From top left, clockwise: Sura and Baya statue in Surabaya Zoo, Suramadu Bridge, Heroes Monument, Tunjungan Plaza.
|Nickname(s): The City of Heroes|
|Motto: Sparkling Surabaya|
Location of Surabaya in East Java
|Settled||May 31, 1293|
|• Mayor||Tri Rismaharini|
|• Vice Mayor||Wisnu Sakti Buana|
|• City||374.78 km2 (144.70 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,805.08 km2 (696.95 sq mi)|
|Elevation||5 m (16 ft)|
|Population (2012 1)|
|• Density||8,300/km2 (22,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||3,100/km2 (8,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||WIB (UTC+7)|
|Area code(s)||+62 31|
Surabaya (Indonesian pronunciation: [surəˈbaja]) (formerly Soerabaja, Soerabaia or Surabaja) is Indonesia's second-largest city with a population of over 3.1 million (5.6 million in the metropolitan area), and the capital of the province of East Java. It is located on the northern shore of eastern Java at the mouth of the Mas River and along the edge of the Madura Strait.
To some Indonesians, it is known as "the city of heroes" due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanizing Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution. Surabaya is also known as the birthplace of Indonesia's first president, Sukarno.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 City overview
- 4 Attractions
- 5 Administration
- 6 Climate
- 7 Transport
- 8 Economy
- 9 Demographics
- 10 Sports
- 11 Education
- 12 Twin towns – Sister cities
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Surabaya is locally believed to derive its name from the words "sura" or "suro" (shark) and "baya" or "boyo" (crocodile), two creatures which, in a local myth, fought each other in order to gain the title of "the strongest and most powerful animal" in the area. It was said that the two powerful animals agreed for a truce and set boundaries; that the shark's domain is in the sea while the crocodile's domain is in the land. However one day the shark swim into the river estuarine to hunt, this angered the crocodile that went territorial. Shark argued that the river is a water-realm which means it is shark's territory, while crocodile argued that the river flow deep inland, so it is belongs to crocodile. The fight resumes verociously as they were biting each other. Finally the sharks is bitten badly and fled to the open seas, so the crocodile finally rule the estuarine area that today become the city.2
Another source suggests to a Jayabaya prophecy — a 12th century psychic king of Kediri Kingdom — as he foreseen a fight between a giant white shark and a giant white crocodile took place in the area, which sometimes interpreted as a conflict between Mongol forces and Raden Wijaya's Majapahit forces in 1293.3 Now the two animals are used as the city's symbol, the two facing each other while circling, as depicted in a statue appropriately located near the entrance to the city zoo.
Alternate derivations proliferate: from the Javanese "sura ing baya", meaning "bravely facing danger";3 or from the use of "surya" to refer to the sun. Some people consider this Jayabaya's prophecy as a great war between native Surabayan people against the foreign invaders back in 1945. Another story tells about two heroes that fought each other in order to be the king of the city. The two heroes were named Sura and Baya. These folk etymology, though embraced enthusiastically by its people and city leaders, are unverifiable.
The earliest record of Surabaya was in a 1225 book written by Chau Ju-Kua, in which it was called Jung-ya-lu,4 the ancient name of Surabaya. Ma Huan documented the early fifteenth-century visit of Zheng He's treasure ships in his 1433 book Yingyai Shenglan: "after traveling south for more than twenty li, the ship reached Sulumayi, whose foreign name is Surabaya. At the estuary, the outflowing water is fresh".5
In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Surabaya was a sultanate and a major political and military power in eastern Java. It entered a conflict with, and was later captured by, the more powerful Sultanate of Mataram in 1625 under Sultan Agung. It was one of Mataram's fiercest campaigns, in which they had to conquer Surabaya's allies, Sukadana and Madura, and to lay siege to the city before capturing it. With this conquest, Mataram then controlled almost the whole of Java, with the exception of the Sultanate of Banten and the Dutch settlement of Batavia.citation needed
The expanding East Indies Companies took the city over from a weakened Mataram in November 1743. Surabaya became a major trading center under the Dutch colonial government, and hosted the largest naval base in the colony. In 1917, a revolt occurred among the soldiers and sailors of Surabaya, led by the Indies Social Democratic Association. The revolt was firmly crushed and the insurgents given harsh sentences.citation needed
Japan occupied the city in 1942, as part of the occupation of Indonesia, and it was bombed by the Allies in 1944. After that it was seized by Indonesian nationalists. However, the young nation was soon put into conflict with the British, who were caretakers of the Dutch colony after the surrender of the Japanese.
The Battle of Surabaya, one of the most important battles of the Indonesian revolution, started after the killing of the British Brigadier Mallaby on October 30, 1945 near Jembatan Merah (the "Red Bridge"), allegedly by a stray bullet. The Allies gave an ultimatum to the republicans inside the city to surrender, but they refused. The ensuing battle, which cost thousands of lives, took place on November 10, which Indonesians subsequently celebrate as Heroes' Day (Hari Pahlawan). The incident of the red-white flag (the Dutch national red-white-and-blue flag at the top of Yamato Hotel's tower that was torn into the Indonesian red-white flag) by Bung Tomo is also recorded as a heroic feat during the struggle of this city.
The regencies surrounding Surabaya include: Lamongan Regency to the northwest, Gresik Regency to the west, Bangkalan Regency to the northeast (on Madura island), Sidoarjo Regency to the south, and Mojokerto Regency and Jombang Regency to the southwest. Gresik, Bangkalan, Mojokerto, Surabaya, Sidoarjo and Lamongan comprise an extended metropolitan area which is called Gerbangkertosusila.
Surabaya is a major shopping destination for Indonesians, with several large multi-level shopping malls.
Flooding is common in many areas of the city during the rainy season, mostly caused by clogged storm drainscitation needed. Surabaya's location in a river delta with a flat and relatively low elevation increases flooding risk.citation needed
In June 2011, Surabaya got the Adipura Kencana Award as number one among 20 cities in Indonesia. Surabaya today has some wide sidewalks and parks as a miniature of Singapore -being clean and green- said one reporter from Singapore.6
- Grand Mosque of Surabaya or Al-Akbar Mosque, the largest mosque in East Java.citation needed
- Cheng Ho Mosque, a recently built mosque, the first in Indonesia with Chinese-style architecture.
- Jales Veva Jaya Mahe Monument, a large, admiral-like statue which commemorates the Indonesian Navy.
- Mpu Tantular Museum, has a large collection of ancient Javanese artifacts.
- Monkasel, abbreviated from Monumen Kapal Selam (English: Submarine Monument) 
- A Soviet-built submarine (named KRI Pasopati (410)), first launched in 1952, served in the Indonesian Navy from 1962 until decommissioning in 1990.citation needed Since her decommissioning, Pasopati has been preserved as a monument and is open to the public as a tourist attraction in the center of the city.
- Heroic Monument (Tugu Pahlawan), a 41 meter high monument, is the main symbol of Surabaya and commemorates the heroes of the revolutionary struggle. There is a museum on location as well, showing remainders of the struggle for independence.
- House of Sampoerna, a museum devoted to the history of clove cigarette (kretek) manufacturing in Indonesia, housed in Dutch colonial buildings dating to 1864.7
- Museum Nahdlatul Ulama is a resource center of culture and history of Nahdatul Ulama, an independent Islamic religious organization.
Surabaya is a major shopping destination for Indonesians, and there are several large shopping malls in the city such as Plaza Tunjungan, Plaza Surabaya, Ciputra World Surabaya, Grand City, Galaxy Mall, City Of Tomorrow, Supermal Pakuwon Indah, Surabaya Town Square, Lenmarc, Royal Plaza Surabaya,Kapas Krampung Plaza, and Jembatan Merah Plaza. Hi-Tech Mall, WTC, and Plasa Marina are the major shopping centers in Surabaya for gadgets, computers and mobile phones. In West Surabaya, Citraland by the Ciputra Group and Graha Family consists of residences, an apartment complex, a golf course and a climbing gym. In East Surabaya, Pakuwon City by the Pakuwon Group has its own dining out spot, called Food Festival, and it is developing more facilities, such as the East Coast Center.
Surabaya features a tropical wet and dry climate, with distinct wet and dry seasons. The city's wet season runs from November through June, while the dry season covers the remaining five months. Unlike a number of cities and regions with a tropical wet and dry climate, average high and low temperatures are very consistent throughout the course of the year, with an average high temperature of around 31 degrees Celsius and average low temperatures of around 26 degrees Celsius.
|Climate data for Surabaya|
|Average high °C (°F)||31.8
|Average low °C (°F)||24.1
|Rainfall mm (inches)||327
|Avg. rainy days||17||18||19||15||13||11||7||3||4||5||12||23||147|
Transportation in Surabaya is supported by land, sea and air transport infrastructure serving local, regional, and international trips. In city transport is primarily by motor vehicles, motorcycles and taxis. Some public bus transport is available. Surabaya is also a transit city between Jakarta and Bali for ground transportation. Another bus route is between Jakarta and the neighboring island of Madura.
Tanjung Perak is the main port of the city and is one of the busiest ports in the country. It is one of the top ten busiest cargo ports in Southeast Asia.citation needed Although much of the port cargo is traditionally administered, the port is also used to carry modern cargo ships worldwide up to 2nd generation of maximum 1,000 teus ships. Currently, the port has being dredged for 14 meters depth to serve 10,000 teus ships of 5th generation ships and predicted will be finished in mid-2015, while 16 meters depth with width 200 meters can serve 15,000 teus ships or 7th generation ships will be finished in mid-2016. Today the biggest international ships is the 9th generation ships.11 The other port in the region is located in Gresik, a city 22 km from the Surabaya city centre. As a part of Tanjung Perak Port, in May 2014 a new Teluk Lamong Green Sea Port began trial run operation with two Ship to Shore Crane (STS) units, five Automated Stacking Crane (ASC) units, and one Automotive Terminal Tractor (ATT) unit. The new facilities will primarily serve international shipping, predicted to be 7 ships per week, and any unused capacity can be used to support domestic shipping. The new facilities will use less paper and will use gas trucks to carry containers in the port area.1213
Juanda International Airport is the second busiest airport in Indonesia in terms of transit passengers. It is famous as a transit airport between West and East Indonesia and it is also a hub airport of several airlines.
The city has several train stations. They are Surabaya Kota (better known as Semut), Pasar Turi, and Gubeng. Surabaya's main train station is Pasar Turi Station. The Argo Bromo Anggrek operated by PT Kereta Api (Indonesia's main rail operator) connects Surabaya from this station to Jakarta's Gambir Station.
For the intracity transportation, there are some other transportation facilities that can be used. The main bus terminal is Purabaya (also known as Bungurasih, the area where it is located).
There are also shuttle vans or mikrolet with multiple routes throughout the city, city bus, pedicabs or becak, and commuter trains. Recently, the government have planned to build two more transportation modes: tram and monorail which now is still being processed in the feasibility study.
The Suramadu Bridge toll road connects Surabaya and Madura Island over the Madura Strait. Suramadu is an abbreviation of Surabaya-Madura. A 16-kilometer highway will be built from the Suramadu Bridge to Madura International Seaport-City (MIS-C) in Pernajuh village, Kocah district, Bangkalan, Madura at a cost of approximately Rp60 billion (USD 7 billion). This container port was built to ease the burden on Surabaya's overloaded Tanjung Perak Port.14
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2014)|
As the provincial capital, Surabaya is also home to many offices and business centres. Surabaya's economy is also influenced by the recent growth in foreign industries and the completion of the Suramadu bridge. Surabaya is currently in the process of building high rise skyscrapers such as apartments, condominiums, and hotels as a way of attracting foreign people to the city.
Surabaya is the main trading port in East Java. Enriched by its facilities, and geography advantages, Surabaya has great economic potential.
Surabaya is the second most populous city in Indonesia, after Jakarta, with 2,765,908 recorded in the chartered city limits (kota) in 2010 census.15 Like many other large Indonesian metropolises, many residents reside outside the city limits in a metropolitan area called Gerbangkertosusila. The city is highly urbanized, due to the many industries located in the city, resulting in many slum areas. As the main education center, Surabaya has been the home for many students from around Indonesia, thus they have created their own community.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (April 2014)|
Foreign nationalities represented include Malaysian, Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Arab, and European. In addition to Javanese and Madurese natives, the city also has representatives of other Indonesian areas: Sunda, Minangkabau, Batak, Banjar, Balinese, and Bugis.
The majority of Surabaya citizens work in retail, whether in the expensive stores in the center city or the many small shops and stalls throughout the metropolis.
Surabaya is an old city that has expanded over time, and its population still grows at approximately 1.2% per year. In recent years, people have been moving from the crowded city center to suburban subdivisions featuring golf courses and strict security.
Most citizens speak a dialect of Javanese called Suroboyoan, sub-dialect of Arekan dialect. A stereotype of this dialect concerns its equality and directness in speech. The usage of register is less strict than the Central Javan dialect. The Surabaya dialect is actively promoted in local media, such as in local TV shows, radio and traditional dramas called Ludruk.
- Roman Catholicism
The city is the home of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Surabaya. There are approximately 15 churches in Surabaya, both large and small. One of the first churches in Surabaya, is Kepanjen Church (Gereja Katolik Kelahiran Santa Perawan Maria), built in 1815 is also the oldest church in Surabaya and one of the oldest churches in Indonesia. The cathedral in Surabaya, is Hati Kudus Yesus, located in Polisi Istimewa 17 road.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Surabaya is one of the largest diocese with more than 150,000 members in the diocese it self, and one of the most fastest growing in Indonesia. The diocese suffered several losses of faithful prior to the opening of Bethany Indonesia Church, and Mawar Sharon Church, but it managed to regain followers, expand, and even built several new churches, schools, universities, orphanages, clinics, and hospitals.citation needed
Bethany Indonesian Church: In 2000, Graha Bethany Nginden conducted a soft opening at the same time doubling the Church Seminar International (SPGI). This place can accommodate 35,000 members of the congregation.
Bethany Indonesian Church Synod, or Bethany is an incorporated church Synod of Indonesia and based in Surabaya. Bethany is one church with charismatic theology with a Pentecostal denomination. This church is a member of the Evangelical Fellowship of Indonesia (PII). The Bethany Indonesian Church has now become one of the largest church in Indonesia, with over than 120,000 branch churches in Indonesia, and more than 800,000 members. It has more branches in Australia, America, Europe and many countries as like Macau, China.citation needed Bethany Indonesian Church, acknowledged, accepted, and set the Apostles' Creed as the Confession of Faith Church Bethany Indonesia.
Mawar Sharon Church: Surabaya is also the base of one of Asia's largest Megachurches. Gereja Mawar Sharon is a non-denominational charismatic church with over 30 churches in Indonesia and over 40,000 churchgoers every week. Gereja Mawar Sharon or Mawar Sharon Church has been holding major events in Surabaya such as Surabaya For Jesus, Asia For Jesus, Festival Kuasa Allah (Festival of God's Power) and many more. It has the largest Christian youth group of over 8000 weekly attendance. In Surabaya itself, Mawar Sharon Church have over 17,000 church members.citation needed
- Orthodox Christianity
The city is also home to the Orthodox Christian Center Surabaya which was opened on 15 October 2008 by Father Yohanes Bambang Cahyo Wicaksono an Orthodox Priest.17 The city is also home to two Orthodox Christian Community centres and there are plans to establish a kindergarten, High School and University in the medium term. The head Orthodox Church in Indonesia, St Nikolas is also based in Surabaya.18 On 12 January a new Orthodox Orthodox Community center was opened in the Dinoyo district, beside St. Nikolaos Orthodox Church.19
Surabaya was the location of the only synagogue in Indonesia, but it rarely obtained a minyan. This synagogue however has been demolished in protests and riots related to Palestine-Israeli conflict.citation needed There is also a Jewish cemetery in the city.2021
The city has one football club currently competing in the Indonesian Super League, called Persebaya. Persebaya is considered as one of the most successful clubs in Indonesia, having won the Indonesian Premier Division twice. Its fans refer to themselves as Bonek, an abbreviation for Bondo Nekat (somehow can be translated as "dare to die"). The Bonek have been well known for their strong loyalty to the club, and is also perceived as the representation of the braveness Surabaya citizens.
Surabaya has a multi-purpose stadium named Gelora Bung Tomo Stadium. This stadium used mostly for football matches and became the new home stadium of Persebaya 1927, replacing Gelora 10 November Stadium.22 On 23 July 2012, it was used as the venue of a friendly match between Persebaya 1927 against Queens Park Rangers.
Surabaya has several major universities and institutions with religious or technical specialties. Some of them are
- Universitas Airlangga (Airlangga University), considered as a prominent education facilities in Indonesia besides Gadjah Mada University, Bandung Institute of Technology, and University of Indonesia
- Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology), a public technological institute well known for its achievements in robotics and mechanics.
- Universitas Negeri Surabaya (State University of Surabaya), a university notable for producing qualified teachers and now have some programs in economic, technological, and law.
- Adhi Tama Institute of Technology Surabaya, an institute specializing in technical studies.
- Hang Tuah University Surabaya, a private university specializing in maritime studies.
- Universitas Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Jawa Timur
- Institut Sains Terapan dan Teknologi Surabaya, an institute specializing in computer programming.
- Universitas Kristen Petra, a leading Christian university in Indonesia.
- Universitas Pelita Harapan
- Universitas Katolik Widya Mandala, a Catholic-based university in Surabaya.
- Universitas Katolik Widya Mandala 2, the second Catholic-based university in Surabaya, expansion of Widya Mandala Catholic University.
- Universitas Katolik Widya Mandala 3, the third Catholic-based university in Surabaya, also an expansion for Widya Mandala Catholic Universities which is one of the newest in Surabaya with new, high tech and complete doctoral facilities.
- Universitas Surabaya, a private university in Surabaya which is known for its excellence in law studies.
- Universitas Bhayangkara, a university which is affiliated with Indonesian Police Department of East Java.
- Universitas Wijaya Kusuma Surabaya, a university which has the first and oldest private faculty of medicine in eastern Indonesia, established since 1981. The faculty of medicines founded in 1986.
- Wijaya Putra University Public University established in 1984
- Universitas Ciputra, a private entrepreneurial-oriented university founded in 2006 by Ciputra Group
- Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya, is a technical institution located in Surabaya.
Surabaya is twinned with:
- "Dinas Kependudukan dan Catatan Sipil Kota Surabaya". Dispendukcapil.surabaya.go.id. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- Irwan Rouf & Shenia Ananda. Rangkuman 100 Cerita Rakyat Indonesia dari Sabang sampai Merauke: Asal Usul Nama Kota Surabaya (in Indonesian). MediaKita. p. 60. ISBN 9786029003826. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- "Welcome to Surabaya City, East Java". Surabaya Tourism, EastJava.com. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- F. Hirth and W.W. Rockhill, Chau Ju-kua, St Petersburg, 1911
- Ma Huan Ying-yai Sheng-lan, The Overall Survey of Ocean Shore, translated by J.V.G. Mills, p. 90, 1970, Hakklut Society, reprint by White Lotus, 1997. ISBN 974-8496-78-3.
- "Surabaya, a miniature of Singapore". September 5, 2011.
- "House of Sampoerna website".
- Surabaya City Regulation No. 5 2006
- Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
- World Weather Information Service
- "Pertengahan 2015, Kapal Generasi Lima Sandar di Tanjung Perak". November 16, 2014.
- Miftahul Ulum. "Teluk Lamong Can Serve 7 International Ships". Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- "Pelindo III to start trial runs at Teluk Lamong port in May". Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- "Surabaya’s hotel business boom "likely to continue"". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- "Gatra.Com". Gatra.Com. 2010-08-25. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- International Religious Freedom Report 2002
- Orthodox Indonesia Church Parokia St. Nikolaos
- New Orthodox Community in Indonesia
- The Synagogue of Surabaya, Indonesia
- The Jews of Surabaya, by Jessica Champagne and Teuku Cut Mahmud Aziz.
- (Indonesian) Detik Surabaya: Gelora Bung Tomo Diresmikan, Lalu Lintas Macet
- "Guangzhou Sister Cities [via WaybackMachine.com]". Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
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