay on 18 January 1788, though deemed the location unsuitable due to poor soil and a lack of fresh water. He travelled a short way further north and arrived at Port Jackson on 26 January 1788.2425 This was to be the location for the new colony. The official proclamation and naming of the colony happened on 7 February 1788. The name was at first to be Albion but Phillip decided on Sydney in recognition of Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney and his role in authorising the establishment of the settlement.
Between 1788 and 1792 about 4,300 convicts were landed at Sydney. The colony was not founded on the principles of freedom and prosperity. Maps from this time show no prison buildings; the punishment for convicts was transportation rather than incarceration, but serious offences were penalised by flogging and hanging.2627 Officers and convicts alike faced starvation as supplies ran low and little could be cultivated from the land.28 The region's indigenous population was also suffering. It is estimated that half of the native people in Sydney died during the smallpox epidemic of 1789.1929 Some mounted violent resistance to the British settlers. Lachlan Macquarie became Governor in 1810.
Macquarie did make the most of less than ideal circumstances. His first task was to restore order after the Rum Rebellion of 1808 against the previous Governor. Conditions in the colony were not conducive to the development of a thriving new metropolis, but the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of maritime trade (such as wool) helped to lessen the burden of isolation.2630 Macquarie undertook an extensive building programme of some 265 separate works.31 Roads, bridges, wharves, and public buildings were constructed using convict labour and come 1822 the town had banks, markets, and well-established thoroughfares. Part of Macquarie's effort to transform the colony was his authorisation for convicts to re-enter society as free citizens.31
The year 1850 was the final year of convict transportation to Sydney, which by this time had a population of 35,000.2426 The municipal council of Sydney was incorporated in 1842 and became Australia's first city.32 Gold was discovered in the colony in 1851 and with it came thousands of people seeking a to make money.2432 Sydney's population reached 200,000 by 1871.33
Following the depression of the 1890s, the six colonies agreed to form a federated nation of The Commonwealth of Australia. Under the reign of Queen Victoria federation of the six colonies occurred on 1 January 1901. Sydney, with a population of 481,000, then became the state capital of New South Wales.27 The Great Depression of the 1930s had a severe effect on Sydney's economy, as it did with most cities throughout the industrial world. For much of the 1930s up to one in three breadwinners was unemployed.34 Construction of the Harbour Bridge served to alleviate some of the effects of the economic downturn by employing 1,400 men between 1924 and 1932.35 The population continued to boom despite the Depression and reached 1 million in 1925.33
When Britain declared war in 1939, Australia too entered. During the war Sydney experienced a surge in industrial development to meet the needs of a wartime economy. Far from mass unemployment, there were now labour shortages and women becoming active in male roles. Sydney's harbour was attacked by the Japanese in May and June 1942 with a direct attack from Japanese submarines with some lose of life.36 Households throughout the city had built air raid shelters and performed drills.
Following the end of the war the city continued to expand. There were 1.7 million people living in Sydney at 1950 and almost 3 million by 1975. The people of Sydney warmly welcomed Queen Elizabeth II in 1954 when the a reigning monarch stepped onto Australian soil for the first time to commence her Australian Royal Tour.37 Having arrived on the Royal Yacht Britannia through Sydney Heads, Her Majesty came ashore at Farm Cove. Sydney's iconic Opera House was opened in 1973 by Her Majesty. The Opera House became a World Heritage Site in 2007.38 The 2000 Summer Olympics were held in Sydney and became known as the "best Olympic Games ever" by the President of the International Olympic Committee.39 A strong rivalry between Sydney and Melbourne that began in the 1850s still exists to this day. Sydney exceeded Melbourne's population in the early twentieth century and remains Australia's largest city.740
Captain Arthur Phillip, in one of his first reports back to Britain, described Sydney Cove as being "without exception the finest harbour in the world".41 Sydney is a coastal basin with the Tasman Sea to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north, and the Woronora Plateau to the south. The inner city measures 25 square kilometres (10 square miles), the Greater Sydney region covers 12,367 square kilometres (4,775 square miles), and the city's urban area is 1,687 square kilometres (651 square miles) in size.424344 Deep river valleys known as rias were carved during the Triassic period in the Hawkesbury sandstone of the coastal region where Sydney now lies. The rising sea level between 18,000 and 6,000 years ago flooded the rias to form estuaries and deep harbours.45 Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbour, is one such ria.46 70 beaches can be found along its coastline with Bondi Beach being one of the most famous.
Sydney spans two geographic regions. The Cumberland Plain lies to the south and west of the Harbour and is relatively flat. The Hornsby Plateau is located to the north and is dissected by steep valleys. The flat areas of the south were the first to be developed as the city grew. It was not until the construction of the Harbour Bridge that the northern reaches of the coast became more heavily populated. The Nepean River wraps around the western edge of the city and becomes the Hawkesbury River before reaching Broken Bay. Most of Sydney's water storages can be found on tributaries of the Nepean River. The Parramatta River is mostly industrial and drains a large area of Sydney's western suburbs into Port Jackson. The southern parts of the city are drained by the Georges River and the Cooks River into Botany Bay.
Sydney is made up of mostly Triassic rock with some recent igneous dykes and volcanic necks. The Sydney Basin was formed when the Earth's crust expanded, subsided, and filled with sediment in the early Triassic period.45 Almost all of the exposed rocks around Sydney are sandstone that is some 200 metres (656 feet) thick and has shale lenses and fossil riverbeds dotted throughout. The sand that was to become this sandstone was washed from Broken Hill and laid down about 200 million years ago. The Basin's sedimentary rocks have been subject to uplift with gentle folding and minor faulting during the formation of the Great Dividing Range.45 Erosion by coastal streams has created a landscape of deep gorges and remnant plateaus. The Sydney Basin bioregion includes coastal features of cliffs, beaches, and estuaries.
Sydney has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) with warm, sometimes hot summers and mild winters, with rainfall spread throughout the year.47 The weather is moderated by proximity to the ocean, and more extreme temperatures are recorded in the inland western suburbs. The warmest months are January and February, with an average air temperature range at Observatory Hill of 19.6–26.5 °C (67.3–79.7 °F) for January and 19.7–26.5 °C (67.5–79.7 °F) for February.48 An average of 14.9 days a year have temperatures of more than 30 °C (86 °F).48
In winter, temperatures rarely drop below 5 °C (41 °F) in coastal areas. The coldest month is July, with an average range of 8.7–17.4 °C (47.7–63.3 °F).48 Rainfall is fairly evenly spread through the year, but is slightly higher during the first half of the year. The average annual rainfall, with moderate to low variability, is 1,213.8 mm (47.79 in), with rain falling on an average of 134.7 days a year.4849 Snowfall was last reported in the Sydney City area in 1836, while a fall of graupel, or soft hail, mistaken by many for snow, in July 2008, has raised the possibility that the 1836 event was not snow, either.5051 Extreme temperatures have ranged from 45.8 °C (114.4 °F) on 18 January 2013 to 2.1 °C (35.8 °F) on 22 June 1932, the lowest recorded minimum at Observatory Hill.5253 At the Sydney Airport station, extremes have ranged from 46.4 to −0.1 °C (115.5 to 31.8 °F).54
The city is rarely affected by cyclones, although remnants of ex-cyclones do affect the city. The El Niño–Southern Oscillation plays an important role in determining Sydney's weather patterns: drought and bushfire on the one hand, and storms and flooding on the other, associated with the opposite phases of the oscillation. Many areas of the city bordering bushland have experienced bushfires, these tend to occur during the spring and summer. The city is also prone to severe hail storms and wind storms. One such storm was the 1999 hailstorm, which severely damaged Sydney's eastern and city suburbs. The storm produced massive hailstones of at least 9 cm (3.5 in) in diameter and resulting in insurance losses of around A$1.7 billion in less than five hours.55
The Bureau of Meteorology has reported that 2002 through 2005 were the warmest summers in Sydney since records began in 1859.56 The summer of 2007–2008, however, proved to be one of the coolest summers on record.57 Warmer and drier conditions came back in 2009 and 2010, when above-average temperatures were recorded. In 2009, the dry conditions brought a severe dust storm towards eastern Australia.5859 In 2011, above-average rainfall was recorded.60
On 18 January 2013, Sydney experienced record-breaking temperatures with 45.8 °C (114 °F) recorded at Observatory Hill, and a temperature of 46.4 °C (116 °F) recorded at the airport.61 The highest minimum temperature recorded at Observatory Hill is 27.6 °C (82 °F), in February 2011 while the lowest maximum temperature is 7.7 °C (46 °F), recorded in July 1868.48
|Climate data for Sydney (Observatory Hill)|
|Record high °C (°F)||45.8
|Average high °C (°F)||25.9
|Average low °C (°F)||18.7
|Record low °C (°F)||10.6
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||101.6
|Average rainy days||12.2||12.5||13.6||12.8||13||12.5||11.1||10.4||10.5||11.6||11.7||11.5||143.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||62||64||62||59||57||57||51||49||51||56||58||59||57|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||7.1||6.7||6.4||6.4||5.9||5.5||6.4||7.1||7.2||7.2||7.8||7.6||6.8|
|Source #1: Bureau of Meteorology64|
|Source #2: 65|
Lieutenant William Dawes produced a town plan in 1790 but it was ignored by the colony's leaders. Sydney's layout today reflects this lack of planning.66 The geographical area covered by urban Sydney is divided into 658 suburbs for addressing and postal purposes and is administered as 40 local government areas.67 The City of Sydney is responsible for 33 of these suburbs, all of which are located close to the central business district.68
There are 15 contiguous regions around Sydney: the CBD, Canterbury-Bankstown, the Eastern Suburbs, the Forest District, Greater Western Sydney, the Hills District, the Inner West, Macarthur, the Northern Beaches, the Northern Suburbs, the North Shore, Southern Sydney, St George, Sutherland Shire, and Western Sydney. The largest commercial centres outside of the CBD are North Sydney and Chatswood in the north, Parramatta to the west, Liverpool in the south-west, Hurstville in the south, and Bondi Junction to the east.69 There has been accelerating commercial development in Parramatta since the 1950s as firms serving Western Sydney have set up regional offices and recognised the region's significant residential population mass and cheaper rents.70
The CBD itself extends about 3 kilometres (1.9 miles) south from Sydney Cove. It is bordered by Farm Cove within the Royal Botanic Gardens to the east and Darling Harbour to the west. Suburbs surrounding the CBD include Woolloomooloo and Potts Point to the east, Surry Hills and Darlinghurst to the south, Pyrmont and Ultimo to the west, and Millers Point and The Rocks to the north. Most of these suburbs measure less than 1 square kilometre (0.4 square miles) in area. Several localities, distinct from suburbs, exist throughout Sydney's inner reaches. Central and Circular Quay are transport hubs with ferry, rail, and bus interchanges. Chinatown, Darling Harbour, and Kings Cross are important locations for culture, tourism, and recreation.
There is a long trend of gentrification amongst Sydney's inner suburbs. Pyrmont located on the harbour was redeveloped from a centre of shipping and international trade to an area of high density housing, tourist accommodation, and gambling.71 Originally located well outside of the city, Darlinghurst is the location of a former gaol, manufacturing, and mixed housing. It had a period when it was known as area of prostitution. The terrace style housing has largely been retained and Darlinghurst has undergone significant gentrification since the 1980s.727374 Green Square is a former industrial area of Waterloo which is undergoing urban renewal worth $8 billion. On the city harbour edge the historic suburb and wharves of Millers Point are being built up as the new area of Barangaroo. The Millers Point / Barangaroo development has significant controversy regardless of the $6 billion worth of economic activity it is generating.7576 The suburb of Paddington is a well known suburb for its streets of restored terrace houses, Victoria Barracks, and shopping including the weekly Oxford Street markets.77 Despite its location, Surry Hills has maintained a light industrial economy in addition to residential and commercial zones. Woolloomooloo could be considered one of two suburbs, the other being Waterloo which has not succumbed to inner city gentrification. This due in a large part to the large amount of public housing which was constructed in the 1980s.
Vaucluse in the Eastern Suburbs is amongst Australia's most affluent addresses. Neighbouring suburb Point Piper contains Wolseley Road, the ninth dearest street in the world.78 Coogee and Bondi Beach, both known for tourism and recreation, are also found in the Eastern Suburbs. The suburb of Cronulla in southern Sydney is close to the oldest national park in Australia, The Royal National Park. The suburb of Manly on the Northern Beaches was one of Sydney's most popular holiday destinations for much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.79 The North Shore includes the important commercial centres of North Sydney and Chatswood. Taronga Zoo is situated in the North Shore suburb of Mosman. The adjacent suburbs of Kirribilli and Milsons Point are the locations of Kirribilli House and Luna Park.
The Western Suburbs encompasses the local government areas of Bankstown, Liverpool, Penrith, and Fairfield. It also contains Parramatta, the sixth largest business district in Australia.80 Balmain, in the Inner West, was once a working class industrial and mining town but has undergone extensive gentrification.81 The Inner West also includes Sydney Olympic Park, a suburb created to host the 2000 Summer Olympics. Further to the south west is the region of Macarthur and the city of Campbelltown, a significant population centre until the 1990s considered a region separate to Sydney proper.
The earliest structures in the colony were built to the bare minimum of standards. Upon his appointment, Governor Lachlan Macquarie set ambitious targets for the architectural design of new construction projects. The city now has a world heritage listed building, several national heritage listed buildings, and dozens of Commonwealth heritage listed buildings as evidence of the survival of Macquarie's ideals.828384
In 1814 the Governor called on a convict named Francis Greenway to design Macquarie Lighthouse.85 The lighthouse and its Classical design earned Greenway a pardon from Macquarie in 1818 and introduced a culture of refined architecture that remains to this day.86 Greenway went on to design the Hyde Park Barracks in 1819 and the Georgian style St James's Church in 1824.8788 Gothic-inspired architecture became more popular from the 1830s. John Verge's Elizabeth Bay House and St Philip's Church of 1856 were built in Gothic Revival style along with Edward Blore's Government House of 1845.8990 Kirribilli House, completed in 1858, and St Andrew's Cathedral are rare examples of Victorian Gothic construction.8991
From the late 1850s there was a shift towards Classical architecture. Mortimer Lewis designed the Australian Museum in 1857.92 The General Post Office, completed in 1891 in Victorian Free Classical style, was designed by James Barnet.93 Barnet also oversaw the 1883 reconstruction of Greenway's Macquarie Lighthouse.8586 Customs House was built in 1844 to the specifications of Lewis, with additions from Barnet in 1887 and W L Vernon in 1899.94 The neo-Classical and French Second Empire style Town Hall was completed in 1889.9596 Romanesque designs gained favour amongst Sydney's architects from the early 1890s. Sydney Technical College was completed in 1893 using both Romanesque Revival and Queen Anne approaches.97 The Queen Victoria Building was designed in Romanesque Revival fashion by George McRae and completed in 1898.98 It was built on the site of the Sydney Central Markets and accommodates 200 shops across its three storeys.99
The Great Depression had a tangible influence on Sydney's architecture. New structures became more restrained with far less ornamentation than was common before the 1930s. The most notable architectural feat of this period is the Harbour Bridge. Its steel arch was designed by John Jacob Crew Bradfield and completed in 1932. A total of 39,000 tonnes of structural steel span the 503 metres (1,650 feet) between Milsons Point and Dawes Point.35100
Modern and International architecture came to Sydney from the 1940s. Since its completion in 1973 the city's Opera House has become a World Heritage Site and one of the world's most renowned pieces of Modern design. It was conceived by Jørn Utzon with contributions from Peter Hall, Lionel Todd, and David Littlemore. Utzon was awarded the Pritzker Prize in 2003 for his work on the Opera House.101 Sydney's first tower was Culwulla Chambers on the corner of King Street and Castlereagh Street which topped out at 50 metres (160 feet). With the lifting of height restrictions in the 1960s there came a surge of high-rise construction.66 Acclaimed architects such as Jean Nouvel, Harry Seidler, Richard Rogers, Renzo Piano, Norman Foster, and Frank Gehry have each made their own contribution to the city's skyline. Important buildings in the CBD include Citigroup Centre,102 Aurora Place,103 Chifley Tower,104105 the Reserve Bank building,106 Deutsche Bank Place,107 MLC Centre,108 and Capita Centre.109 The tallest structure is Sydney Tower, designed by Donald Crone and completed in 1981.110 Regulations limit new buildings to a height of 235 metres (771 feet) due to the proximity of Sydney Airport.
There were 1.5 million dwellings in Sydney in 2006 including 940,000 detached houses and 180,000 semi-detached terrace houses.111 Units or apartments make up 25.8% of Sydney's dwellings, more than the 12.8% which are semi-detached but less than the 60.9% which are separate houses.10 Whilst terrace houses are common in the inner city areas it is detached houses that dominate the landscape in the outer suburbs. About 80% of all dwellings in Western Sydney are separate houses.111 Due to environmental and economic pressures there has been a noted trend towards denser housing. There was a 30% increase in the number of apartments in Sydney between 1996 and 2006.111 Public housing in Sydney is managed by the Government of New South Wales.112 Suburbs with large concentrations of public housing include Claymore, Macquarie Fields, Waterloo, and Mount Druitt. The Government has announced plans to sell nearly 300 historic public housing properties in the harbourside neighbourhoods of Millers Point, Gloucester Street, and The Rocks.113
A range of heritage housing styles can be found throughout Sydney. Terrace houses are found in the inner suburbs such as Paddington, The Rocks, and Balmain. Federation homes, constructed around the time of Federation in 1901, are located in Penshurst, Turramurra, and in Haberfield. Haberfield is known as "The Federation Suburb" due to the extensive number of Federation homes. Workers cottages are found in Surry Hills, Redfern, and Balmain. California bungalows are common in Ashfield, Concord, and Beecroft.114
Parks and open spaces
The Royal Botanic Gardens are the most important green space in the Sydney region, hosting both academic and leisure activities. There are 15 separate parks under the administration of the City of Sydney.115 Parks within the city centre include Hyde Park, The Domain and Prince Alfred Park. The outer suburbs include Centennial Park and Moore Park in the east, Sydney Park and the Royal National Park in the south, Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park in the north, and the Western Sydney Parklands in the west. The Royal National Park was proclaimed on 26 April 1879 and with 13,200 hectares (51 square miles) is the second oldest national park in the world.116 The largest park in the Sydney metropolitan region is Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, established in 1894 with an area of 15,400 hectares (59 square miles).117 It is regarded for its well-preserved records of indigenous habitation and more than 800 rock engravings, cave drawings, and middens have been located in the park.118
The area now known as The Domain was set aside by Governor Arthur Phillip in 1788 as his private reserve.119 Under the orders of Macquarie the land to the immediate north of The Domain became the Royal Botanic Gardens in 1816. This makes them the oldest botanic garden in Australia.119 The Gardens are not just a place for exploration and relaxation, but also for scientific research with herbarium collections, a library, and laboratories.120 The two parks have a total area of 64 hectares (0.2 square miles) with 8,900 individual plant species and receive over 3.5 million annual visits.121 To the south of The Domain is Hyde Park. It is the oldest public parkland in Australia and measures 16.2 hectares (0.1 square miles) in area.122 Its location was used for both relaxation and the grazing of animals from the earliest days of the colony.123 Macquarie dedicated it in 1810 for the "recreation and amusement of the inhabitants of the town" and named it in honour of the original Hyde Park in London.
The prevailing economic theory in effect during early colonial days was mercantilism, as it was throughout most of Western Europe.124 The economy struggled at first due to difficulties in cultivating the land and the lack of a stable monetary system. Governor Lachlan Macquarie solved the second problem by creating two coins from every Spanish silver dollar in circulation.124 The economy was clearly capitalist in nature by the 1840s as the proportion of free settlers increased, the maritime and wool industries flourished, and the powers of the East India Company were curtailed.124
Wheat, gold, and other minerals became additional export industries towards the end of the 1800s.124 Significant capital began to flow into the city from the 1870s to finance roads, railways, bridges, docks, courthouses, schools, and hospitals. Protectionist policies after federation allowed for the creation of a manufacturing industry which became the city's largest employer by the 1920s.124 These same policies helped to relieve the effects of the Great Depression during which the unemployment rate in New South Wales reached as high as 32%.124 From the 1960s onwards Parramatta gained recognition as the city's second central business district and finance and tourism became major industries and sources of employment.124
Researchers from Loughborough University have awarded Sydney status amongst the top ten world cities that are highly integrated into the global economy.125 The Global Economic Power Index ranks Sydney number eleven in the world.126 The Global Cities Index recognises it as number fourteen in the world based on global engagement.127 The city has been ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity.128 Sydney's gross regional product was $337.45 billion in 2013 with the City of Sydney responsible for $95.18 billion of this total.1315 The Financial and Insurance Services industry accounts for 18.1% of gross product and is ahead of Professional Services with 9% and Manufacturing with 7.2%. In addition to Financial Services and Tourism, the Creative and Technology sectors are focus industries for the City of Sydney and represented 9% and 11% of its economic output in 2012.129130
There were 451,000 businesses based in Sydney in 2011, including 48% of the top 500 companies in Australia and two-thirds of the regional headquarters of multinational corporations.131 Global companies are attracted to the city in part because its time zone spans the closing of business in North America and the opening of business in Europe. Most foreign companies in Sydney maintain significant sales and service functions but comparably less production, research, and development capabilities.132 Australian companies based in Sydney include Woolworths, Westpac, Qantas, Coca-Cola Amatil, the Australian Securities Exchange, AMP, Caltex, Fairfax Media, the Commonwealth Bank, Optus, Macquarie Group, Westfield, Origin Energy, Cochlear, and David Jones. Multinational companies with regional offices in Sydney include Pfizer, Cathay Pacific, Boeing, Merck & Co, Parmalat, Rolls-Royce, Intel, Cisco Systems, American Express, Yahoo!, Computer Associates, IBM, Philips, and Vodafone.133
Sydney has been ranked between the fifteenth and the fifth most expensive city in the world and is the most expensive city in Australia.134135 To compensate, workers receive the seventh highest wage levels of any city in the world.134 Sydney ranks tenth in the world in terms of quality of living and its residents possess the highest purchasing power of any city after Zürich.134136 Working residents of Sydney work an average of 1,846 hours per annum with 15 days of leave.134 Sydney is the location of 31 of the top 50 best places to work in Australia.137
The labour force of Sydney in 2011 was 2,188,854 with a participation rate of 61.7%. It was made up of 62.1% full-time workers, 26.7% part-time workers, and 5.7% unemployed individuals.10138 The largest reported occupations are professionals, clerical and administrative workers, managers, technicians, trades workers, and sales workers.10 The largest industries by employment across Sydney are Health Care and Social Assistance with 10.9%, Retail with 9.8%, Professional Services with 9.6%, Manufacturing with 8.5%, Education and Training with 7.6%, Construction with 7.1%, and Financial and Insurance Services with 6.6%.3 The Professional Services and Financial and Insurance Services industries account for 26.9% of employment within the City of Sydney.139 62.8% of working age residents had a total weekly income of less than $1,000 and 29.1% had a total weekly income of $1,000 or more.3 The median weekly income for the same period was $619 for individuals, $2,302 for families without children, and $2,537 for families with children.10
Unemployment in the City of Sydney averaged 4.6% for the decade to 2013, much lower than the current rate of unemployment in Western Sydney of 7.3%.15140 Western Sydney continues to struggle to create jobs to meet its population growth despite the development of commercial centres like Parramatta. Each day about 200,000 commuters travel from Western Sydney to the central business district and suburbs in the east and north of the city.140
Home ownership in Sydney was less common than renting prior to World War II but this trend has since reversed.111 Median house prices have increased by an average of 8.6% per annum since 1970.141142 The median house price in Sydney in March 2014 was $630,000.143 The primary cause for rising prices is the increasing cost of land which made up 32% of house prices in 1977 compared to 60% in 2002.111 31.6% of dwellings in Sydney are rented, 30.4% are owned outright, and 34.8% are owned with a mortgage.10 11.8% of mortgagees in 2011 had monthly loan repayments of less than $1,000 and 82.9% had monthly repayments of $1,000 or more.3 44.9% of renters for the same period had weekly rent of less than $350 whilst 51.7% had weekly rent of $350 or more. The median weekly rent in Sydney is $450.3
Macquarie gave a charter in 1817 to form the first bank in Australia, the Bank of New South Wales.144 New private banks opened throughout the 1800s but the financial system was unstable. Bank collapses were a frequent occurrence and a crisis point was reached in 1893 when 12 banks failed.144 The Bank of New South Wales exists to this day as Westpac.145 The Commonwealth Bank of Australia was formed in Sydney in 1911 and began to issue notes backed by the resources of the nation. It was replaced in this role in 1959 by the Reserve Bank of Australia which is also based in Sydney.144 The Australian Securities Exchange began operating in 1987 and with a market capitalisation of $1.6 trillion is now one of the ten largest exchanges in the world.146
The Financial and Insurance Services industry now constitutes 43% of the economic product of the City of Sydney.14 Sydney makes up half of Australia's finance sector and has been promoted by consecutive Commonwealth Governments as Asia Pacific's leading financial centre.1617 Structured finance was pioneered in Sydney and the city is a leading hub for asset management firms.147 In 1985 the Federal Government granted 16 banking licences to foreign banks and now 40 of the 43 foreign banks operating in Australia are based in Sydney, including the People's Bank of China, Bank of America, Citigroup, UBS, Mizuho Bank, Bank of China, Banco Santander, Credit Suisse, State Street, HSBC, Deutsche Bank, Barclays, Royal Bank of Canada, Société Générale, Royal Bank of Scotland, Sumitomo Mitsui, ING Group, BNP Paribas, and Investec.14144148149
Sydney has been a manufacturing city since the protectionist policies of the 1920s. By 1961 the industry accounted for 39% of all employment and by 1970 over 30% of all Australian manufacturing jobs were in Sydney.150 Its status has declined in more recent decades, making up 12.6% of employment in 2001 and 8.5% in 2011.3150 Between 1970 and 1985 there was a loss of 180,000 manufacturing jobs.150 The city is still the largest manufacturing centre in Australia. Its manufacturing output of $21.7 billion in 2013 was greater than that of Melbourne with $18.9 billion.151 Observers have noted Sydney's focus on the domestic market and high-tech manufacturing as reasons for its resilience against the high Australian dollar of the early 2010s.151
Tourism and international education
Sydney hosted over 2.8 million international visitors in 2013 or nearly half of all international visits to Australia.18 These visitors spent 59 million nights in the city and a total of $5.9 billion.18 The countries of origin in descending order were China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Germany, Hong Kong, and India.152 The city also received 8.3 million domestic overnight visitors in 2013 who spent a total of $6 billion.152
Sydney has been ranked amongst the top fifteen cities in the world for tourism every year since 2000.153154 26,700 workers in the City of Sydney were directly employed by tourism in 2011.155 There were 480,000 visitors and 27,500 people staying overnight each day in 2012.155 On average, the tourism industry contributes $36 million to the city's economy per day.155 Popular destinations include the Sydney Opera House, the Sydney Harbour Bridge, Watsons Bay, The Rocks, Sydney Tower, Darling Harbour, the Royal Botanic Gardens, the Royal National Park, the Australian Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Art Gallery of New South Wales, the Queen Victoria Building, Taronga Zoo, Bondi Beach, the Blue Mountains, and Sydney Olympic Park.156
Sydney is the highest ranking city in the world for international students. More than 50,000 international students study at the city's universities and a further 50,000 study at its vocational and English language schools.127157 International education contributes $1.6 billion to the local economy and creates demand for 4,000 local jobs each year.158
|Largest overseas born populations159|
|Country of birth||Population (2011)|
The population of Sydney in 1788 was less than 1,000.160 With convict transportation it tripled in ten years to 2,953.161 For each decade since 1961 the population has increased by more than 250,000.162 Sydney's population at the time of the 2011 census was 4,391,674.10 It has been forecasted that the population will grow to between 8 and 8.5 million by 2061.163 Despite this increase, the Australian Bureau of Statistics predicts that Melbourne will replace Sydney as Australia's most populous city by 2053.164 The four most densely populated suburbs in Australia are located in Sydney with each having more than 13,000 residents per square kilometre (33,700 residents per square mile).165
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Demographic maps of Sydney.|
The median age of Sydney residents is 36 and 12.9% of people are 65 or older.10 The married population accounts for 49.7% of Sydney whilst 34.7% of people have never been married.10 48.9% of couples have children and 33.5% of couples do not.10 32.5% of people in Sydney speak a language other than English at home with Arabic, Mandarin, Cantonese, Vietnamese, and Greek the most widely spoken.1012
There were 54,746 people of indigenous heritage living in Sydney in 2011.10 Most immigrants to Sydney between 1840 and 1930 were British, Irish, or Chinese. There were significant clusters of people based on nationality or religion throughout the history of Sydney development. In the early 20th century Irish people were centred in Surry Hills, the Scottish in Paddington. Since the mass migration following World War II has seen further ethnic groups establish. Including but not limited to Greek, Lebanese, Italian, Czech, Lithuanian, Polish, German, Sri Lankan, Filipino, Korean, and Fijian communities.160 As of the 2011 census night there were 1,503,620 people living in Sydney that were born overseas, accounting for 42.5% of the population of the City of Sydney and 34.2% of the population of Sydney, the seventh greatest proportion of any city in the world.3167168 Sydney's largest ancestry groups are English, Australian, Irish, Chinese, and Scottish.10 Foreign countries of birth with the greatest representation are England, China, India, New Zealand, and Vietnam.10 The concentration of immigrants in Sydney, relative to the rest of Australia (excluding Melbourne), make it the exception rather than the norm on having such a high foreign born population.
Science, art, and history
The Australian Museum opened in Sydney in 1857 with the purpose of collecting and displaying the natural wealth of the colony.169 It remains Australia's oldest natural history museum. In 1995 the Museum of Sydney opened on the site of the first Government House. It recounts the story of the city's development.170 Other museums based in Sydney include the Powerhouse Museum and the Australian National Maritime Museum.171172
In 1866 then Queen Victoria gave her assent to the formation of the Royal Society of New South Wales. The Society exists "for the encouragement of studies and investigations in science, art, literature, and philosophy". It is based in a terrace house in Darlington owned by the University of Sydney.173 The Sydney Observatory building was constructed in 1859 and used for astronomy and meteorology research until 1982 before being converted into a museum.174
The Museum of Contemporary Art was opened in 1991 and occupies an Art Deco building in Circular Quay. Its collection was founded in the 1940s by artist and art collector John Power and has been maintained by the University of Sydney.176 Sydney's other significant art institution is the Art Gallery of New South Wales which coordinates the coveted Archibald Prize for portraiture.177 Contemporary art galleries are found in Waterloo, Surry Hills, Darlinghurst, Paddington, Chippendale, Newtown, and Woollahra.
Sydney's first commercial theatre opened in 1832 and nine more had commenced performances by the late 1920s. The live medium lost much of its popularity to cinema during the Great Depression before experiencing a revival after World War II.178 Prominent theatres in the city today include State Theatre, Theatre Royal, Sydney Theatre, The Wharf Theatre, and Capitol Theatre. Sydney Theatre Company maintains a roster of local, classical, and international plays. It occasionally features Australian theatre icons such as David Williamson, Hugo Weaving, and Geoffrey Rush. The city's other prominent theatre companies are New Theatre, Belvoir, and Griffin Theatre Company.
The Sydney Opera House is the home of Opera Australia and Sydney Symphony. It has staged over 100,000 performances and received 100 million visitors since opening in 1973.101 Two other important performance venues in Sydney are Town Hall and the City Recital Hall. The Sydney Conservatorium of Music is located adjacent to the Royal Botanic Gardens and serves the Australian music community through education and its biannual Australian Music Examinations Board exams.179
Filmmaking in Sydney was quite prolific until the 1920s when spoken films were introduced and American productions gained dominance in Australian cinema.180 Fox Studios Australia commenced production in Sydney in 1998. Successful films shot in Sydney since then include The Matrix, Mission: Impossible II, Moulin Rouge!, Australia, and The Great Gatsby. The National Institute of Dramatic Art is based in Sydney and has several famous alumni such as Mel Gibson, Judy Davis, Baz Luhrmann, and Cate Blanchett.181
Sydney is the host of several festivals throughout the year. The city's New Year's Eve celebrations are the largest in Australia.182 The Royal Easter Show is held every year at Sydney Olympic Park. Sydney Festival is Australia's largest arts festival.183 Big Day Out is a travelling rock music festival that originated in Sydney. The city's two largest film festivals are Sydney Film Festival and Tropfest. Vivid Sydney is an annual outdoor exhibition of art installations, light projections, and music. Sydney hosts the Australian Fashion Week in autumn. The Sydney Mardi Gras has commenced each February since 1979. Sydney's Chinatown has had numerous locations since the 1850s. It moved from George Street to Campbell Street to its current setting in Dixon Street in 1980.184 The Spanish Quarter is based in Liverpool Street whilst Little Italy is located in Stanley Street.124 Popular nightspots are found at Kings Cross, Oxford Street, Circular Quay, and The Rocks. The Star is the city's only casino and is situated around Darling Harbour.
The indigenous people of Sydney held totemic beliefs known as "dreamings". Governor Lachlan Macquarie made an effort to found a culture of formal religion throughout the early settlement and ordered the construction of churches such as St Matthew's, St Luke's, St James's, and St Andrew's.185 These and other religious institutions have contributed to the education and health of Sydney's residents over time. 28.3% identify themselves as Catholic, whilst 17.6% practice no religion, 16.1% are Anglican, 4.7% are Islamic, 4.2% are Eastern Orthodox, 4.1% are Buddhist, 2.6% are Hindu, and 0.9% are Jewish.310
Sport and outdoor activities
Sydney's earliest migrants brought with them a passion for sport but were restricted by the lack of facilities and equipment. The first organised sports were boxing, wrestling, and horse racing from 1810 in Hyde Park.186 Horse racing remains popular to this day and events such as the Golden Slipper Stakes attract widespread attention. The first cricket club was formed in 1826 and matches were played within Hyde Park throughout the 1830s and 1840s.186 Cricket is a favoured sport in summer and big matches have been held at the Sydney Cricket Ground since 1878. The New South Wales Blues compete in the Sheffield Shield league and the Sydney Sixers and Sydney Thunder contest the national Big Bash Twenty20 competition.
Rugby was played from 1865 as sport in general gained more popularity and better organisation. One-tenth of the colony attended a New South Wales versus New Zealand rugby match in 1907.186 Rugby league separated from rugby union in 1908. The New South Wales Waratahs contest the Super Rugby competition. The national Wallabies rugby union team competes in Sydney in international matches such as the Bledisloe Cup, Rugby Championship, and World Cup. Sydney is home to nine of the sixteen teams in the National Rugby League competition: Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs, Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks, Manly Sea Eagles, Penrith Panthers, Parramatta Eels, South Sydney Rabbitohs, St George Illawarra Dragons, Sydney Roosters, and Wests Tigers. New South Wales contests the annual State of Origin series against Queensland.
Sydney FC and the Western Sydney Wanderers compete in the A-League soccer tournament and Sydney frequently hosts matches for the Australian national team, the Socceroos. The Sydney Swans and the Greater Western Sydney Giants are local Australian rules football clubs that play in the Australian Football League. The Sydney Kings compete in the National Basketball League. The Sydney Uni Flames play in the Women's National Basketball League. The Sydney Blue Sox contest the Australian Baseball League. The Waratahs are a member of the Australian Hockey League. The Sydney Bears and Sydney Ice Dogs play in the Australian Ice Hockey League. The Swifts are competitors in the national women's netball league.
Women were first allowed to participate in recreational swimming when separate baths were opened at Woolloomooloo Bay in the 1830s. From being illegal at the beginning of the century, sea bathing gained immense popularity during the early 1900s and the first surf lifesaving club was established at Bondi Beach.186187 Disputes about appropriate clothing for surf bathing surfaced from time to time and concerned men as well as women. The City2Surf is an annual 14-kilometre (8.7-mile) running race from the central business district to Bondi Beach and has been held since 1971. In 2010, 80,000 runners participated which made it the largest run of its kind in the world.188 Sailing races have been held on Sydney Harbour since 1827.189 Yachting has been popular amongst wealthier residents since the 1840s and the Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron was founded in 1862. The Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race is a 1,170-kilometre (727-mile) event that starts from Sydney Harbour on Boxing Day.190 Since its inception in 1945 it has been recognised as one of the most difficult yacht races in the world.191 Six sailors died and 71 vessels of the fleet of 115 failed to finish in the 1998 edition.192
The Royal Sydney Golf Club is based in Rose Bay and since its opening in 1893 has hosted the Australian Open on 13 occasions.186 Royal Randwick Racecourse opened in 1833 and holds several major cups throughout the year.193 Sydney benefitted from the construction of significant sporting infrastructure in preparation for its hosting of the 2000 Summer Olympics. Sydney Olympic Park accommodates athletics, aquatics, tennis, hockey, archery, baseball, cycling, equestrian, and rowing facilities. It also includes the high capacity Stadium Australia used for rugby, soccer, and Australian rules football. Sydney Football Stadium was completed in 1988 and is used for rugby and soccer matches. Sydney Cricket Ground was opened in 1878 and is used for both cricket and Australian rules football fixtures.186
The Sydney Morning Herald is Australia's oldest newspaper still in print. Now a compact form paper owned by Fairfax Media, it has been published continuously since 1831.194 Its competitor is the News Corporation tabloid The Daily Telegraph which has been in print since 1879.195 Both papers have Sunday tabloid editions called The Sun-Herald and The Sunday Telegraph respectively. The Bulletin was founded in Sydney in 1880 and became Australia's longest running magazine. It closed after 128 years of continuous publication.196
Each of Australia's three commercial television networks and two public broadcasters is headquartered in Sydney. Nine's offices are based in Willoughby,197 Ten and Seven are based in Pyrmont,197198 the Australian Broadcasting Corporation is located in Ultimo,199 and the Special Broadcasting Service is based in Artarmon.200 Multiple digital channels have been provided by all five networks since 2000. Foxtel is based in North Ryde and sells subscription cable television to most parts of the urban area.201 Sydney's first radio stations commenced broadcasting in the 1920s. Radio became a popular tool for politics, news, religion, and sport and has managed to survive despite the introduction of television and the Internet.202 2UE was founded in 1925 and under the ownership of Fairfax Media is the oldest station still broadcasting.202 Competing stations include the more popular 2GB, 702 ABC Sydney, KIIS 106.5, Triple M, Nova 96.9, and 2Day FM.203
During early colonial times the presiding Governor and his military shared absolute control over the population.25 This lack of democracy eventually became unacceptable for the colony's growing number of free settlers. The first indications of a proper legal system emerged with the passing of a Charter of Justice in 1814. It established three new courts, including the Supreme Court, and dictated that English law was to be followed.204 In 1823 the British Parliament passed an act to create the Legislative Council in New South Wales and give the Supreme Court the right of review over new legislation.205 From 1828 all of the common laws in force in England were to be applied in New South Wales wherever it was appropriate.205 Another act from the British Parliament in 1842 provided for members of the Council to be elected for the first time.205
The Constitution Act of 1855 gave New South Wales a bicameral government. The existing Legislative Council became the upper house and a new body called the Legislative Assembly was formed to be the lower house.206 An Executive Council was introduced and constituted five members of the Legislative Assembly and the Governor.207 It became responsible for advising the ruling Governor on matters related to the administration of the state. The colonial settlements elsewhere on the continent eventually seceded from New South Wales and formed their own governments. Tasmania separated in 1825, Victoria did so in 1850, and Queensland followed in 1859.206 With the proclamation of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 the status of local governments across Sydney was formalised and they became separate institutions from the state of New South Wales.208
Government in the present
Sydney is divided into local government areas (also known as councils or shires) which are comparable in nature to London's boroughs. These local government areas have elected councils which are responsible for functions delegated to them by the New South Wales Government. The 38 local government areas making up Sydney according to the New South Wales Division of Local Government are:
The Parliament of New South Wales sits in Parliament House on Macquarie Street. This building was completed in 1816 and first served as a hospital. The Legislative Council moved into its northern wing in 1829 and by 1852 had entirely supplanted the surgeons from their quarters.204 Several additions have been made to the building as the Parliament has expanded, but it retains its original Georgian facade.209 Government House was completed in 1845 and has served as the home of 25 Governors and 5 Governors-General.210
The highest court in the state is the Supreme Court of New South Wales which is located in Queen's Square in Sydney.211 The city is also the home of numerous branches of the intermediate District Court of New South Wales and the lower Local Court of New South Wales.212
Public activities such as main roads, traffic control, public transport, policing, education, and major infrastructure projects are controlled by the New South Wales Government.213 It has tended to resist attempts to amalgamate Sydney's more populated local government areas as merged councils could pose a threat to its governmental power.214 Established in 1842, the City of Sydney is one such local government area and includes the central business district and some adjoining inner suburbs.215 It is responsible for fostering development in the local area, providing local services (waste collection and recycling, libraries, parks, sporting facilities), representing and promoting the interests of residents, supporting organisations that target the local community, and attracting and providing infrastructure for commerce, tourism, and industry.216 The City of Sydney is led by an elected Council and Lord Mayor who has in the past been treated as a representative of the entire city.217
Education became a proper focus for the colony from the 1870s when public schools began to form and schooling became compulsory.218 The population of Sydney is now highly educated. 90% of working age residents have completed some schooling and 57% have completed the highest level of school.3 1,390,703 people were enrolled in an educational institution in 2011 with 45.1% of these attending school and 16.5% studying at a university.10 Undergraduate or postgraduate qualifications are held by 22.5% of working age Sydney residents and 40.2% of working age residents of the City of Sydney.3219 The most common fields of tertiary qualification are commerce (22.8%), engineering (13.4%), society and culture (10.8%), health (7.8%), and education (6.6%).3
There are six public universities based in Sydney: the University of Sydney, the University of Technology, the University of New South Wales, Macquarie University, the University of Western Sydney, and the Australian Catholic University. Four public universities maintain secondary campuses in the city: the University of Notre Dame Australia, the University of Wollongong, Curtin University of Technology, and the University of Newcastle. 5.2% of residents of Sydney are attending a university.220 The University of Sydney was established in 1850 and remains the oldest university in Australia.221 It has been ranked third in Australia and as high as 37 in the world, in the top 0.3%.222 The city's other universities were all founded after World War II. On the same scale the University of New South Wales ranked 48, Macquarie University ranked 254, and the University of Technology ranked 264.222
Sydney has public, denominational, and independent schools. 7.8% of Sydney residents are attending primary school and 6.4% are enrolled in secondary school.220 There are 935 public preschool, primary, and secondary schools in Sydney that are administered by the New South Wales Department of Education.223 14 of the 17 selective secondary schools in New South Wales are based in Sydney.224 Public vocational education and training in Sydney is run by TAFE New South Wales and began with the opening of the Sydney Technical College in 1878. It offered courses in areas such as mechanical drawing, applied mathematics, steam engines, simple surgery, and English grammar.97 The College became the Sydney Institute in 1992 and now operates alongside its sister TAFE facilities the Northern Sydney Institute, the Western Sydney Institute, and the South Western Sydney Institute. 2.4% of Sydney residents are enrolled in a TAFE course.220
The first hospital in the new colony was a collection of tents at The Rocks. Many of the convicts that survived the trip from England continued to suffer from dysentery, smallpox, scurvy, and typhoid. Healthcare facilities remained hopelessly inadequate despite the arrival of a prefabricated hospital with the Second Fleet and the construction of brand new hospitals at Parramatta, Windsor, and Liverpool in the 1790s.225 Governor Lachlan Macquarie arranged for the construction of Sydney Hospital and saw it completed in 1816.225 Parts of the facility have been repurposed for use as Parliament House but the hospital itself still operates to this day. The city's first emergency department was established at Sydney Hospital in 1870. Demand for emergency medical care increased from 1895 with the introduction of an ambulance service.225
Healthcare gained recognition as a citizen's right in the early 1900s and Sydney's public hospitals came under the oversight of the Government of New South Wales.225 The administration of healthcare across Sydney is handled by eight local health districts: Central Coast, Illawarra Shoalhaven, Sydney, Nepean Blue Mountains, Northern Sydney, South Eastern Sydney, South Western Sydney, and Western Sydney.226 The Prince of Wales Hospital was established in 1852 and became the first of several major hospitals to be opened in the coming decades.227 St Vincent's Hospital was founded in 1857,74 followed by Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children in 1880,228 the Prince Henry Hospital in 1881,229 the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in 1882,230 the Royal North Shore Hospital in 1885,231 the St George Hospital in 1894,232 and the Nepean Hospital in 1895.233 Westmead Hospital in 1978 was the last major facility to open.234
The motor vehicle, more than any other factor, has determined the pattern of Sydney's urban development since World War II.235 The growth of low density housing in the city's outer suburbs has made car ownership necessary for hundreds of thousands of households. The percentage of trips taken by car has increased from 13% in 1947 to 50% in 1960 and to 70% in 1971.235 The most important roads in Sydney are the nine Metroads, including the 110-kilometre (68-mile) Sydney Orbital Network. There can be up to 350,000 cars using Sydney's roads simultaneously during peak hour, leading to significant traffic congestion.235 84.9% of Sydney households own a motor vehicle and 46.5% own two or more.10 Of people in Sydney that travel to work, 58.4% use a car, 9.1% catch a train, 5.2% take a bus, and 4.1% walk.10 In contrast, only 25.2% of working residents in the City of Sydney use a car, whilst 15.8% take a train, 13.3% use a bus, and 25.3% walk.236 With a rate of 26.3%, Sydney has the highest utilisation of public transport for travel to work of any Australian capital city.237
Sydney once had one of the largest tram networks in the world. It was the second largest in the British Empire, after London, with routes covering 291 kilometres (181 miles). The internal combustion engine made buses more flexible than trams and consequently more popular, leading to the progressive closure of the tram network with the final tram operating in 1961.235 From 1930 there were 612 buses across Sydney carrying 90 million passengers per annum.238 A 12.8-kilometre (8.0-mile) light rail network opened in 1997. It links the Inner West and Darling Harbour with Central Station and carries 4.5 million passengers per annum.239 A second 12 km (7.5 mi) line serving the CBD and south-eastern suburbs is planned to open in early 2019240
Bus services today are conducted by a mixture of Government and private operators. In areas previously serviced by trams the government State Transit Authority of New South Wales operates, in other areas, there are private (albeit part funded by the state government) operators. Integrated tickets called Opals operate on both Government and private bus routes. State Transit alone operated a fleet of 2,169 buses and serviced over 160 million passengers during 2014. In total, nearly 225 million boardings were recorded across the bus network 241 NightRide is a nightly bus service that operate between midnight and 5am, also replacing trains for most of this period.
Train services are today operated by Transport for New South Wales. It maintains 176 stations and 937 kilometres (582 miles) of railway and provides 281 million journeys each year.242 Sydney's railway was first constructed in 1854 with progressive extension to the network to serve both freight and passengers across the city, suburbs, and beyond to country NSW. In the 1850s and 1860s the railway reached Parramatta, Campbelltown, Liverpool, Blacktown, Penrith, and Richmond.235 Central Station opened for service in 1906 and is the main hub of the city's rail network.243 Prior to 1906, Central Railway was located further west of the current Central Railway Station in the vicinity of Redfern. A large infrastructure project worth $1 billion and known as Clearways was completed in 2014 with the purpose of easing railway congestion.244 In 2014 94.2% of trains arrived on time and 99.5% of services ran as scheduled.245246 The North West Rail Link, part of Sydney's first rapid transit system, is currently under construction and expected to open in 2019.247248249250 The wider part of the project, which involves a second underground harbour crossing, will be commercially known as the Sydney Metro.251252
At the time the Sydney Harbour Bridge opened in 1932 the city's ferry service was the largest in the world.253 Patronage declined from 37 million passengers in 1945 to 11 million in 1963 but has recovered somewhat in recent years.235 From its hub at Circular Quay the ferry network serves Balmain, Double Bay, Manly, Parramatta, Taronga Zoo, Darling Harbour, and Cockatoo Island.253 Sydney Airport, officially "Sydney Kingsford-Smith Airport", is located in the inner southern suburb of Mascot with two of the runways going into Botany Bay. Kingsford-Smith Airport is one of the world's oldest continually operating airports.254 It services 46 international and 23 domestic destinations.254 As the busiest airport in Australia it handled 37.9 million passengers in 2013 and 530,000 tonnes of freight in 2011.254 It has been announced that a new facility named Western Sydney Airport will be constructed at Badgerys Creek from 2016 at a cost of $2.5 billion.255 Port Botany has surpassed Port Jackson as the city's major shipping port. Cruse ship terminals are located at Sydney Cove and White Bay.
Environmental issues and pollution reduction
As climate change, greenhouse gas emissions and pollution have become a major issue for Australia, Sydney has in the past been criticised for its lack of focus on reducing pollution, cutting back on emissions and maintaining water quality.256 Since 1995, there have been significant developments in the analysis of air pollution in the Sydney metropolitan region. The development led to the release of the Metropolitan Air Quality Scheme (MAQS), which led to a broader understanding of the causation of pollution in Sydney, allowing the government to form appropriate responses to the pollution.257 Australian cities are some of the most car dependent cities in the world.258 Sydney in particular has a very high level of car dependency,259 especially by world city standards. It also has a low level of mass-transit services and significant urban sprawl thus increasing the likelihood of car dependency.260261 Strategies have been implemented to reduce car pollution by encouraging mass and public transit262 and introducing a fleet of 10 new Nissan LEAF electric cars, the largest order of the pollution-free vehicle in Australia.263 Electric cars do not produce carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide, gases which contribute to climate change.264265 Cycling trips have increased by 113% across Sydney's inner-city since March 2010, with about 2,000 bikes passing through top peak-hour intersections on an average weekday.266
The City of Sydney became the first council in Australia to achieve formal certification as carbon-neutral in 2008.267268 The city has reduced its 2007 carbon emissions by 6% and since 2006 has reduced carbon emissions from city buildings by up to 20%.266269 The City of Sydney introduced a Sustainable Sydney 2030 program, with various targets planned and a comprehensive guide on how to reduce energy in homes and offices within Sydney by 30%.266270 Reductions in energy consumption have slashed energy bills by $30 million a year.271 Solar panels have been established on many CBD buildings in an effort to minimise carbon pollution by around 3,000 tonnes a year.272 The city also has an "urban forest growth strategy", in which it aims to regular increase the tree coverage in the city by frequently planting trees and vegetation to provide cleaner air and create moisture during hot weather, thus lowering city temperatures.273 Sydney has also become a leader in the development of green office buildings and enforcing the requirement of all building proposals to be energy-efficient. The One Central Park development, completed in 2013, is an example of this implementation and design.274275276277
Obtaining sufficient fresh water was difficult during early colonial times. A catchment called the Tank Stream sourced water from what is now the central business district but was little more than an open sewer by the end of the 1700s.278 The Botany Swamps Scheme was one of several ventures during the mid 1800s that saw the construction of wells, tunnels, steam pumping stations, and small dams to service Sydney's growing population.278 The first genuine solution to Sydney's water demands was the Upper Nepean Scheme which came into operation in 1886 and cost over £2 million. It transports water 100 kilometres (62 miles) from the Nepean, Cataract, and Cordeaux rivers and continues to service about 15% of Sydney's total water needs.278 Dams were built on these three rivers between 1907 and 1935.278 In 1977 the Shoalhaven Scheme brought several more dams into service.279 The Sydney Catchment Authority now manages eleven major dams: Warragamba, Woronora, Cataract, Cordeaux, Nepean, Avon, Wingecarribee Reservoir, Fitzroy Falls Reservoir, Tallowa, the Blue Mountains Dams, and Prospect Reservoir.280 Water is collected from five catchment areas covering 16,000 square kilometres (6,178 square miles) and total storage amounts to 2.6 teralitres (0.6 cubic miles).280 The Sydney Desalination Plant came into operation in 2010.278
The two distributors which maintain Sydney's electricity infrastructure are Ausgrid and Endeavour Energy.281282 Their combined networks include over 815,000 power poles and 83,000 kilometres (52,000 miles) of electricity cables. Companies which generate and retail electricity to the city include EnergyAustralia, Origin Energy, and AGL Energy.283284285 These three companies also supply natural gas to homes and businesses in Sydney.
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