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Coordinates: 1°18′N 103°48′E / 1.3°N 103.8°E / 1.3; 103.8

Republic of Singapore
Republik Singapura  (Malay)
新加坡共和国 (Chinese)
சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு (Tamil)
Flag Coat of arms
"Majulah Singapura" (Malay)
"Onward, Singapore"
Anthem: Majulah Singapura
"Onward, Singapore"
Singapore skyline viewed at dusk from The Esplanade.
Singapore skyline viewed at dusk from The Esplanade.
Location of  Singapore  (red)
Location of  Singapore  (red)
Capital Singapore
(Downtown Core, Central)a
1°17′N 103°50′E / 1.283°N 103.833°E / 1.283; 103.833
Official languages
Official scripts
Demonym Singaporean
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
 -  President Tony Tan Keng Yam
 -  Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong
 -  Speaker of Parliament Halimah Yacob
 -  Chief Justice Sundaresh Menon
Legislature Parliament
 -  Founding 6 February 18191 
 -  Self-government 3 June 19592 
 -  Independence from
the United Kingdom
31 August 19633 
 -  Merger with Malaysia 16 September 19633 
 -  Separation from Malaysia 9 August 19653 
 -  Total 716.1 km24 (190th)
276 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 1.444
 -  2013 estimate 5,399,2004 (116th)
 -  Density 7,5404/km2 (3rd)
19,562/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $327.557 billion5
 -  Per capita $61,0465 (3rd)
GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $270.020 billion5
 -  Per capita $50,3235
Gini (2012) 47.86
high · 26th
HDI (2013) Increase 0.8957
very high · 19th
Currency Singapore dollar (SGD)
Time zone SST (UTC+8)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the left
Calling code +65
ISO 3166 code SG
Internet TLD .sg, .சிங்கப்பூர், .新加坡
  1. ^ Singapore is a city-state.

Singapore (Listeni/ˈsɪŋəpɔər/ or /ˈsɪŋɡəpɔər/), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia. It lies off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula and is 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. The country's territory consists of the lozenge-shaped main island, commonly referred to as Singapore Island in English and Pulau Ujong in Malay, and more than 60 significantly smaller islets.8 Singapore is separated from Peninsular Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to the north, and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to the south. The country is highly urbanised, and little of the original vegetation remains. The country's territory has consistently expanded through land reclamation.

The islands were settled in the second century AD and subsequently belonged to a series of local empires. Modern Singapore was founded in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles as a trading post of the East India Company with permission from the Johor Sultanate. The British obtained sovereignty over the island in 1824, and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Occupied by the Japanese during World War II, Singapore declared independence from the United Kingdom in 1963 and united with other former British territories to form Malaysia, from which it was expelled two years later through a unanimous act of parliament. Since then, Singapore has developed rapidly, earning recognition as one of the Four Asian Tigers.

Singapore is one of the world's major commercial hubs, with the fourth-biggest financial centre and one of the five busiest ports. Its globalised and diversified economy depends heavily on trade, especially manufacturing, which represented 26 percent of Singapore's GDP in 2005. In terms of purchasing power parity, Singapore has the third-highest per capita income in the world. It places highly in international rankings with regard to education, healthcare, government transparency, and economic competitiveness.

Singapore is a unitary multiparty parliamentary republic, with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. The People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. Just over five million people live in Singapore, of which approximately two million are foreign-born. While Singapore is diverse, ethnic Asians predominate: 75 percent of the population is Chinese, with significant minorities of Malays, Indians, and Eurasians. There are four official languages, English, Malay, Chinese, and Tamil, and the country promotes multiculturalism through a range of official policies.

One of the five founding members of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), Singapore is also the host of the APEC Secretariat, and a member of the East Asia Summit, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the Commonwealth. Singapore's rapid development has given it significant influence in global affairs, leading some analysts to identify it as a middle power.910


The English name of Singapore is derived from the Malay word Singapura (Sanskrit: सिंहपुर, literally Lion City), hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City. However, it is most likely that lions never lived on the island, and the beast seen by Sang Nila Utama, who founded and named Singapore, was a tiger.11


A parade of Japanese soldiers in a street of Singapore
Victorious Japanese troops marching through Singapore City after British capitulation at the Battle of Singapore

Temasek ('sea town'), a second century outpost of the Sumatran Srivijaya empire, is the earliest known settlement on Singapore. The island was part of the Sri Vijaya Empire until it was invaded by the south Indian Emperor Rajendra Chola I, of the Chola Empire, in the 11th century.1213 In 1613, Portuguese raiders burned down the settlement and the island sank into obscurity for the next two centuries.14 Nominally, it belonged to the Johor Sultanate during this period.

In 1819, Thomas Stamford Raffles arrived and signed a treaty with Sultan Hussein Shah of Johor, on behalf of the British East India Company, to develop the southern part of Singapore as a British trading post. In 1824, the entire island became a British possession under a further treaty with the Sultan, as well as the Temenggong.15 In 1826, Singapore became part of the Straits Settlements, under the jurisdiction of British India, becoming the regional capital in 1836.16 Prior to Raffles' arrival, there were approximately 1,000 people living on the island, mostly indigenous Malays along with a handful of Chinese.17 By 1860, the population exceeded 80,000 and more than half were Chinese. Many immigrants came to work at rubber plantations and, after the 1870s, the island became a global centre for rubber exports.15

A cheering crowd welcome the return of British forces, 1945

During World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army invaded British Malaya, culminating in the Battle of Singapore. The British were defeated, surrendering on 15 February 1942. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill called this "... the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history".18 The Sook Ching massacre of ethnic Chinese after the fall of Singapore claimed between 5,000 and 25,000 lives.19 The Japanese occupied Singapore until the British repossessed it in September 1945, after the Surrender of Japan.20

Singapore's first general election in 1955 was won by David Marshall, the pro-independence leader of the Labour Front. He led a delegation to London to demand complete self-rule but was turned down by the British. He subsequently resigned and was replaced by Lim Yew Hock, whose policies convinced Britain to grant Singapore full internal self-government for all matters except defence and foreign affairs.21

During the May 1959 elections, the People's Action Party won a landslide victory. Singapore became an internally self-governing state within the Commonwealth and Lee Kuan Yew became the country's first Prime Minister.22 Governor Sir William Allmond Codrington Goode served as the first Yang di-Pertuan Negara (Head of State), and was succeeded by Yusof bin Ishak, who became the first President of Singapore in 1965.23 During the 1950s, Chinese Communists with strong ties to the trade unions and Chinese schools carried out an armed uprising against the government, leading to the Malayan Emergency and later, the Communist Insurgency War. The 1954 National Service Riots, Chinese middle schools riots, and Hock Lee bus riots in Singapore were all linked to these events.24

1963 - 1990: Independence from the United Kingdom and Malaysia

On 31 August 1963, Singapore declared independence from the United Kingdom, and joined with the Federation of Malaya, the Crown Colony of Sarawak and British North Borneo to form the new Federation of Malaysia as the result of the 1962 Merger Referendum. Singaporean leaders chose to join Malaysia primarily due to concerns regarding their limited land size and scarcity of land, water, markets and natural resources. They also were hoping to enlist the help of the Malaysian government to combat the internal Communist threat.

However, the two years that Singapore spent as part of Malaysia were filled with strife and bitter disagreements. The Malaysians insisted on a pro-Bumiputera (Malay for indigenous) society, where indigenous Malays and tribes were given special rights. The Malaysians were also suspicious of Singapore's ethnic Chinese population, and worried that Singapore's economic clout would shift the centre of power from Kuala Lumpur to Singapore. There were also linguistic and religious issues. The Singaporeans, on the other hand, wanted an equal and meritocratic society, a Malaysian Malaysia where all citizens were given equal rights without regard to indigenous or tribal affiliation or ancestry.

The Malaysian parliament blocked many progressive bills, bringing Singapore's economic and social development to a halt. Race riots broke out in Singapore in 1964. After much heated ideological conflicts between the two governments, in 1965, the Malaysian parliament voted 126 to 0 to expel Singapore from Malaysia (the Singaporean delegates were not present and did not vote).32526 Singapore gained independence as the Republic of Singapore (remaining within the Commonwealth) on 9 August 1965,3 with Yusof bin Ishak as President and Lee Kuan Yew as Prime Minister. Everyone who was living in Singapore on the date of independence was offered Singapore citizenship. Race riots broke out once more in 1969. In 1967, the country co-founded the Association of Southeast Asian Nations27 and in 1970 it joined the Non-Aligned Movement.


In 1990, Goh Chok Tong succeeded Lee as Prime Minister. During his tenure, the country faced the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the 2003 SARS outbreak and terrorist threats posed by Jemaah Islamiyah. In 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew, became the country's third Prime Minister.28

Government and politics

Singapore's Parliament House

Singapore is a parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government representing constituencies. The country's constitution establishes a representative democracy as the political system.29 Freedom House ranks Singapore as "partly free" in its Freedom in the World report,30 and The Economist ranks Singapore as a "hybrid regime", the third best rank of four, in its "Democracy Index".31 Singapore has been consistently rated among the least corrupt countries in the world by Transparency International.32

Executive power rests with the Cabinet of Singapore, led by the Prime Minister and, to a much lesser extent, the President.23 The President is elected through a popular vote, and has veto powers over a specific set of executive decisions, such as the use of the national reserves and the appointment of judges, but otherwise occupies a largely ceremonial post.33

The Parliament serves as the legislative branch of the government.23 Members of Parliament (MPs) consist of elected, non-constituency and nominated members. Elected MPs are voted into the Parliament on a "first-past-the-post" (plurality) basis and represent either single-member or group-representation constituencies.34 The People's Action Party has won control of Parliament with large majorities in every election since self-governance was secured in 1959.30 However, in the most recent Parliamentary elections in 2011, the opposition, led by the Workers' Party, increased its representation to six elected MPs.35

The legal system of Singapore is based on English common law, but with substantial local differences. Trial by jury was abolished in 1970 so that judicial decisions would rest entirely in the hands of appointed judges.36 Singapore has penalties that include judicial corporal punishment in the form of caning, which may be imposed for such offenses as rape, rioting, vandalism, and certain immigration offenses.3738 There is a mandatory death penalty for murder, as well as certain aggravated drug-trafficking and firearms offenses.39 Amnesty International has said that some legal provisions of the Singapore system conflict with the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty, and that Singapore has "... possibly the highest execution rate in the world relative to its population".40 The government has disputed Amnesty's claims.41 In a 2008 survey of international business executives, Singapore and Hong Kong received the top ranking with regard to judicial system quality in Asia.42

In 2011, the [[|World Justice Project|World Justice Project's]] Rule of Law Index ranked Singapore among the top countries surveyed with regard to "Order and Security", "Absence of Corruption", and "Effective Criminal Justice". However, the country received a much lower ranking for "Freedom of Speech" and "Freedom of Assembly".43 All public gatherings of five or more people require police permits, and protests may legally be held only at the Speakers' Corner.44


Map showing Singapore's island and the territories belonging Singapore and its neighbours
Outline of Singapore and the surrounding islands and waterways

Singapore consists of 63 islands, including the main island, widely known as Singapore Island, or Pulau Ujong in Malay.45 There are two man-made connections to Johor, Malaysia: the Johor–Singapore Causeway in the north, and the Tuas Second Link in the west. Jurong Island, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and Sentosa are the largest of Singapore's smaller islands. The highest natural point is Bukit Timah Hill at 166 m (545 ft).46

On-going land reclamation projects have increased Singapore's land area from 581.5 km2 (224.5 sq mi) in the 1960s to 716.1 km2 (276.5 sq mi) presently.4 The country is projected to grow by another 100 km2 (40 sq mi) by 2030.47 Some projects involve merging smaller islands through land reclamation to form larger, more functional islands, as has been done with Jurong Island.48 Close to 10 percent of Singapore's land has been set aside for parks and nature reserves, and the network of nature reserves, parks, park connectors, nature ways, tree-lined roads and other natural areas have also enhanced the sense of green space in the city.49 This is a result of five decades of greening efforts, which began in 1963, when Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew launched Singapore’s first tree-planting campaign by planting a mempat tree (Cratoxylum formosum). The aim was to soften the harshness of urbanisation and improve the quality of life in the city.50 This initiative was carried through into the 1970s and 1980s under the Parks and Recreation Department (PRD), which was renamed the National Parks Board (Abbreviation: NParks) in July 1996.


Singapore has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen: Af ) with no distinctive seasons, uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity, and abundant rainfall. Temperatures usually range from 22 to 35 °C (72 to 95 °F). Relative humidity averages around 79% in the morning and 73% in the afternoon.51 April and May are the hottest months, with the wetter monsoon season from November to January.52 From July to October, there is often haze caused by bush fires in neighbouring Indonesia.53 Although Singapore does not observe daylight saving time, it follows the GMT+8 time zone, one hour ahead of the typical zone for its geographical location.54

Climate data for Singapore
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34.3
Average high °C (°F) 30.1
Average low °C (°F) 23.3
Record low °C (°F) 19.4
Rainfall mm (inches) 243.2
Avg. rainy days 15 11 14 15 15 13 13 14 14 16 19 19 178
 % humidity 84.7 82.8 83.8 84.8 84.4 83.0 82.8 83.0 83.4 84.1 86.4 86.9 84.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 173.6 183.6 192.2 174.0 179.8 177.0 189.1 179.8 156.0 155.0 129.0 133.3 2,022.4
Percent possible sunshine 47 54 52 48 48 49 51 48 43 42 36 36 46.2
Source #1: National Environment Agency (Temp 1929–1941 and 1948–2011, Rainfall 1869–2011, Humidity 1929–1941 and 1948–2011, Rain days 1891–2011) 55
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only, 1982—2008) 56


Pre-independence economy

Before independence in 1965, Singapore was the capital of the British Straits Settlements, a Crown Colony. It was also the main British naval base in East Asia.57 Because it was the main British naval base in the region and held the Singapore Naval Base, the largest dry dock of its time, Singapore was commonly described in the press as the 'Gibraltar of the East'.58 The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 caused a major increase in trade between Europe and Asia, helping Singapore become a major world trade center and turning the Port of Singapore into one of the largest and busiest ports in the world.59 Before gaining its independence in 1965, Singapore had a GDP per capita of $511, then the third-highest in East Asia.60 After independence, the combination of foreign direct investment and a state-led drive for industrialisation based on plans by Goh Keng Swee and Albert Winsemius laid the foundation for the country's booming economy.61

Modern-day economy

The port of Singapore with a large number of shipping containers with the skyline of the city visible in the background
The Port of Singapore, one of the world's five busiest,62 with the skyline of Singapore in the background

Today, Singapore has a highly developed market economy, based historically on extended entrepôt trade. Along with Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan, Singapore is one of the original Four Asian Tigers. The Singaporean economy is known as one of the freest,63 most innovative,64 most competitive,65 and most business-friendly.66 The 2011 Index of Economic Freedom ranks Singapore as the second freest economy in the world, behind Hong Kong. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, Singapore is consistently ranked as one of the least corrupt countries in the world, along with New Zealand and the Scandinavian countries.

Singapore is the 14th largest exporter and the 15th largest importer in the world. The country has the highest trade-to-GDP ratio in the world at 407.9 percent, signifying the importance of trade to its economy. The country is currently the only Asian country to receive AAA credit ratings from all three major credit rating agencies: Standard & Poor's, Moody's, and Fitch.6768 Singapore attracts a large amount of foreign direct investment as a result of its location, corruption-free environment, skilled workforce, low tax rates and advanced infrastructure. There are more than 7,000 multinational corporations from the United States, Japan, and Europe in Singapore. There are also approximately 1,500 companies from China and a similar number from India. Foreign firms are found in almost all sectors of the country's economy.6 Singapore is also the second-largest foreign investor in India.69 Roughly 44 percent of the Singaporean workforce is made up of non-Singaporeans.70 Over ten free-trade agreements have been signed with other countries and regions.71

Singapore also possesses the world's eleventh largest foreign reserves,72 and has one of the highest net international investment position per capita.7374 The currency of Singapore is the Singapore dollar, issued by the Monetary Authority of Singapore.75 It is interchangeable with the Brunei dollar.76

In recent years, the country has been identified as an increasingly popular tax haven for the wealthy due to the low tax rate on personal income and tax exemptions on foreign-based income and capital gains. Australian millionaire retailer Brett Blundy, with an estimated personal wealth worth AU$835 million, and multi-billionaire Facebook co-founder Eduardo Saverin are two examples of wealthy individuals who have settled in Singapore (Blundy in 2013 and Saverin in 2012).77 Singapore ranked fifth on the Tax Justice Network's 2013 Financial Secrecy Index of the world's top tax havens, scoring narrowly ahead of the United States.78


Large high-rise buildings at night time
Singapore skyline

The Singaporean economy depends heavily on exports and refining imported goods, especially in manufacturing,79 which constituted 27.2% of GDP in 20106 and includes significant electronics, petroleum refining, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences sectors. In 2006, Singapore produced about 10% of the world's foundry wafer output.80 Despite its small size, Singapore has a diversified economy, a strategy that the government considers vital for growth and stability.81

Tourism also forms a large part of the economy, and 10.2 million tourists visited the country in 2007.82 To attract more tourists, the government legalized gambling in 2005 and allowed two casino resorts (called Integrated Resorts) to be developed.83 Singapore also promotes itself as a medical tourism hub: about 200,000 foreigners seek medical care there each year, and Singapore medical services aim to serve at least one million foreign patients annually and generate USD 3 billion in revenue.84

Singapore is an education hub, and many foreign students study in Singapore. Singapore hosted more than 80,000 international students in 2006.85 More than 5,000 Malaysian students cross the Johor–Singapore Causeway every morning with the belief that they will receive a better education in Singapore.86 In 2009, 20% of all students in Singaporean universities were international students. The students were mainly from ASEAN, China and India.87

Singapore is a world leader in several economic areas: The country is the world's fourth leading financial centre,88 the world's second largest casino gambling market,89 one of the world's top three oil-refining centres, the world's largest oil-rig producer, and a major hub for ship repair services.909192 The port is one of the five busiest ports in the world.89 The World Bank has named Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business89 and ranks Singapore the world's top logistics hub.93 It is also the world's fourth largest foreign-exchange trading centre after London, New York and Tokyo.94

As a result of the early 2000s recession and a slump in the technology sector, Singapore's GDP contracted by 2.2% in 2001. The Economic Review Committee was set up in December 2001 and recommended several policy changes to revitalise the economy. Singapore has since recovered, due largely to improvements in the world economy; the economy grew by 8.3% in 2004, 6.4% in 2005,95 and 7.9% in 2006.96 After a contraction of 0.8% in 2009, the economy recovered in 2010, with GDP growth of 14.5%.6 Most work in Singapore is in the service sector, which employed 2,151,400 people out of 3,102,500 jobs in December 2010. The percentage of unemployed economically active people above age 15 is about 2%.97

Employment and poverty

A City View of Singapore

Singapore has the world's highest percentage of millionaires, with one out of every six households having at least one million US dollars in disposable wealth (excluding property, businesses, and luxury goods, which if included would further increase the number of millionaires, especially as property in Singapore is among the world's most expensive).98 Despite its relative economic success, Singapore does not have a minimum wage, believing that it would lower its competitiveness. It also has one of the highest income inequality levels among developed countries, coming in just behind Hong Kong and in front of the United States.99100

Acute poverty is rare in Singapore; the government has rejected the idea of a generous welfare system, stating that each generation must earn and save enough for its entire life cycle. There are, however, numerous means-tested 'assistance schemes' provided by the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports in Singapore for the needy, including some that pay out SGD 400 to SGD 1000 per month to each needy household, free medical care at government hospitals, money for children's school fees, rental of studio apartments for SGD 80 a month, training grants for courses, etc.101102103

Foreign relations

Ambassador to the USA Chan Heng Chee, Lee Kuan Yew, and US Secretary of Defense William Cohen in a room
Then Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew and Ambassador to the U.S. Chan Heng Chee meet with Secretary of Defense William Cohen during Lee's visit in 2000

Singapore's foreign policy is directed to maintaining a secure environment in Southeast Asia as well as the surrounding territories. An underlying principle is political and economic stability in the region.71 It has diplomatic relations with more than 180 other sovereign states.104 As one of the five founding members of the ASEAN,105 the country is a strong supporter of the ASEAN Free Trade Area and the ASEAN Investment Area, because Singapore's economic growth is closely linked with the economic progress of the region as a whole. Former Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong proposed the formation of an ASEAN Economic Community, a step beyond the current AFTA bringing it closer to a common market. This idea was agreed to in 2007 for implementation by 2015. Other regional organisations are also important to Singapore, and it is the host of the APEC Secretariat. Singapore also maintains membership in other regional organisations, such as Asia–Europe Meeting, the Forum for East Asia-Latin American Cooperation, the Asian Network of Major Cities 21, and the East Asia Summit.71 It is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement106 and the Commonwealth.107

In general, bilateral relations with other ASEAN members are strong; however, disagreements have arisen,71 and relations with neighbouring Malaysia and Indonesia have historically sometimes been very strained and difficult.108 Malaysia and Singapore have clashed over the delivery of fresh water to Singapore,109 access of the Singapore Armed Forces to Malaysian airspace,108 the sovereignty of Pedra Branca, and the relocation of Tanjong Pagar railway station, among others.citation needed Border issues exist with both Malaysia and Indonesia, and both have banned the sale of marine sand to Singapore over disputes about Singapore's land reclamation.110 Some previous disputes have been resolved by the International Court of Justice. Piracy in the Strait of Malacca has been a cause of concern for all three countries.109 Close economic ties exist with Brunei, and the two share a pegged currency value.111

The first diplomatic contact with China was made in the 1970s, with full diplomatic relations being established in the 1990s. Since then the two countries have enjoyed a strong relationship, being major players in strengthening the ASEAN–China relationship.112 Singapore and the United States share a long-standing and strong relationship, in particular in defence, the economy, health and education. The United States was Singapore's third largest trading partner in 2010, behind China (2nd) and Malaysia (1st).113 The two countries have a free-trade agreement, and Singapore views its relationship with the United States as an important counterbalance to China's influence.114 A Strategic Framework Agreement between the two signed in 2005 formalises security and defence cooperation.115 Singapore has pushed regional counter-terrorism initiatives, with a strong resolve to deal with terrorists inside its borders. To this end it has given support to the US-led coalition to fight terrorism, with bilateral cooperation in counter-terrorism and counter-proliferation initiatives, and joint military exercises.71


CARAT SINGAPORE 2010, Republic of Singapore Navy's RSS Steadfast and RSS Vigilance sailing line-abreast.

The Singaporean military is arguably the most technologically advanced in Southeast Asia.116 It comprises the Singapore Army, Republic of Singapore Navy, and Republic of Singapore Air Force.6 It is seen as the guarantor of the country's independence.117 The nation's philosophy of defence is one of diplomacy and deterrence.118 This principle translates into the culture, involving all citizens in the country's defence.119 The government spends 4.9% of the country's GDP on the military6 and one out of every four dollars of government spending is spent on defence.120

On independence, Singapore had two infantry regiments commanded by British officers. This force was considered too small to provide effective security to the new country, so the development of the military became a priority.121 Britain pulled its military out of Singapore in October 1971, leaving behind only a small British, Australian and New Zealand force as a token military presence. The last British soldier left Singapore in March 1976. New Zealand troops were the last to leave, in 1989.122

A great deal of initial support came from Israel,121 a country that is not recognised by neighbouring Muslim-majority Malaysia, Indonesia or Brunei.123124125 The main fear after independence was an invasion by Malaysia. Israel Defense Forces commanders were tasked with creating the Singapore Armed Forces from scratch, and Israeli instructors were brought in to train Singaporean soldiers. Military courses were conducted according to the Israel Defense Forces' format, and Singapore adopted a system of conscription and reserve service based on the Israeli model.121 Singapore still maintains strong security ties with Israel and is one of the biggest buyers of Israeli arms and weapons systems.126 The MATADOR is one example of recent Singapore-Israeli collaboration.127

The SAF is being developed to respond to a wide range of issues, in both conventional and unconventional warfare. The Defence Science and Technology Agency is responsible for procuring resources for the military.118 The geographic restrictions of Singapore mean that the SAF must plan to fully repulse an attack, as they can not fall back and re-group. The small size of the population has also affected the way the SAF has been designed, with a small active force but a large number of reserves.119

Republic of Singapore Air Force's F-15SG Strike Eagle (Peace Carvin V) training detachment at Mountain Home Air Force Base.

Singapore has conscription for all able-bodied males at age 18, except those with a criminal record or who can prove that their loss would bring hardship to their families. Males who have yet to complete pre-university education or are awarded the Public Service Commission scholarship can opt to defer their draft. Though not required to perform military service, the number of women in the SAF has been increasing: since 1989 they have been allowed to fill military vocations formerly reserved for men. Before induction into a specific branch of the armed forces, recruits undergo at least 9 weeks of basic military training.128

Because of the scarcity of open land on the main island, training involving activities such as live firing and amphibious landings is often carried out on smaller islands, typically barred to civilian access. This also avoids risk to the main island and the city. However, large-scale drills are considered too dangerous to be performed in the area, and since 1975 have been performed in Taiwan.128 Training is also held in about a dozen other countries. In general, military exercises are held with foreign forces once or twice per week.119

Due to airspace and land constraints, the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) maintains a number of overseas bases in Australia, the United States, and France. The RSAF's 130 Squadron is based in RAAF Base Pearce, Western Australia,129 and its 126 Squadron is based in the Oakey Army Aviation Centre, Queensland.130 The RSAF has one squadron – the 150 Squadron – based in Cazaux Air Base in southern France.131132 The RSAF also has a few overseas detachments in the United States, in San Diego, California, Marana, Arizona, Grand Prairie, Texas and Luke Air Force Base, among others.133134

The SAF has sent forces to assist in operations outside the country in areas such as Iraq135 and Afghanistan,136 in both military and civilian roles. In the region, it has helped stabilise East Timor and has provided aid to Aceh in Indonesia following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. The SAF also helped in relief efforts during Hurricane Katrina.137 Singapore is part of the Five Power Defence Arrangements, a military alliance with Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.119


High-rise HDB flats and condominiums overlooking Bishan Park

As of 2012, the population of Singapore is 5.312 million people, of whom 3.285 million (62%) are citizens while the rest (38%) are permanent residents or foreign workers/students. Twenty-three percent of Singaporean citizens were born outside Singapore (i.e. foreign born citizens). There are half a million permanent residents in Singapore in 2012. The resident population does not take into account the 11 million transient visitors who visit Singapore annually.4138139

The median age of Singaporeans is 37 years old and the average household size is 3.5 persons. Due to scarcity of land, four out of five Singaporeans live in subsidised, high-rise, public housing apartments known as Housing and Development Board (HDB) flats, after the board responsible for public housing in the country.140 Live-in domestic helpers are quite common in Singapore and there are nearly 200,000 domestic helpers there.141

In 2010, three quarters of Singaporean residents live in properties that are equal to or larger than a four-room HDB flat or in private housing. Home ownership rate is at 87.2%.142143 Mobile phone penetration rate is extremely high at 1,400 mobile phone subscribers per 1000 people. Around 1 in 10 residents owns a car.139

The total fertility rate is estimated to be .79 children per woman in 2013, the lowest in the world and well below the 2.1 needed to replace the population.144 To overcome this problem, the Singapore government has been encouraging foreigners to immigrate to Singapore for the past few decades. The large number of immigrants has kept Singapore's population from declining.145 Singapore traditionally has one of the lowest unemployment rates among developed countries. The Singaporean unemployment rate has not exceeded 4% in the past decade, hitting a high of 3% during the 2009 global financial crisis and falling to 1.9% in 2011.146147

As of 2009, about 40% of Singapore's residents were foreigners, one of the highest percentage in the world.148 The government is considering capping these workers, although it has been recognised that they are crucial to the country's economy,149 as foreign workers make up 80% of the construction industry and up to 50% of the service industry.150151

In 2009, the government census reports that 74.2% of residents were of Chinese, 13.4% of Malay, and 9.2% of Indian descent,152 while Eurasians and other groups form 3.2%. Prior to 2010, each person could register as a member of only one race, by default that of his or her father, therefore, mixed-race persons were solely grouped under their father's race in government censuses. From 2010 onward, people may register using a "double-barrelled" classification, in which they may choose one primary race and one secondary race, but no more than two.153


Religion in Singapore (Pew Research)154155
Religion Percent
(mostly Taoist)

Buddhism is the most widely practised religion in Singapore, with 33% of the resident population declaring themselves adherents at the most recent census. The next-most practised religion is Christianity, followed by Islam, Taoism, and Hinduism. 17% of the population did not have a religious affiliation. The proportion of Christians, Taoists, and non-religious people increased between 2000 and 2010 by about 3% each, whilst the proportion of Buddhists decreased. Other faiths remained largely stable in their share of the population.154 An analysis by the Pew Research Center found Singapore to be the world's most religiously diverse nation.156

There are monasteries and Dharma centres from all three major traditions of Buddhism in Singapore: Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. Most Buddhists in Singapore are Chinese and are of the Mahayana tradition.157 Chinese Mahayana is the most predominant form of Buddhism in Singapore, with missionaries coming into the country from Taiwan and China for several decades. However, Thailand's Theravada Buddhism has seen growing popularity among the people (not only the Chinese) in the past decade. Soka Gakkai International, a Japanese Buddhist organisation, is practised by many people in Singapore, but mostly by those of Chinese descent. Tibetan Buddhism has also made slow inroads into the country in recent years.158


Native languages (mother tongues) of Singaporeans159
Language Percent

Singapore has four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil.160 English is the common language of the nation and is the language of business, government, and the medium of instruction in schools.161162 Public bodies in Singapore, i.e. the Singapore Public Service (which includes the Singapore Civil Service and other agencies), conduct their businesses in English, and official documents written in a non-English official language such as Chinese, Malay or Tamil typically have to be translated into English to be accepted for submission. The Constitution of Singapore and all laws are written in English,163 and translators are required if one wishes to address the Singaporean Courts in a language other than English.164165 However, English is the native tongue for only one-third of all Singaporeans, with roughly a third of all Singaporean Chinese, a quarter of all Singaporean Malays and half of all Singaporean Indians speaking it as their native tongue. Twenty percent of Singaporeans cannot read or write in English.154166

Many, but not all, Singaporeans are bilingual in English and another official language, with vastly varying degrees of fluency. The official languages ranked in terms of literacy amongst Singaporeans are English (80% literacy), Mandarin Chinese (65% literacy), Malay (17% literacy), and Tamil (4% literacy).154167 Singapore English is based on British English,168 and forms of English spoken in Singapore range from "Standard Singapore English" to a pidgin known as "Singlish". Singlish is heavily discouraged by the government.169

Chinese is the language that is spoken as the native tongue by the greatest number of Singaporeans, half of them.159 Singaporean Mandarin is the most common version of Chinese in the country,170 with 1.2 million using it as their home language. Nearly half a million speak other Chinese dialects, mainly Hokkien, Teochew, and Cantonese, as their home language, although the use of these is declining in favour of Mandarin and English.171

Malay was chosen as the national language by the Singaporean government after independence from Britain in the 1960s to avoid friction with Singapore's neighbours — Malaysia and Indonesia — which are Malay-speaking.172 It has a symbolic rather than functional purpose.160173174 It is used in the national anthem "Majulah Singapura",175 in citations of Singaporean orders and decorations, and in military commands. Today, in general, Malay is spoken within the Singaporean Malay community, with only 16.8% of all Singaporeans literate in Malay176 and only 12% using it as their native language.159

Around 100,000, or 3%, of Singaporeans speak Tamil as their native language.159 Tamil has official status in Singapore and there have been no attempts to discourage the use of other Indian languages.177


Science and technology

Internet in Singapore is provided by internet service providers (ISPs) that offer residential service plans of speeds up to 1 Gbit/s. In Singapore, the rise of Gigabit Networks increased exports and created 80,000 jobs in 2006.178

Telecommunications in Singapore include 4G mobile phone services for over 6 million subscribers.citation needed


Education for primary, secondary, and tertiary levels is mostly supported by the state. All institutions, private and public, must be registered with the Ministry of Education.179 English is the language of instruction in all public schools,180 and all subjects are taught and examined in English except for the "Mother tongue" language paper.181 While the term "Mother Tongue" in general refers to the first language internationally, in Singapore's education system, it is used to refer to the second language, as English is the first language.182183 Students who have been abroad for a while or who struggle with their "Mother Tongue" language are allowed to take a simpler syllabus or drop the subject.184185

Education takes place in three stages: primary, secondary, and pre-university education. Only the primary level is compulsory. Students begin with six years of primary school, which is made up of a four-year foundation course and a two-year orientation stage. The curriculum is focused on the development of English, the mother tongue, and maths.186 There are four standard subjects taught to all students: English, the mother tongue, mathematics, and science.187 Secondary school lasts from four to five years and is divided between Special, Express, Normal (Academic), and Normal (Technical) streams in each school, depending on a student's ability level.188 The basic coursework breakdown is the same as in the primary level, although classes are much more specialised.189 Pre-university education takes place over two to three years at senior schools mostly called Junior Colleges.190

Some schools have a degree of freedom in their curriculum and are known as autonomous schools. These exist from the secondary education level.188

Educational attainment of non-student Singaporeans above 15 years old in 2005191
Highest qualification Percentage
No education
Primary school
Secondary school
Post-secondary diploma

National examinations are standardised across all schools, with a test taken after each stage. After the first six years of education, students take the Primary School Leaving Examination,186 which determines their placement at secondary school. At the end of the secondary stage, GCE "O"-Level exams are taken; at the end of the following pre-university stage, the GCE "A"-Level exams are taken. Of all non-student Singaporeans aged 15 and above, 18% have no education qualifications at all while 45% have the Primary School Leaving Examination as their highest qualification. 15% have the GCE 'O' Level as their highest qualification and 14% have a degree.191

Singaporean students consistently rank in the top five in the world in the two major international assessments of mathematics and science knowledge. Singaporean students were ranked first in the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement and have been ranked top three every year since 1995.192193 Singaporean students were also ranked top five in the world in terms of mathematics, science, and reading in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment conducted by the OECD.194 The country's two main public universities — the National University of Singapore and Nanyang Technological University — are among the top 50 in the world.195


Singapore has a generally efficient healthcare system, even with a health expenditure relatively low for developed countries.196 The World Health Organisation ranks Singapore's healthcare system as 6th overall in the world in its World Health Report.197 In general, Singapore has the lowest infant mortality rate in the world for the past two decades.139 Life expectancy in Singapore is 80 for males and 85 for females, placing the country 4th in the world for life expectancy. Almost the whole population has access to improved water and sanitation facilities. There are fewer than 10 annual deaths from HIV per 100,000 people. There is a high level of immunisation. Adult obesity is below 10%.198

The government's healthcare system is based upon the "3M" framework. This has three components: Medifund, which provides a safety net for those not able to otherwise afford healthcare, Medisave, a compulsory health savings scheme covering about 85% of the population, and Medishield, a government-funded health insurance scheme.196 Public hospitals in Singapore have autonomy in their management decisions, and compete for patients. A subsidy scheme exists for those on low income.199 In 2008, 31.9% of healthcare was funded by the government. It accounts for approximately 3.5% of Singapore's GDP.200


The country has strict laws against drug use and has one of the lowest rates of drug use in the world.201

Foreigners also make up 42% of the population148171 and have a strong influence on Singaporean culture. The Economist Intelligence Unit in its "Quality-of-Life Index" ranks Singapore as having the best quality of life in Asia and eleventh overall in the world.202

Languages, religions, and cultures

A scene in a street market in Chinatown, Singapore, during the Chinese New Year holidays.
Sultan Mosque in Singapore
Thaipusam is a Hindu festival celebrated by Singapore's Tamil community

Singapore is a very diverse and young country. It has many languages, religions, and cultures for a country its size.203 Due to the many languages and cultures in the country, there is no single set of culturally acceptable behaviours.citation needed

When Singapore became independent from the United Kingdom in 1963, most of the newly minted Singaporean citizens were uneducated labourers from Malaysia, China and India. Many of them were transient labourers who were seeking to make some money in Singapore and they had no intention of staying for good. A sizeable minority of middle-class, local-born people, known as the Peranakans, also existed. With the exception of the Peranakans (descendants of late 15th and 16th-century Chinese immigrants) who pledged their loyalties to Singapore, most of the labourers' loyalties lay with their respective homelands of Malaysia, China and India.204205 After independence, the process of crafting a Singaporean identity and culture began.

Former Prime Ministers of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew and Goh Chok Tong have stated that Singapore does not fit the traditional description of a nation, calling it a society-in-transition, pointing out the fact that Singaporeans do not all speak the same language, share the same religion, or have the same customs.203206 Even though English is the first language of the nation, according to the government's 2010 census 20% of Singaporeans, or one in five, are illiterate in English. This is a marked improvement from 1990 where 40% of Singaporeans were illiterate in English.207208

Unlike many other countries, languages, religions and cultures among Singaporeans are not delineated according to skin colour or ancestry. Among Chinese Singaporeans, one in five is Christian, another one in five is atheist, and the rest are mostly Buddhists or Taoists. One-third speak English as their home language, while half speak Mandarin Chinese as their home language. The rest speak other mutually unintelligible Chinese languages at home.207 Singaporean Indians are much more religious. Only 1% of them are atheists. Six in ten are Hindus, two in ten Muslims, and the rest mostly Christians. Four in ten speak English as their home language, three in ten Tamil, one in ten Malay, and the rest other Indian languages as their home language.207

Each Singaporean's behaviours and attitudes would therefore be influenced by, among many other things, his or her home language and his religion. Singaporeans who speak English as their native language tend to lean toward Western culture, while those who speak Chinese languages as their native language tend to lean toward Chinese culture and Confucianism. Malay-speaking Singaporeans tend to lean toward Malay culture, which itself is closely linked to Islamic culture. Those who speak Indian languages as their native language would probably lean toward Indian culture.

Attitudes and beliefs

Singapore, as a country, in general is conservative socially, but some liberalisation has occurred.209 At the national level, meritocracy, where one is judged based on one's ability, is heavily emphasised.210

Racial and religious harmony is regarded by the government as a crucial part of Singapore's success and played a part in building a Singaporean identity.211 Singapore has a reputation as a nanny state.212213 The national flower of Singapore is the Vanda Miss Joaquim. Many national symbols such as the National Coat of Arms and the Lion Head symbol make use of the lion, as Singapore is known as the 'Lion City'. Public holidays in Singapore cover major Chinese, Western, Malay and Indian festivals.214

Singaporean employees work an average of around 45 hours weekly, relatively long compared to many other nations. Three in four Singaporean employees surveyed stated that they take pride in doing their work well, and that doing so helps their self-confidence.215


Dining, along with shopping, is said to be the country's national pastime.216 The focus on food has led countries like Australia to attract Singaporean tourists with food-based itineraries.217 The diversity of food is touted as a reason to visit the country,218 and the variety of food representing different ethnicities is seen by the government as a symbol of its multiculturalism.219 The "national fruit" of Singapore is the durian.220

In popular culture, food items belong to a particular ethnicity, with Chinese, Malay, and Indian food clearly defined. However, the diversity of cuisine has been increased further by the "hybridisation" of different styles (e.g., the Peranakan style, a mix of Chinese and Malay cuisine).218


Domed black building with bumps reminiscent of those on a Durian
The durian-shaped Esplanade, performing arts centre, stands out in front of the Marina Square area.

Since the 1990s, the government has been promoting Singapore as a centre for arts and culture, in particular the performing arts, and to transform the country into a cosmopolitan "gateway between the East and West".221 One highlight was the construction of Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay, a performing arts centre opened in October 2002.222 The national orchestra, Singapore Symphony Orchestra, plays at the Esplanade. The annual Singapore Arts Festival is organised by the National Arts Council. The stand-up comedy scene has been growing, with a weekly open mic.223 Singapore hosted the 2009 Genee International Ballet Competition, a classical ballet competition promoted by London's Royal Academy of Dance.224

Sport and recreation

Popular sports include football, basketball, cricket, swimming, sailing, table tennis and badminton. Most Singaporeans live in public residential areas (known as "HDB flats", as mentioned above) near amenities such as public swimming pools, outdoor basketball courts and indoor sport complexes. Water sports are popular, including sailing, kayaking and water skiing. Scuba diving is another popular recreational sport. The Southern island of Pulau Hantu, particularly, is known for its rich coral reefs.225

Singapore's football (soccer) league, the S-League, formed in 1994,226 currently comprises 12 clubs including foreign teams.227 The Singapore Slingers, formerly in the Australian National Basketball League, is one of the inaugural teams in the ASEAN Basketball League, founded in October 2009.228

Singapore began hosting a round of the Formula One World Championship, the Singapore Grand Prix, in 2008. The race takes place on the Marina Bay Street Circuit and was the inaugural F1 night race229 and the first F1 street race in Asia.230 The Singapore Grand Prix will remain on the F1 calendar through at least 2017, after race organisers signed a contract extension with Formula One Group on the eve of the 2012 event.231

Kranji Racecourse is run by the Singapore Turf Club and hosts multiple weekly meetings and many important local and international races, notably the prestigious Singapore Airlines International Cup.

Singapore also hosted the inaugural 2010 Summer Youth Olympics.232


Companies linked to the government control much of the domestic media in Singapore.233 MediaCorp operates most free-to-air television channels and free-to-air radio stations in Singapore. There are a total of seven free-to-air TV channels offered by Mediacorp.234 The channels are Channel 5 (English channel), Channel News Asia (English channel), Okto (English channel), Channel 8 (Chinese channel), Channel U (Chinese channel), Suria (Malay channel) and Vasantham (Indian channel).235 Starhub Cable Vision (SCV) also offers cable television with channels from all around the world236 and Singtel's MioTV provides an IPTV service.237 Singapore Press Holdings, a body with close links to the government, controls most of the newspaper industry in Singapore.238

Singapore's media industry has sometimes been criticised for being too regulated and lacking in freedom by human rights groups such as Freedom House.233 In 2010, Reporters Without Borders, a France-based international non-governmental organisation, ranked Singapore 136 out of 178 in its Press Freedom Index, just below Mexico.239

The Media Development Authority regulates Singaporean media, claiming to balance the demand for choice and protection against offensive and harmful material.240 Private ownership of TV satellite dishes is banned.238 Television is censored, and shows like Sex and the City and Queer as Folk (UK TV series) are banned. There are 3.4 million users of the internet in Singapore,238 one of the highest internet penetration rates in the world. The Singapore government does not engage in widespread censoring of the internet,241 but it maintains a list of one hundred websites (mostly pornographic) that it blocks as a 'symbolic statement of the Singaporean community's stand on harmful and undesirable content on the Internet'.242 As the block covers only home internet access, users may still visit the blocked websites from their office computers.243


The Port with a large number of shipping containers and the ocean visible in the background
The Port of Singapore with Sentosa island in the background

Since Singapore is a small island with a high population density, the number of private cars on the road is restricted so as to curb pollution and congestion. Car buyers must pay for duties one-and-a-half times the vehicle's market value and bid for a Singaporean Certificate of Entitlement (COE), which allows the car to run on the road for a decade. The cost of the Singaporean certificate of entitlement alone would buy a Porsche Boxster in the United States. Car prices are generally significantly higher in Singapore than in other English-speaking countries and thus only one in 10 residents owns a car.139244 As with most Commonwealth countries, vehicles on the road and people walking on the streets keep to the left.245

Electronic Road Pricing gantry (road sign) at North Bridge Road

Most Singaporean residents travel by foot, bicycles, bus, taxis and train (MRT or LRT). Two companies run the public bus and train transport system – SBS Transit and SMRT Corporation. There are almost a dozen taxi companies, who together put out 25,000 taxis on the road. Taxis are a popular form of public transport as the fares are relatively cheap compared to many other developed countries.246247

Singapore has a road system covering 3,356 kilometres (2,085 mi), which includes 161 kilometres (100 mi) of expressways.6248249 The Singapore Area Licensing Scheme, implemented in 1975, became the world's first congestion pricing scheme, and included other complementary measures such as stringent car ownership quotas and improvements in mass transit.250251 Upgraded in 1998 and renamed Electronic Road Pricing, the system introduced electronic toll collection, electronic detection, and video surveillance technology.252

Singapore is a major international transport hub in Asia, positioned on many sea and air trade routes. The Port of Singapore, managed by port operators PSA International and Jurong Port, was the world's second-busiest port in 2005 in terms of shipping tonnage handled, at 1.15 billion gross tons, and in terms of containerised traffic, at 23.2 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs). It is also the world's second-busiest, behind Shanghai, in terms of cargo tonnage with 423 million tons handled. In addition, the port is the world's busiest for transshipment traffic and the world's biggest ship refuelling centre.253

Singapore is an aviation hub for Southeast Asia and a stopover on the Kangaroo Route between Sydney and London.254 There are eight airports in the country,6 and Singapore Changi Airport hosts a network of 80 airlines connecting Singapore to 200 cities in 68 countries. It has been rated one of the best international airports by international travel magazines, including being rated as the world's best airport for the first time in 2006 by Skytrax.255 The national airlines are Singapore Airlines, SilkAir and Scoot.256

Ships in the ocean with Singapore visible in the background

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