Part of a series on
|Beliefs and practices|
|Current Branches of Shi'ism|
The Shia (Arabic: شيعة Shīʿah) represent the second largest denomination of Islam. Adherents of Shia Islam are called Shias or the Shi'a as a collective or Shi'i individually.1 Shi'a is the short form of the historic phrase Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي) meaning "followers", "faction" or "party" of Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin Ali, whom the Shia believe to be Muhammad's successor in the Caliphate. Twelver Shia (Ithnā'ashariyyah) is the largest branch of Shia Islam and the term Shia Muslim is often taken to refer to Twelvers by default. Shia Muslims constitute 10–20% of the world's Muslim population and 38% of the Middle East's entire population.2
- 1 Description
- 2 Etymology
- 3 Beliefs
- 4 History
- 5 Community
- 6 Branches
- 7 List of Imams
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Shi'i Islam is based on the Quran and the message of the Islamic prophet Muhammad attested in hadith recorded by the Shia, and certain books deemed sacred to the Shia (Nahj al-Balagha).34 Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, and as the first Imam. In the centuries after the death of Muhammad, the Shia extended this "Imami" doctrine to Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt ("the People of the House"), and certain individuals among his descendants, known as Imams, who they believe possess special spiritual and political authority over the community, infallibility, and other quasi-divine traits.5
The word Shia (Arabic: شيعة shīʻah /ˈʃiːʕa/) means follower10 and is the short form of the historic phrase shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي /ˈʃiːʕatu ˈʕaliː/), meaning "followers of Ali", "faction of Ali", or "party of Ali".11 Shi'a and Shiism are forms used in English, while Shi'ite or Shiite, as well as Shia, refer to its adherents.
(MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, AD 1309/8 Ilkhanid manuscript illustration) Shia Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone, only God has the prerogative to appoint the successor to his prophet. They believe God chose Ali to be Muhammad's successor, infallible, the first caliph (khalifa, head of state) of Islam. Muhammad, before his death, designated Ali as his successor.
Ali was Muhammad's first cousin and closest living male relative as well as his son-in-law, having married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah.1314 Ali would eventually become the fourth Muslim (sunni) caliph.15
After the last pilgrimage, Muhammad ordered the gathering of Muslims at the pond of Khumm and it was there that Shi'a Muslims believe Muhammad nominated Ali to be his successor. The hadith of the pond of Khumm was narrated on 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah of 10 AH in the Islamic calendar (10_March_632 AD) at a place called Ghadir Khumm, located near the city of al-Juhfah, Saudi Arabia.16 Muhammad there stated:
Oh people! Reflect on the Quran and comprehend its verses. Look into its clear verses and do not follow its ambiguous parts, for by Allah, none shall be able to explain to you its warnings and its mysteries, nor shall anyone clarify its interpretation, other than the one that I have grasped his hand, brought up beside myself, [and lifted his arm,] the one about whom I inform you that whomever I am his master (Mawlaa)), then Ali is his master (Mawla); and he is Ali Ibn Abi Talib, my brother, the executor of my will (Wasiyyi), whose appointment as your guardian and leader has been sent down to me from Allah, the mighty and the majestic.
— Muhammad, from The Farewell Sermon18
- The word mawla has many meanings as discussed in the book "Patronate And Patronage in Early And Classical Islam" By Monique Bernards, John Nawas on page 25:
"[M]awla may refer to a client, a patron, an agnate (brother, son, father's brother, father' brothers son), an affined kinsman, (brother-in-law, son-in-law), a friend, a supporter, a follower, a drinking companion, a partner, a newly-converted Muslim attached to a Muslim and last but not least an ally. Most of these categories have legal implications. In Islamic times, the term malawa mostly referred to Muslim freedmen and freed non-Arabs who attached themselves to Arabs upon their conversion to Islam. In these senses, Mawla is commonly translated as "a client". The association of malwa with non-arabs and a low status imparted an increasingly pejorative connotation to it.17
Shia Muslims believe this to be Muhammad's appointment of Ali as his successor.
When Muhammad died in 632 CE, Ali and Muhammad's closest relatives made the funeral arrangements. While they were preparing his body, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah met with the leaders of Medina and elected Abu Bakr as caliph. Ali and his family accepted the appointment for the sake of unity in the early Muslim community.13 It was not until the murder of the third caliph, Uthman, in 657 CE that the Muslims in Medina in desperation invited Ali to become the fourth caliph as the last source,13 and he established his capital in Kufah in present-day Iraq.11
Ali's rule over the early Muslim community was often contested, and wars were waged against him. As a result, he had to struggle to maintain his power against the groups who betrayed him after giving allegiance to his succession, or those who wished to take his position. This dispute eventually led to the First Fitna, which was the first major civil war within the Islamic Caliphate. The Fitna began as a series of revolts fought against the first imam, Ali ibn Abi Talib, caused by the assassination of his political predecessor, Uthman ibn Affan. While the rebels who accused Uthman of nepotismclarification needed affirmed Ali's khilafa (caliph-hood), they later turned against him and fought him.13 Ali ruled from 656 CE to 661 CE,13 when he was assassinated14 while prostrating in prayer (sujud). Ali's main rival Muawiyah then claimed the caliphate.19
Upon the death of Ali, his elder son Hasan became leader of the Muslims of Kufa, and after a series of skirmishes between the Kufa Muslims and the army of Muawiyah, Hasan agreed to cede the caliphate to Muawiyah and maintain peace among Muslims upon certain conditions:2021
- The enforced public cursing of Ali, e.g. during prayers, should be abandoned
- Muawiyah should not use tax money for his own private needs
- There should be peace, and followers of Hasan should be given security and their rights
- Muawiyah will never adopt the title of Amir ul momineen
- Muawiyah will not nominate any successor
Hasan then retired to Medina, where in 50 AH he was poisoned by his wife Ja'da bint al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, after being secretly contacted by Muawiyah who wished to pass the caliphate to his own son Yazid and saw Hasan as an obstacle.
Hussain, Ali's younger son and brother to Hasan, initially resisted calls to lead the Muslims against Muawiyah and reclaim the caliphate. In 680 CE, Muawiyah died and passed the caliphate to his son Yazid. Yazid asked Hussain to swear allegiance (bay'ah) to him. Ali's faction, having expected the caliphate to return to Ali's line upon Muawiyah's death, saw this as a betrayal of the peace treaty and so Hussain rejected this request for allegiance. There was a groundswell of support in Kufa for Hussain to return there and take his position as caliph and imam, so Hussain collected his family and followers in Medina and set off for Kufa. En route to Kufa, he was blocked by an army of Yazid's men near Karbala (modern Iraq), and Hussain and approximately 72 of his family and followers were killed in the Battle of Karbala.
The Shias regard Hussain as martyr (shahid), and count him as an Imam from the Ahl al-Bayt. They view Hussain as the defender of Islam from annihilation at the hands of Yazid I. Hussain is the last imam following Ali whom all Shiah sub-branches mutually recognise.22 The Battle of Karbala is often cited as the definitive break between the Shiah and Sunni sects of Islam, and is commemorated each year by Shiah Muslims on the Day of Ashura.
Most of the early Shia differed only marginally from mainstream Sunnis in their views on political leadership, but it is possible in this sect to see a refinement of Shia doctrine. Early Sunnis traditionally held that the political leader must come from the tribe of Muhammad—namely, the Quraysh tribe. The Zaydis narrowed the political claims of the Ali's supporters, claiming that not just any descendant of Ali would be eligible to lead the Muslim community (ummah) but only those males directly descended from Muhammad through the union of Ali and Fatimah. But during the Abbasid revolts, other Shia, who came to be known as Imamiyyah (followers of the imams), followed the theological school of Ja'far al-Sadiq, himself the great great grandson of the Prophet Muhammad's son in law Ali . They asserted a more exalted religious role for imams and insisted that, at any given time, whether in power or not, a single male descendant of Ali and Fatimah was the divinely appointed imam and the sole authority, in his time, on all matters of faith and law. To those Shia, love of the imams and of their persecuted cause became as important as belief in God's oneness and the mission of Muhammad.8
Later most of the Shia, including Twelver and Ismaili, became Imamis. Imami Shia believe that Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad.8 Imams are human individuals who not only rule over the community with justice, but also are able to keep and interpret the divine law and its esoteric meaning. The words and deeds of Muhammad and the imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, they must be free from error and sin, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad.2425
According to this view, there is always an Imam of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim community. Ali was the first imam of this line, the rightful successor to Muhammad, followed by male descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah.8
This difference between following either the Ahl al-Bayt (Muhammad's family and descendants) or Caliph Abu Bakr has shaped Shia and non-Shia views on some of the Quranic verses, the hadith (narrations from Muhammad) and other areas of Islam. For instance, the collection of hadith venerated by Shia Muslims is centered on narrations by members of the Ahl al-Bayt and their supporters, while some hadith by narrators not belonging to or supporting the Ahl al-Bayt are not included. Those of Abu Hurairah, for example, Ibn Asakir in his Ta'rikh Kabir and Muttaqi in his Kanzu'l-Umma report that Caliph Umar lashed him, rebuked him, and forbade him to narrate hadith from Muhammad. Umar said: "Because you narrate hadith in large numbers from the Holy Prophet, you are fit only for attributing lies to him. (That is, one expects a wicked man like you to utter only lies about the Holy Prophet.) So you must stop narrating hadith from the Prophet; otherwise, I will send you to the land of Dus." (A clan in Yemen, to which Abu Huraira belonged.) According to Sunnis, Ali was the fourth successor to Abu Bakr, while the Shia maintain that Ali was the first divinely sanctioned "Imam", or successor of Muhammad. The seminal event in Shia history is the martyrdom in 680 CE at the Battle of Karbala of Ali's son Hussein ibn Ali, who led a non-allegiance movement against the defiant caliph (71 of Hussein's followers were killed as well). Hussein came to symbolize resistance to tyranny.
It is believed in Twelver and Ismaili Shia Islam that 'aql, divine wisdom, was the source of the souls of the prophets and imams and gave them esoteric knowledge called ḥikmah and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees.82627 Although the imam was not the recipient of a divine revelation, he had a close relationship with God, through which God guides him, and the imam in turn guides the people. Imamate, or belief in the divine guide, is a fundamental belief in the Twelver and Ismaili Shia branches and is based on the concept that God would not leave humanity without access to divine guidance.28
The Mahdi is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will rule for seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations) before the Day of Judgment and will rid the world of evil. According to Islamic tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ (Isa), who is to assist the Mahdi against the Masih ad-Dajjal (literally, the "false Messiah" or Antichrist). Jesus, who is considered the Masih (Messiah) in Islam, will descend at the point of a white arcade, east of Damascus, dressed in yellow robes with his head anointed. He will then join the Mahdi in his war against the Dajjal, where Jesus will slay Dajjal and unite mankind.
The Shia Islamic faith is vast and inclusive of many different groups.11 Shia theological beliefs and religious practises, such as prayers, slightly differ from the Sunnis'. While all Muslims pray five times daily, Shias have the option of always combining Dhuhr with Asr and Maghrib with Isha', as there are three distinct times mentioned in the Quran. The Sunnis tend to combine only under certain circumstances.2930 Shia Islam embodies a completely independent system of religious interpretation and political authority in the Muslim world.3132 The original Shia identity referred to the followers of Imam Ali.33 and Shia theology was formulated in the 2nd century AH, or after Hijra (8th century CE).34 The first Shia governments and societies were established by the end of the 3rd century AH/9th century CE. The 4th century AH /10th century CE has been referred to by Louis Massignon as "the Shiite Ismaili century in the history of Islam".35
The Shia believe that the status of Ali is supported by numerous hadith, including the Hadith of the pond of Khumm, Hadith of the two weighty things, Hadith of the pen and paper, Hadith of the invitation of the close families, and Hadith of the Twelve Successors. In particular, the Hadith of the Cloak is often quoted to illustrate Muhammad's feeling towards Ali and his family by both Sunni and Shia scholars. Shias prefer hadith attributed to the Ahl al-Bayt and close associates, and have their own separate collection of hadiths.3637
The Shia version of the Shahada, the Islamic profession of faith, differs from that of the Sunni. The Sunni Shahada states There is no god except God, Muhammad is the messenger of the God, but to this the Shia append Ali is the Wali (friend or intimate associate) of God, علي ولي الله. This phrase embodies the Shia emphasis on the inheritance of authority through Muhammad's lineage. The three clauses of the Shia Shahada thus address tawhid (the unity of God), nubuwwah (the prophethood of Muhammad), and imamah (imamate, the leadership of the faith).
Ismah is the concept of infallibility or "divinely bestowed freedom from error and sin" in Islam.38 Muslims believe that Muhammad and other prophets in Islam possessed ismah. Twelver and Ismaili Shia Muslims also attribute the quality to Imams as well as to Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad, in contrast to the Zaidi, who do not attribute 'ismah to the Imams.39 Though initially beginning as a political movement, infallibility and sinlessness of the imams later evolved as a distinct belief of (non-Zaidi) Shi'ism.5
According to Shia theologians, infallibility is considered a rational necessary precondition for spiritual and religious guidance. They argue that since God has commanded absolute obedience from these figures they must only order that which is right. The state of infallibility is based on the Shia interpretation of the verse of purification.4041 Thus, they are the most pure ones, the only immaculate ones preserved from, and immune to, all uncleanness.42 It does not mean that supernatural powers prevent them from committing a sin, but due to the fact that they have absolute belief in God, they refrain from doing anything that is a sin.43
They also have a complete knowledge of God's will. They are in possession of all knowledge brought by the angels to the prophets (nabi) and the messengers (rasul). Their knowledge encompasses the totality of all times. They thus act without fault in religious matters.44 Shias regard Ali as the successor of Muhammad not only ruling over the community in justice, but also interpreting Islamic practices and its esoteric meaning. Hence he was regarded as being free from error and sin (infallible), and appointed by God by divine decree (nass) to be the first Imam.45 Ali is known as "perfect man" (al-insan al-kamil) similar to Muhammad, according to Shia viewpoint.46
The Occultation is a belief in some forms of Shia Islam that a messianic figure, a hidden imam known as the Mahdi, will one day return alongside Jesuscitation needed and fill the world with justice. According to the Twelver Shia, the main goal of the Mahdi will be to establish an Islamic state and to apply Islamic laws that were revealed to Muhammad.47
Some Shia, such as the Zaidi and Nizari Ismaili, do not believe in the idea of the Occultation. The groups which do believe in it differ as to which lineage of the Imamate is valid, and therefore which individual has gone into occultation. They believe there are many signs that will indicate the time of his return.
Twelver Shia Muslims believe that the Mahdi (the twelfth imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi) is already on Earth, is in occultation and will return at the end of time. Fatimid/ Bohra/ Dawoodi Bohra believe the same but for their 21st Tayyib. Whereas Sunnis believe the future Mahdi has not yet arrived on Earth.48
Historians dispute the origin of Shia Islam, with many Western scholars positing that Shiism began as a political faction rather than a truly religious movement.84950 However, other scholars disagree, considering this concept of religious-political separation to be an anachronistic application of a Western concept.51
Following the Battle of Karbala, as various Shi'a-affiliated groups diffused in the emerging Islamic world, several nations arose based around a Shi'a leadership or population.
- Idrisids (788 to 985 CE): a Zaydi dynasty in what is now Morocco
- Uqaylids (990 to 1096 CE): a Shi'a Arab dynasty with several lines that ruled in various parts of Al-Jazira, northern Syria and Iraq.
- Buyids (934–1055 CE): at its peak consisted of large portions of modern Iraq and Iran.
- Ilkhanate (1256–1335): a Mongol khanate established in Persia in the 13th century, considered a part of the Mongol Empire. The Ilkhanate was based, originally, on Genghis Khan's campaigns in the Khwarezmid Empire in 1219–1224, and founded by Genghis's grandson, Hulagu, in territories which today comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, and Pakistan. The Ilkhanate initially embraced many religions, but was particularly sympathetic to Buddhism and Christianity. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, embraced Islam his brother Öljaitü promoted Shia Islam.
- Bahmanis (1347–1527 CE): a Shia Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms.52 Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Islamic Kingdom in South India.53
- Fatimids (909–1171 CE): Controlled much of North Africa, the Levant, parts of Arabia and Mecca and Medina. The group takes its name from Fatima, Muhammad's daughter, from whom they claim descent.
A major turning point in Shia history was the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736) in Persia. This caused a number of changes in the Muslim world:
- The ending of the relative mutual tolerance between Sunnis and Shias that existed from the time of the Mongol conquests onwards and the resurgence of antagonism between the two groups.
- Initial dependence of Shiite clerics on the state followed by the emergence of an independent body of ulama capable of taking a political stand different from official policies.56
- The growth in importance of Iranian centers of religious learning and change from Twelver Shiaism being a predominantly Arab phenomenon.57
- The growth of the Akhbari School which preached that only the Quran, hadith are to be bases for verdicts, rejecting the use of reasoning.
- Shah Ismail I also proclaimed himself the Mahdi and a reincarnation of Ali.58
With the fall of the Safavids, the state in Persia –including the state system of courts with government-appointed judges (qadis)– became much weaker. This gave the Sharia courts of mujtahids an opportunity to fill in the slack and enabled the ulama to assert their judicial authority. The Usuli School also increased in strength at this time.59
One of the lingering problems in estimating the Shia population is that unless the Shia form a significant minority in a Muslim country, the entire population is often listed as Sunni. Shiites are estimated to be 21–35 percent of the Muslim population in South Asia, although the total number is difficult to estimate due to that reason.60 It is variously estimated that 10–20%61626364 of the world's Muslims are Shia. They may number up to 200 million as of 2009.63 The Shia majority countries are Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Azerbaijan and, according to some estimates, Yemen where they are the largest religious group.6566 They also constitute 36.3% of entire local population and 38.6% of the local Muslim population of the Middle East.2
Shia Muslims constitute 45% of the population in Lebanon, and as per some estimates 35%6567 over 45% of the population in Yemen,68 30%-40% of the citizen population in Kuwait (no figures exist for the non-citizen population),6970 over 20% in Turkey,6371 10–20% of the population in Pakistan,63 and 10-19% of Afghanistan's population.7273
Saudi Arabia hosts a number of distinct Shia communities, including the Twelver Baharna in the Eastern Province and Nakhawila of Medina, and the Ismaili Sulaymani and Zaidiyyah of Najran. Estimations put the number of Shiite citizens at 2-4 million, accounting for roughly 15% of the local population.74
Significant Shia communities exist in the coastal regions of West Sumatra and Aceh in Indonesia (see Tabuik).75 The Shia presence is negligible elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where Muslims are predominantly Shafi'i Sunnis.
A significant Shia minority is present in Nigeria, made up of modern-era converts to a Shia movement centered around Kano and Sokoto states.636476 Several African countries like Kenya,77 South Africa,78 Somalia,79 etc. hold small minority populations of various Shia denominations, primarily descendants of immigrants from South Asia during the colonial period, such as the Khoja.80
According to Shia Muslims, one of the lingering problems in estimating Shia population is that unless Shia form a significant minority in a Muslim country, the entire population is often listed as Sunni. The reverse, however, has not held true, which may contribute to imprecise estimates of the size of each sect. For example, the 1926 rise of the House of Saud in Arabia brought official discrimination against Shia.81
|Country||Shia population6364||Percent of Muslim population that is Shia6364||Percent of global Shia population6364||Minimum estimate/claim||Maximum estimate/claim|
|Iran||66,000,000 – 70,000,000||90–95||37–40|
|Iraq||19,000,000 – 22,000,000||65–70||11–12|
|Pakistan||17,000,000 – 26,000,000||10–15||10–15||43,250,00082 – 57,666,6668384|
|India||16,000,000 – 24,000,000||10–15||9–14||40,000,00085 – 50,000,000.86|
|Yemen||8,000,000 – 10,000,000||35–40||5|
|Turkey||7,000,000 – 11,000,000||10–15||4–6|
|Azerbaijan||5,000,000 – 7,000,000||65–75||3–4||85% of total population87|
|Afghanistan||3,000,000 – 4,000,000||10–15||<2||15–19% of total population72|
|Syria||3,000,000 – 4,000,000||15–20||<2|
|Saudi Arabia||3,000,000 – 4,000,000||15–22||<1|
|Lebanon||891,000,000 – 1,600,000||90919230-35||<1||Estimated, no official census.93|
|Kuwait||360,000 - 480,000||697030-40||<1||30%-40% of 1.2m Muslims (citizen only)6970|
|Germany||400,000 – 600,000||10–15||<1|
|Bahrain||375,000 – 400,000||66–70||<1||375,000 (66%94 of citizen population)||400,000 (70%95 of citizen population)|
|United Arab Emirates||300,000 – 400,000||10||<1|
|United States||200,000 – 400,000||10–15||<1|
|Oman||100,000 – 300,000||5–10||<1||948,75096|
|United Kingdom||100,000 – 300,000||10–15||<1|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||30,000||3||<1|
The history of Sunni-Shia relations has often involved violence, dating back to the earliest development of the two competing sects. At various times Shia groups have faced persecution.979899100101102
Militarily established and holding control over the Umayyad government, many Sunni rulers perceived the Shia as a threat – both to their political and religious authority.103 The Sunni rulers under the Umayyads sought to marginalize the Shia minority, and later the Abbasids turned on their Shia allies and imprisoned, persecuted, and killed them. The persecution of the Shia throughout history by Sunni co-religionists has often been characterized by brutal and genocidal acts. Comprising only about 10–15% of the entire Muslim population, the Shia remain a marginalized community to this day in many Sunni Arab dominant countries without the rights to practice their religion and organize.104
In 1514 the Ottoman sultan, Selim I, ordered the massacre of 40,000 Anatolian Shia.105 According to Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, "Sultan Selim I carried things so far that he announced that the killing of one Shiite had as much otherworldly reward as killing 70 Christians."106
Shia, celebrate the following annual holidays:
- Eid ul-Fitr, which marks the end of fasting during the month of Ramadan
- Eid al-Adha, which marks the end of the Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca
The following days are some of the most important holidays observed by Shia Muslims:
- Eid al-Ghadeer, which is the anniversary of the Ghadir Khum, the occasion when Muhammad announced Ali's Imamate before a multitude of Muslims.110 Eid al-Ghadeer is held on the 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah.
- The Mourning of Muharram and the Day of Ashura for Shia commemorates Husayn ibn Ali's martyrdom. Husayn was a grandson of Muhammad who was killed by Yazid ibn Muawiyah. Ashurah is a day of deep mourning which occurs on the 10th of Muharram.
- Arba'ein commemorates the suffering of the women and children of Husayn ibn Ali's household. After Husayn was killed, they were marched over the desert, from Karbala (central Iraq) to Shaam (Damascus, Syria). Many children (some of whom were direct descendants of Muhammad) died of thirst and exposure along the route. Arbaein occurs on the 20th of Safar, 40 days after Ashurah.
- Mawlid, Muhammad's birth date. Unlike Sunni Muslims, who celebrate 12th of Rabi' al-awwal as Muhammad's birthday or deathday (because they said that birth & death both is in this week), Shia Muslims celebrate the 17th of the month, which also coincides with the birth date of the sixth imam, Ja'far al-Saadiq.111 Note that, not all Sunni Muslims celebrate Muhammad's birthday, stating it as a bid'ah.
- Fatimah's birthday on 20th of Jumada al-Thani. It's also considered as the "Women and Mothers' day".
- Ali's birthday on 13th of Rajab. It's also considered as the "Men and Fathers' day".
- Mid-Sha'ban is the birth date of the 12th and final Twelver imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi. It is celebrated by Shia Muslims on the 15th of Sha'aban.
- Laylat al-Qadr, anniversary of the night of the revelation of the Quran.
- Eid al-Mubahila celebrates a meeting between the Ahl al-Bayt (household of Muhammad) and a Christian deputation from Najran. Al-Mubahila is held on the 24th of Dhu al-Hijjah.
Other venerated sites include Wadi-us-Salaam cemetery in Najaf, Al-Baqi' cemetery in Medina, Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad, Kadhimiya Mosque in Kadhimiya, Al-Askari Mosque in Samarra, Sahla Mosque and Great Mosque of Kufa in Kufa and several other sites in the cities of Qom, Susa and Damascus.
Most of the Shi'a holy places in Saudi Arabia have been destroyed by the warriors of the Ikhwan, the most notable being the tombs of the Imams in the Al-Baqi' cemetery in 1925.112 In 2006 a bomb destroyed the shrine of Al-Askari Mosque.113
The Shia belief throughout its history split over the issue of the Imamate. The largest branch are the Twelvers, followed by the Zaidi and Ismaili. All three groups follow a different line of Imamate.
Twelver Shia or the Ithnā'ashariyyah' is the largest branch of Shia Islam, and the term Shia Muslim often refers to the Twelvers by default. The term Twelver is derived from the doctrine of believing in twelve divinely ordained leaders, known as The Twelve Imams. Twelver Shia are also known as Imami or Ja'fari, originated from the name of the 6th Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq, who elaborated the twelver jurisprudence.114
|Importance||Birthplace (present day country)||Place of death and burial|
|1||Ali ibn Abu Talib
علي بن أبي طالب
(Commander of the Faithful)121
|The first Imam and successor of Muhammad in Shia Islam; however, the Sunnis acknowledge him as the fourth Caliph as well. He holds a high position in almost all Sufi Muslim orders (Turuq); the members of these orders trace their lineage to Muhammad through him.121||Mecca121||Assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Kharijite in Kufa, who slashed him with a poisoned sword while in the morning prayer.121124 Buried at the Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf.|
|2||Hasan ibn Ali
الحسن بن علي
|He was the eldest surviving grandson of Muhammad through Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah. Hasan succeeded his father as the caliph in Kufa, and on the basis of peace treaty with Muawiyah I, he relinquished control of Iraq following a reign of seven months.127||Medina125||According to Shia sources, He was poisoned by his wife in Medina on the orders of the Caliph Muawiyah.128 Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.|
|3||Husayn ibn Ali
الحسین بن علي
|He was a grandson of Muhammad. Husayn opposed the validity of Caliph Yazid I. As a result, he and his family were later martyred in the Battle of Karbala by Yazid's forces. After this incident, the commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali has become a central ritual in Shia identity.129131||Medina129||Martyred and then beheaded at the Battle of Karbala.129 Buried at the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala.|
|4||Ali ibn al-Hussein
علي بن الحسین
|al-Sajjad, Zain al-Abedin132
|658-9132 – 712133
|Author of prayers in Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, which is known as "The Psalm of the Household of the Prophet" and Risalah al-Huquq which is a charter of rights.133134||Medina132||According to most Shia scholars, he was poisoned on the order of Caliph al-Walid I in Medina.133 Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.|
|5||Muhammad ibn Ali
محمد بن علي
(splitting open knowledge)135
|Sunni and Shia sources both describe him as one of the early and most eminent legal scholars, teaching many students during his tenure.135136||Medina135||According to some Shia scholars, he was poisoned by Ibrahim ibn Walid ibn 'Abdallah in Medina on the order of Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.133 Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.|
|6||Ja'far ibn Muhammad
جعفر بن محمد
|Established the Ja'fari jurisprudence and developed the Theology of Shia. He instructed many scholars in different fields, including Abū Ḥanīfa and Malik ibn Anas in fiqh, Wasil ibn Ata and Hisham ibn Hakam in Islamic theology, and Geber in science and alchemy.137138||Medina137||According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Medina on the order of Caliph Al-Mansur.137 Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.|
|7||Musa ibn Ja'far
موسی بن جعفر
Abu al-Hassan I
أبو الحسن الاول139
|Leader of the Shia community during the schism of Ismaili and other branches after the death of the former Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq.141 He established the network of agents who collected khums in the Shia community of the Middle East and the Greater Khorasan.142||Medina140||Imprisoned and poisoned in Baghdad on the order of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. Buried in the Al-Kadhimiya mosque in Kadhimiya, Baghdad.140|
|8||Ali ibn Musa
علي بن موسی
Abu al-Hassan II
أبو الحسن الثانی139
|Made crown-prince by Caliph Al-Ma'mun, and famous for his discussions with both Muslim and non-Muslim religious scholars.143||Medina143||According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Mashhad, Iran on the order of Caliph Al-Ma'mun. Buried in the Imam Reza shrine in Mashad.143|
|9||Muhammad ibn Ali
محمد بن علي
|Famous for his generosity and piety in the face of persecution by the Abbasid caliphate.||Medina144||Poisoned by his wife, Al-Ma'mun's daughter, in Baghdad on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tasim. Buried in the Al-Kadhimiya Mosque in Kadhimiya, Baghdad.144|
|10||Ali ibn Muhammad
علي بن محمد
Abu al-Hassan III
أبو الحسن الثالث145
|Strengthened the network of deputies in the Shia community. He sent them instructions, and received in turn financial contributions of the faithful from the khums and religious vows.145||Surayya, a village near Medina145||According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Samarra on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tazz.146 Buried in the Al-Askari Mosque in Samarra.|
|11||Hassan ibn Ali
الحسن بن علي
|For most of his life, the Abbasid Caliph, Al-Mu'tamid, placed restrictions on him after the death of his father. Repression of the Shiite population was particularly high at the time due to their large size and growing power.148||Medina147||According to Shia, he was poisoned on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tamid in Samarra. Buried in Al-Askari Mosque in Samarra.148|
|12||Muhammad ibn al-Hassan
محمد بن الحسن
|al-Mahdi, al-Qa'im, Hidden Imam, al-Hujjah149
|According to Twelver doctrine, he is the current Imam and the promised Mahdi, a messianic figure who will return with Christ. He will reestablish the rightful governance of Islam and replete the earth with justice and peace.151||Samarra150||According to Shia doctrine, he has been living in The Occultation since 872, and will continue as long as God wills it.150|
- Monotheism, God is one and unique.
- Justice, the concept of moral rightness based on ethics, fairness, and equity, along with the punishment of the breach of said ethics.
- Prophethood, the institution by which God sends emissaries, or prophets, to guide mankind.
- Leadership, a divine institution which succeeded the institution of Prophethood. Its appointees (imams) are divinely appointed.
- Last Judgment, God's final assessment of humanity.
More specifically, these principles are known as Usul al-Madhhab (principles of the Shia sect) according to Twelver Shias which differ from Daruriyat al-Din (Necessities of Religion) which are principles in order for one to be a Muslim. The Necessities of Religion do not include Leadership (Imamah) as it is not a requirement in order for one to be recognized as a Muslim. However, this category, according to Twelver scholars like Ayatollah al-Khoei, does include belief in God, Prophethood, the Day of Resurrection and other "necessities" (like belief in angels). In this regard, Twelver Shias draw a distinction in terms of believing in the main principles of Islam on the one hand, and specifically Shia doctrines like Imamah on the other.
Besides the Qurʾan which is common to all Muslims, the Shiʿah derive guidance from books of traditions ("ḥadīth") attributed to Muḥammad and the twelve imams. Below is a list of some of the most prominent of these books:
The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad for the Twelvers.8 According to the theology of Twelvers, the successor of Muhammad is an infallible human individual who not only rules over the community with justice but also is able to keep and interpret the divine law and its esoteric meaning. The words and deeds of Muhammad and the imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, they must be free from error and sin, and Imams must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad.2425 Each imam was the son of the previous imam, with the exception of Hussein ibn Ali, who was the brother of Hasan ibn Ali.8 The twelfth and final imam is Muhammad al-Mahdi, who is believed by the Twelvers to be currently alive and in occultation.156
The Twelver jurisprudence is called Ja'fari jurisprudence. In this jurisprudence Sunnah is considered to be the oral traditions of Muhammad and their implementation and interpretation by the twelve Imams. There are three schools of Ja'fari jurisprudence: Usuli, Akhbari, and Shaykhi. The Usuli school is by far the largest of the three. Twelver groups that do not follow Ja'fari jurisprudence include Alevi, Bektashi, and Qizilbash.
In Ja'fari jurisprudence, there are ten ancillary pillars, known as Furu' ad-Din, which are as follows:157
- Alms giving
- One Fifth (One Fifth) (20% tax on yearly earnings after deduction of household and commercial expenses.)
- Directing others towards good
- Directing others away from evil
- Love those who are in God's path
- Disassociation with those who oppose God
According to Twelvers, defining and interpretation of Islamic jurisprudence is the responsibility of Muhammad and the twelve Imams. As the 12th imam is in occultation, it is the duty of clerics to refer to the Islamic literature such as the Quran and hadith and identify legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law to provide means to deal with current issues from an Islamic perspective. In other words, Twelver clerics provide Guardianship of the Islamic Jurisprudence, which was defined by Muhammad and his twelve successors. This process is known as Ijtihad and the clerics are known as Marja', meaning reference. The labels Allamah and Ayatollah are in use for Twelver clerics.
Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydi is the second largest branch of Shia Islam. It is a Shia school named after Zayd ibn Ali. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or occasionally Fivers). However, there is also a group called Zaidi Wasītīs who are Twelvers (see below). Zaidis constitute roughly 40–45% of the population of Yemen.158
The Zaydis, Twelvers and Ismailis recognize the same first four Imams; however, the Zaidis recognise Zayd ibn Ali as the fifth. After the time of Zayd ibn Ali, the Zaidis recognized that any descendant of Hasan ibn Ali or Hussein ibn Ali could be imam after fulfilling certain conditions.159 Other well-known Zaidi Imams in history were Yahya ibn Zayd, Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya and Ibrahim ibn Abdullah. In matters of Islamic jurisprudence, the Zaydis follow Zayd ibn Ali's teachings which are documented in his book Majmu'l Fiqh (in Arabic: مجموع الفِقه). Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, founder of the Zaydi state in Yemen, instituted elements of the jurisprudential tradition of the Sunni Muslim jurist Abū Ḥanīfa, and as a result, Zaydi jurisprudence today continues somewhat parallel to that of the Hanafis.citation needed
The Zaidi doctrine of Imamah does not presuppose the infallibility of the imam nor that the Imams receive divine guidance. Zaidis also do not believe that the Imamate must pass from father to son but believe it can be held by any Sayyid descended from either Hasan ibn Ali or Hussein ibn Ali (as was the case after the death of Hasan ibn Ali). Historically, Zaidis held that Zayd was the rightful successor of the 4th imam since he led a rebellion against the Umayyads in protest of their tyranny and corruption. Muhammad al-Baqir did not engage in political action, and the followers of Zayd believed that a true imam must fight against corrupt rulers.citation needed
A Zaydi state was established in Gilan, Deylaman and Tabaristan (northern Iran) in 864 C.E. by the Alavids;167 it lasted until the death of its leader at the hand of the Samanids in 928 C.E. Roughly forty years later the state was revived in Gilan and survived under Hasanid leaders until 1126 C.E. Afterwards, from the 12th to 13th centuries, the Zaydis of Deylaman, Gilan and Tabaristan then acknowledged the Zaydi Imams of Yemen or rival Zaydi Imams within Iran.168
The Buyids were initially Zaidi169 as well as the Banu Ukhaidhir rulers of al-Yamama in the 9th and 10th centuries.170 The leader of the Zaydi community took the title of Caliph. As such, the ruler of Yemen was known as the Caliph, al-Hadi Yahya bin al-Hussain bin al-Qasim ar-Rassi Rassids (a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali the son of Ali) who, at Sa'dah, in 893-7 CE, founded the Zaydi Imamate, and this system continued until the middle of the 20th century, when the revolution of 1962 CE deposed the Zaydi Imam. The founding Zaidism of Yemen was of the Jarudiyya group; however, with increasing interaction with Hanafi and Shafi'i rites of Sunni Islam, there was a shift from the Jarudiyya group to the Sulaimaniyya, Tabiriyya, Butriyya or Salihiyya groups.171 Zaidis form the second dominant religious group in Yemen. Currently, they constitute about 40–45% of the population in Yemen. Ja'faris and Isma'ilis are 2–5%.172 In Saudi Arabia, it is estimated that there are over 1 million Zaydis (primarily in the western provinces).citation needed
Currently the most prominent Zaydi movement is Houthis movement, known by the name of Shabab Al Mu'mineen (Believing Youth). They have been the subject of an ongoing campaign against them by the Yemeni Government in which the army has lost 743 men, and thousands of innocent civilians have been killed or displaced by government forces causing a grave humanitarian crisis in north Yemen.173
Ismailis gain their name from their acceptance of Isma'il ibn Jafar as the divinely appointed spiritual successor (Imam) to Ja'far al-Sadiq, wherein they differ from the Twelvers, who accept Musa al-Kadhim, younger brother of Isma'il, as the true Imam.
After the death or Occultation of Muhammad ibn Ismaill in the 8th century, the teachings of Ismailism further transformed into the belief system as it is known today, with an explicit concentration on the deeper, esoteric meaning (bāṭin) of the faith. With the eventual development of Twelverism into the more literalistic (zahir) oriented Akhbari and later Usuli schools of thought, Shiaism developed in two separate directions: the metaphorical Ismailli group focusing on the mystical path and nature of God and the divine manifestation in the personage of the "Imam of the Time" as the "Face of God", with the more literalistic Twelver group focusing on divine law (sharī'ah) and the deeds and sayings (sunnah) of Muhammad and his successors (the Ahlu l-Bayt), who as A'immah were guides and a light to God.174
Though there are several sub-groupings within the Ismailis, the term in today's vernacular generally refers to The Shia Imami Ismaili Muslim (Nizari community), generally known as the Ismailis, who are followers of the Aga Khan and the largest group among the Ismailiyyah. Another community which falls under the Isma'il's are the Dawoodi Bohras, lead by a Da'i al-Mutlaq as representative of a hidden imam. While there are many other branches with extremely differing exterior practices, much of the spiritual theology has remained the same since the days of the faith's early Imams. In recent centuries Ismailis have largely been an Indo-Iranian community,175 but they are found in India, Pakistan, Syria, Palestine, Saudi Arabia,176 Yemen, China,177 Jordan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, East Africa and South Africa, and have in recent years emigrated to Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America.178
After the death of Isma'il ibn Jafar, many Ismailis believed that one day the messianic Mahdi, whom they believed to be Muhammad ibn Ismail, would return and establish an age of justice. One group included the violent Qarmatians, who had a stronghold in Bahrain. In contrast, some Ismailis believed the Imamate did continue, and that the Imams were in occultation and still communicated and taught their followers through a network of dawah "Missionaries".
In 909, Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, a claimant to the Ismaili Imamate, established the Fatimid Caliphate. During this period, three lineages of imams formed. The first branch, known today as the Druze, began with Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Born in 386 AH (985), he ascended as ruler at the age of eleven. The typical religiously tolerant Fatimid Empire saw much persecution under his reign. When in 411 AH (1021) his mule returned without him, soaked in blood, a religious group that was forming in his lifetime broke off from mainstream Ismailism and did not acknowledge his successor. Later to be known as the Druze, they believe al-Hakim to be the incarnation of God and the prophesied Mahdi who would one day return and bring justice to the world.179 The faith further split from Ismailism as it developed very unusual doctrines which often class it separately from both Ismailiyyah and Islam.
The second split occurred following the death of Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah in 487 AH (1094). His rule was the longest of any caliph in any Islamic empire. Upon his passing away, his sons, Nizar the older, and Al-Musta'li, the younger, fought for political and spiritual control of the dynasty. Nizar was defeated and jailed, but according to Nizari tradition, his son escaped to Alamut, where the Iranian Ismaili had accepted his claim.180 From here on, the Nizari Ismaili community has continued with a present, living Imam.
The Mustaali line split again between the Taiyabi (Dawoodi Bohra is its main branch) and the Hafizi. The former claim that At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim (son of Al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah) and the imams following him went into a period of anonymity (Dawr-e-Satr) and appointed a Da'i al-Mutlaq to guide the community, in a similar manner as the Ismaili had lived after the death of Muhammad ibn Ismail. The latter (Hafizi) claimed that the ruling Fatimid Caliph was the Imam, and they died out with the fall of the Fatimid Empire.
Ismailis have categorized their practices which are known as seven pillars:
The Shahada (profession of faith) of the Shia differs from that of Sunnis due to mention of Ali181
The Nizaris place importance on a scholarly institution because of the existence of a present Imam. The Imam of the Age defines the jurisprudence, and his guidance may differ with Imams previous to him because of different times and circumstances. For Nizari Ismailis, the imam is Karim al-Husayni Aga Khan IV. The Nizari line of Imams has continued to this day as an unending line.
Divine leadership has continued in the Bohra branch through the institution of the "Unrestricted Missionary" Dai. According to Bohra tradition, before the last Imam, At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim, went into seclusion, his father, the 20th Al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah, had instructed Al-Hurra Al-Malika the Malika (Queen consort) in Yemen to appoint a vicegerent after the seclusion – the Unrestricted Missionary, who as the Imam's vicegerent has full authority to govern the community in all matters both spiritual and temporal while the lineage of Mustaali-Tayyibi Imams remains in seclusion (Dawr-e-Sitr). The three branches of the Mustaali, the Alavi Bohra, Sulaimani Bohra and Dawoodi Bohra, differ on who the current Unrestricted Missionary is.
- "Shia" is sometimes alternatively spelled as Shi'a or Shiite
- written at U.S.A. Atlas of the Middle East (Second ed.). Washington D.C.: National Geographic (published 15 April). 2008. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-1-4262-0221-6.
- Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam." Oxford University Press, 2002 | ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p. 40
- "From the article on Shii Islam in Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Francis Robinson, Atlas of the Islamic World Since 1500, pg. 46. New York: Facts on File, 1984. ISBN 0871966298
- Tabataba'i (1979), p. 76
- God's rule: the politics of world religions - Page 146, Jacob Neusner - 2003
- "Shīʿite". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam" Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p.40
- Duncan S. Ferguson, (2010), Exploring the Spirituality of the World Religions, p.192
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Jacob E. Safra, Chairman of the Board, 15th Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1998, ISBN 0-85229-663-0, Vol 10, p. 738
- Michael Makovsky (1 August 2007). Churchill's Promised Land: Zionism and Statecraft. Yale University Press. p. 110.
- Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Wendy Doniger, Consulting Editor, Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, Springfield, MA 1999, ISBN 0-87779-044-2, LoC: BL31.M47 1999, p. 525
- "Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam" Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p. 46
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Jacob E. Safra, Chairman of the Board, 15th Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1998, ISBN 0-85229-663-0, Vol 22, p. 17.
- "Event of Ghadir Khumm". Al-islam.org. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Bernards, Monique; Nawas, John (2005). Patronate And Patronage in Early And Classical Islam. BRILL. pp. 25. ISBN 978-90-04-14480-4.
- The Last Sermon of Muhammad by Shia Accounts
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Jacob E. Safra, Chairman of the Board, 15th Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1998, ISBN 0-85229-663-0, Vol 10, p. tid738
- ""Solhe Emam Hassan"-Imam Hassan Sets Peace".
- تهذیب التهذیب. p. 271.
- Discovering Islam: making sense of Muslim history and society (2002) Akbar S. Ahmed
- Religious trends in pre-Islamic Arabic poetry, By Ghulam Mustafa (Hafiz.), Pg 11, Author writes: Similarly, swords were also placed on the Idols, as it is related that Harith b. Abi Shamir, the Ghassanid king, had presented his two swords, called Mikhdham and Rasub, to the image of the goddess, Manat....to note that the famous sword of Ali, the fourth caliph, called Dhu-al-Fiqar, was one of these two swords
- Nasr (1979), p.10
- Momen (1985), p. 174
- Corbin 1993, pp. 45-51
- Nasr (1979), p. 15
- name="Imamat">Gleave, Robert. "Imamate". Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-865604-0.
- "Learn to do Shia Prayer - Islamic Prayer - Shia Salat". Revertmuslims.com. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- "Joining Prayers and Other related Issues". Al-islam.org. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- "Druze and Islam". American Druze.com. Retrieved 2010-08-12.
- "Ijtihad in Islam". AlQazwini.org. Retrieved 2010-08-12.
- "Shi'ite Islam," by Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i, translated by Sayyid Husayn Nasr, State University of New York Press, 1975, p. 24
- Dakake (2008), pp. 1 and 2
- In his "Mutanabbi devant le siècle ismaëlien de l'Islam", in Mém. de l'Inst Français de Damas, 1935, p.
- "The Complete Idiot's Guide to World Religions," Brandon Toropov, Father Luke Buckles, Alpha; 3rd edition, 2004, ISBN 978-1-59257-222-9, p. 135
- "Shi'ite Islam" by Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i (1979), pp. 41–44
- Dabashi, Theology of Discontent, p.463
- Francis Robinson, Atlas of the Muslim World, pg. 47.
- Quran 33:33
- Momen (1985), p. 155
- Corbin (1993), pp. 48 and 49
- Dabashi (2006), p. 463
- Corbin (1993), p. 48
- Motahhari, Perfect man, Chapter 1
- How do Sunnis and Shi'as differ theologically? Last updated 2009-08-19, BBC religions
- Nasr, Sayyed Hossein. "Expectation of the Millennium : Shiìsm in History,", State University of New York Press, 1989, p. 19, ISBN 978-0-88706-843-0
- "Comparison of Shias and Sunnis". Religionfacts.com. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- See: Lapidus p. 47, Holt p. 72
- Francis Robinson, Atlas of the Islamic Worl, pg. 23.
- Jafri, S.H. Mohammad. "The Origin and Early Development of Shi'a Islam,", Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 6, ISBN 978-0-19-579387-1
- "The Five Kingdoms of the Bahmani Sultanate". orbat.com. Retrieved 2007-01-05.
- Ansari, N.H. "Bahmanid Dynasty" Encyclopaedia Iranica
- Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire
- History of the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey
- Francis Robinson, Atlas of the Muslim World, pg. 49.
- Momen, Moojan, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Yale University Press, 1985, p.123
- Time in Early Modern Islam: Calendar, Ceremony, and Chronology Page 23 By Stephen P. Blake 
- Momen, Moojan, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Yale University Press, 1985, p.191, 130
- Momen, Moojan, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Yale University Press, 1985, p.277
- "Religions". CIA. The World Factbook. 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- "Shīʿite". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- Miller, Tracy, ed. (October 2009). Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population (PDF). Pew Research Center. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- "Foreign Affairs - When the Shiites Rise - Vali Nasr". Mafhoum.com. Retrieved 2014-01-27.
- "Quick guide: Sunnis and Shias". BBC News. 2006-12-11.
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2010". U.S. Government Department of State. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
- "How many Shia?". Islamicweb.com. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- "International Religious Freedom Report for 2012". US State Department. 2012.
- "The New Middle East, Turkey, and the Search for Regional Stability". Strategic Studies Institute. April 2008. p. 87.
- Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7007-1606-8.
- "Shia women too can initiate divorce". Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. August 2008. Retrieved 2010-08-27. "Religion: Virtually the entire population is Muslim. Between 80 and 85 percent of Muslims are Sunni and 15 to 19 percent, Shia."
- "Afghanistan". Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The World Factbook on Afghanistan. Retrieved 2010-08-27. "Religions: Sunni Muslim 80%, Shia Muslim 19%, other 1%"
- al-Qudaihi, Anees (2009-03-24). "Saudi Arabia's Shia press for rights". BBC Arabic Service. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
- Leonard Leo. International Religious Freedom (2010): Annual Report to Congress. DIANE Publishing. pp. 261–. ISBN 978-1-4379-4439-6. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- Nigeria: 'No Settlement With Iran Yet', Paul Ohia, allAfrica - This Day, 16 November 2010
- Helene Charton-Bigot, Deyssi Rodriguez-Torres. Nairobi Today. the Paradox of a Fragmented City. African Books Collective, 2010. ISBN 9987-08-093-6, ISBN 978-9987-08-093-9. Pg 239
- Heinrich Matthée (2008). Muslim Identities and Political Strategies: A Case Study of Muslims in the Greater Cape Town Area of South Africa, 1994-2000. kassel university press GmbH. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-3-89958-406-6. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi. Culture and customs of Somalia. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001. ISBN 0-313-31333-4, ISBN 978-0-313-31333-2. Pg 55
- Yasurō Hase; Hiroyuki Miyake; Fumiko Oshikawa (2002). South Asian migration in comparative perspective, movement, settlement and diaspora. Japan Center for Area Studies, National Museum of Ethnology. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Discrimination towards Shia in Saudi Arabia". Wsws.org. 2001-10-08. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- "Violence Against Pakistani Shias Continues Unnoticed | International News". Islamic Insights. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Taliban kills Shia school children in Pakistan
- "Shia women too can initiate divorce". The Times of India. 6 November 2006. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
- "Talaq rights proposed for Shia women". Daily News and Analysis, www.dnaindia.com. 5 November 2006. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
- Administrative Department of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan - Presidential Library - Religion
- "‘No Settlement with Iran Yet’". This Day. 16 November 2010.
- Hazran, Yusri. The Shiite Community in Lebanon: From Marginalization to Ascendancy, Brandeis University
- Hassan, Farzana. Prophecy and the Fundamentalist Quest, page 158
- Corstange, Daniel M. Institutions and Ethnic politics in Lebanon and Yemen, page 53
- Dagher, Carole H. Bring Down the Walls: Lebanon's Post-War Challenge, page 70
- Growth of the world's urban and rural population:n1920-2000, Page 81. United Nations. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs
- "UK FCO". UK FCO. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- "Why Bahrain blew up". New York Post. 2011-02-17. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- Top 15 Countries with Highest Proportion of Shiites in the Population, 7 July 1999
- (Ya'qubi; vol. III, pp. 91–96, and Tarikh Abul Fida', vol. I, p. 212.)
- The Psychologies in Religion, E. Thomas Dowd and Stevan Lars Nielsen, chapter 14. Books.google.com. 2006-02-22. ISBN 978-0-8261-2856-0. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- "Basra handover completed". Inthenews.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Maddox, Bronwen (2006-12-30). "Hanging will bring only more bloodshed". The Times (London). Retrieved 2010-05-23.
- "Al-Ahram Weekly | Region | Shi'ism or schism". Weekly.ahram.org.eg. 2004-03-17. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- The Shia, Ted Thornton, NMH, Northfield Mount Hermondead link
- "The Origins of the Sunni/Shia split in Islam". Islamfortoday.com. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Nasr, Vali (2006). The Shia Revival: How Conflicts Within Islam Will Shape the Future. W.W. Norton & Company Inc. ISBN 978-0-393-06211-3 p. 52-53
- George C. Kohn (2007.) Dictionary of Wars. Infobase Publishing. p.385. ISBN 0-8160-6577-2
- Al-e Ahmad, Jalal. Plagued by the West (Gharbzadegi), translated by Paul Sprachman. Delmor, NY: Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University, 1982.
- "Saudi Arabia – The Saud Family and Wahhabi Islam". Library of Congress Country Studies.
- "Malaysian government to Shia Muslims: Keep your beliefs to yourself". globalpost.com. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "MALAYSIA". state.gov. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Paula Sanders (1994), Ritual, politics, and the city in Fatimid Cairo, p.121
- Bernard Trawicky, Ruth Wilhelme Gregory, (2002), Anniversaries and holidays, p.233
- Laurence Louėr (2008), Transnational Shia politics: religious and political networks in the Gulf, p.22
- Karen Dabrowska, Geoff Hann, (2008), Iraq Then and Now: A Guide to the Country and Its People, p.239
- Vincent J. Cornell (2007), Voices of Islam: Voices of tradition, p.237
- "Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam" Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p. 45.
- Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam" Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p. 45
- Religion in Bahrain
- Challenges For Saudi Arabia Amidst Protests In The Gulf – Analysis
- The Imam's Arabic titles are used by the majority of Twelver Shia who use Arabic as a liturgical language, including the Usuli, Akhbari, Shaykhi, and to a lesser extent 'Alawi. Turkish titles are generally used by Alevi, a fringe Twelver group, who make up around 10% of the world Shia population. The titles for each Imam literally translate as "First Ali", "Second Ali", and so forth.Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale Group. 2004. ISBN 978-0-02-865769-1.
- The abbreviation CE refers to the Common Era solar calendar, while AH refers to the Islamic Hijri (Islamic calendar) lunar calendar.
- Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-10-12.
- Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale Group. 2004. ISBN 978-0-02-865769-1.
- Tabatabae (1979), pp. 190–192.
- Tabatabae (1979), p. 192.
- "Hasan". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Tabatabae (1979), pp. 194–195.
- Madelung, Wilferd. "Hasan ibn Ali". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-03-23.dead link
- Tabatabae (1979), p. 195.
- "al-Husayn". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Tabatabae (1979), pp. 196–199.
- Calmard, Jean. "Husayn ibn Ali". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-03-23.dead link
- Madelung, Wilferd. "'Alè B. al-Huosayn". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08.dead link
- Tabatabae (1979), p. 202.
- Imam Zain ul Abideen. Treatise On Rights (Risalat al-Huquq). Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- Madelung, Wilferd. "al-Baqer, Abu Jafar Mohammad". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08.dead link
- Tabatabae (1979), p. 203.
- Tabatabae (1979), pp. 203–204.
- "Wasil ibn Ata". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Madelung, Wilferd. "ʿAlī al-Reżā". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-09.dead link
- Tabatabae (1979), p. 205.
- Tabatabae (1979) p. 78.
- Sachedina (1988), pp. 53–54.
- Tabatabae (1979), pp. 205–207.
- Tabatabae (1979), p. 207.
- Madelung, Wilferd. "'Alè al-Hādī". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08.dead link
- Tabatabae (1979), pp. 208–209.
- Halm, H. "'Askarè". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08.dead link
- Tabatabae (1979) pp. 209–210.
- "Muhammad al-Mahdi al-Hujjah". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Tabatabae (1979), pp. 210–211.
- Tabatabae (1979), pp. 211–214.
- Shiite doctrine Encyclopedia Iranica Retrieved 2011-07-08
- Joanne Richter, (2006), Iran the Culture, p.7]
- Mulla Bashir Rahim, An Introduction to Islam, by Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project
- Islamic Texts Institute (2012). Al-Kafi Book I: Intellect and Foolishness. Taqwa Media. ISBN 9781939420008.
- Gleave, Robert. "Imamate". Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-865604-0.
- Iran the Culture Joanne Richter (2007), p.7
- http://www.yemenincanada.ca/map.phpdead link, http://www.library.uu.nl/wesp/populstat/Asia/yemeng.htmdead link
- Sunni-Shi’i Schism: Less There Than Meets the Eye 1991 Page 24
- Hodgson, Marshall (1961). Venture of Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 262
- Ibn Abī Zarʻ al-Fāsī, ʻAlī ibn ʻAbd Allāh (1340). Rawḍ al-Qirṭās: Anīs al-Muṭrib bi-Rawd al-Qirṭās fī Akhbār Mulūk al-Maghrib wa-Tārīkh Madīnat Fās. ar-Rabāṭ: Dār al-Manṣūr (published 1972). p. 38
- Introduction to Islamic theology and law, By Ignác Goldziher, Bernard Lewis, pg.218
- Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Part 24, By James Hastings, pg.844
- The Idrisids
- Shi'ah tenets concerning the question of the imamate
- Article by Sayyid 'Ali ibn 'Ali Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites (2005) Referencing: Iranian Influence on Moslem Literature
- Article by Sayyid 'Ali ibn 'Ali Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites (2005) Referencing: Encyclopedia Iranica
- Walker, Paul Ernest (1999). Hamid Al-Din Al-Kirmani: Ismaili Thought in the Age of Al-Hakim. Ismaili Heritage Series 3. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris in association with the Institute of Ismaili Studies. p. 13. ISBN 1-86064-321-3
- Madelung, W. "al-Uk̲h̲ayḍir." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. 7 December 2007 (registration required)
- Article by Sayyid 'Imam Ali ibn ' Ali Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shi'ites (2005)
- "Universiteit Utrecht Universiteitsbibliotheek". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Shia Population of the Middle East
- "Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i". Retrieved 2007-04-25.
- Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p. 76
- "Congressional Human Rights Caucus Testimony – NAJRAN, The Untold Story". Retrieved 2007-01-08.
- "News Summary: China; Latvia". Retrieved 2007-06-01.
- Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN 0-7486-0687-4.
- "al-Hakim bi Amr Allah: Fatimid Caliph of Egypt". Retrieved 2007-04-24.
- Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 106–108. ISBN 0-7486-0687-4.
- "Encyclopedia of the Middle East". Mideastweb.org. 2008-11-14. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
- Encyclopædia Iranica. Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University. ISBN 1-56859-050-4.
- Martin, Richard C. Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-865604-0.
- Corbin, Henry (1993 (original French 1964)). History of Islamic Philosophy, Translated by Liadain Sherrard, Philip Sherrard. London; Kegan Paul International in association with Islamic Publications for The Institute of Ismaili Studies. ISBN 0-7103-0416-1.
- Dakake, Maria Massi (2008). The Charismatic Community: Shi'ite Identity in Early Islam. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-7033-4.
- Holt, P. M.; Bernard Lewis (1977a). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29136-4.
- Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3.
- Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelve. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03531-4.
- Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein (1988). The Just Ruler (al-sultān Al-ʻādil) in Shīʻite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-511915-0.
- Tabatabaei, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn; Seyyed Hossein Nasr (translator) (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3.
- Peter J. Chelkowski (ed.), Eternal Performance: Taziyah and Other Shiite Rituals (Salt lake City (UT), Seagull Books, 2010) (Seagull Books - Enactments).
- Corbin, Henry (1993). History of Islamic Philosophy, translated by Liadain Sherrard and Philip Sherrard. Kegan Paul International in association with Islamic Publications for The Institute of Ismaili Studies. ISBN 0-7103-0416-1.
- Dabashi, Hamid (2011). Shi'ism: A Religion of Protest. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674-06428-7.
- Halm, Heinz (2004). Shi'ism. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1888-0.
- Halm, Heinz (2007). The Shi'ites: A Short History. Markus Wiener Pub. ISBN 1-55876-437-2.
- Lalani, Arzina R. (2000). Early Shi'i Thought: The Teachings of Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-434-1.
- Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03499-7.
- Shirazi, Sultanu'l-Wa'izin. Peshawar Nights, A Transcript of a Dialogue between Shia and Sunni scholars. Ansariyan Publications. ISBN 978-964-438-320-5.
- Nasr, Seyyed Hossein; Hamid Dabashi (1989). Expectation of the Millennium: Shiʻism in History. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-88706-843-X.
- Rogerson, Barnaby (2007). The Heirs of Muhammad: Islam's First Century and the Origins of the Sunni Shia split. Overlook Press. ISBN 1-58567-896-1.
- Wollaston, Arthur N. (2005). The Sunnis and Shias. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4254-7916-2.
- Moosa, Matti (1988). Extremist Shiites: The Ghulat Sects. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0-8156-2411-5.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Shiites.|
- YaHusain.com, Shia Website with informative lectures in English & Urdu
- Islamic - Shia Website
- Al-Islam.org, A Digital Islamic Library
- The Shiapedia, an online Shia encyclopedia
- Murajaat - A Shi'i/Sunni debate
- Patheos Library – Shi'a Islam
- Imam Al-Khoei Foundation (Twelver)
- Official Website of Nizari Ismaili (Ismaili)
- Official Website of Alavi Bohra (Ismaili)
- Dawoodi Bohra (Ismaili)
- The Institute of Ismaili Studies (Ismaili)
- Shia at DMOZ
- al-shia.org Ahlulbayt Global Informations Center