Russian ruble

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Russian ruble

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Russian ruble
Российский рубль (Russian)1
Banknote 5000 rubles (1997) front.jpg Rouble coins.png
5,000 rubles (1997) Coins
ISO 4217 code RUB
Central bank Bank of Russia
 Website www.cbr.ru
Official user(s)  Russia
Abkhazia Abkhazia
South Ossetia South Ossetia
Unofficial user(s)  Belarus2345
Inflation 6.5%, 2013
 Source [1]
 Method CPI
Subunit
 1/100 kopeyka (копейка6)
Symbol ₽ (RUB)
 kopeyka (копейка6) коп. / к.
Plural The language(s) of this currency belong(s) to the Slavic languages. There is more than one way to construct plural forms.
Coins
 Freq. used 10, 50 kopeks, 1, 2, 5, 10, 25 rubles
 Rarely used 1, 5 kopeks
Banknotes
 Freq. used 50, 100, 500, 1000 rubles
 Rarely used 5, 10, 5000 rubles
Printer Goznak
 Website www.goznak.ru
Mint Moscow Mint and Saint Petersburg Mint

The ruble or rouble (Russian: рубль rublʹ, plural рубли rubli; see note on English spelling) (code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation and the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Formerly, the ruble was also the currency of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union before their dissolution. Belarus and Transnistria use currencies with the same name. The ruble is subdivided into 100 kopeks (sometimes transliterated kopecks, or copecks; Russian: копейка, kopéyka; plural: копейки, kopéyki). The ISO 4217 code is RUB or 643; the former code, RUR or 810, refers to the Russian ruble before the 1998 redenomination (1 RUB = 1000 RUR).

On December 11, 2013, the official symbol for the ruble became RUB, a Cyrillic letter er with a single added horizontal stroke,78 though the abbreviation руб. is in wide use. In Unicode version 7.0 it was assigned the encoding U+20BD ruble sign (HTML: ₽).910

Worldwide official use of foreign currency or pegs. The Ruble is used in Russia and the breakaway provinces of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and the Crimean Peninsula.
  Russian ruble users, including the Russian Federation
  US dollar users, including the United States
  Currencies pegged to the US dollar
  Euro users, including the Eurozone
  Currencies pegged to the euro

  Australian dollar users, including Australia
  New Zealand dollar users, including New Zealand
  South African rand users (CMA, including South Africa)
  Indian rupee users and pegs, including India
  Pound sterling users and pegs, including the United Kingdom

  Special drawing rights or other currency basket pegs
  Three cases of a country using or pegging the currency of a neighbor

Etymology

Main article: Rouble

According to the most popular version, the word "rouble" is derived from the Russian verb руби́ть (rubit'), meaning "to chop".

Names of different denominations

In the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, several coins had individual names:

  • ¼ kopek – polushka
  • ½ kopek – denga or dénezhka
  • 2 kopek – semishnik (mostly disappeared by 20th century), dvúshka (20th century) or grosh
  • 3 kopek – altyn (not in use anymore by the 1960s)
  • 5 kopek – pyaták
  • 10 kopek – grívennik
  • 15 kopek – pyatialtýnny (5 altyn; the usage lived longer than altyn)
  • 20 kopek – dvugrívenny (2 grivenniks)
  • 25 kopek – polupoltínnik (half poltínnik) or chetverták (from the Russian for ¼)
  • 50 kopek – poltína or poltínnik

The amount of 10 roubles (in either bill or coin) is sometimes informally referred to as a chervonets. Historically, it was the name for the first Russian three-rouble gold coin issued for general circulation in 1701. The current meaning comes from the Soviet golden chervonets (сове́тский золото́й черво́нец), issued in 1923. It was equivalent to the pre-revolution 10 gold roubles. All these names are no longer in use, however. The practice of using the old kopek coin names for amounts in roubles is not very common today. In modern Russian slang only these names are used:

  • 1 rouble – tselkóvy (целко́вый), meaning "entire" or "whole" (це́лый)
  • 5 roubles – pyatyórka (пятёрка), pyaták (пята́к), pyatachyók (пятачо́к)
  • 10 roubles – chírik (чи́рик), chervónets (черво́нец) or desyátka (деся́тка)
  • 50 roubles – poltínnik (полти́нник) with some variants like poltishók (полтишо́к), pyótr (Пётр) from picture of monument to the Peter I shown on a bill
  • 100 roubles – stólnik (сто́льник), sótka (сотка)
  • 500 roubles – pyatikhátka (пятиха́тка), originally pyatikátka (пятика́тка)
  • 1,000 roubles – kosár (коса́рь), shtúka (шту́ка) or a hybrid shtukár (штукарь), tónna (то́нна) (mostly in St. Petersburg)
  • 1,000,000 roubles – limón (лимо́н), lyam (лям)
  • 1,000,000,000 roubles lyard (лярд).

The sixth term derived from "пять кать" (five Catherines). Katya (Катя, Catherina), having been a slang name for the 100 rouble note in tsarist Russia, was used as the note had a picture of Catherine II on it.

The biggest denomination note, as of September 2009, is 5000 roubles, so all the higher amount nicknames refer to amount and not the coin or banknote.

Some of these definitions (chirik, poltos, pyatikatka, and kosar) come from Russian jail slang (Fenya), and are considered vulgar in daily speech.citation needed

Currency symbol

The "ruble" symbol used throughout the 17th century, composed of the Russian letters "Р" and "У".

A currency symbol was used for the ruble between the 16th century and the 18th century. The symbol consisted of the Russian letters "Р" (rotated by 90° counter-clockwise) and "У" (written on top of it). The symbol was placed over the amount number it belonged to.11 This symbol, however, fell into disuse during the 19th century and onward.

The eventual winning Rouble sign design.

No official symbol was used during the final years of the Empire, nor was one introduced in the Soviet Union. The characters R1213 and руб. were used and remain in use today, though they are not official.14

In July 2007, the Central Bank of Russia announced that it would decide on a symbol for the ruble and would test 13 symbols. This included the symbol РР (the initials of Российский Рубль "Russian ruble"), which has received preliminary approval from the Central Bank.15 However, one more symbol, a Р with a horizontal stroke below the top similar to the Philippine peso sign, was proposed unofficially.15 Proponents of the new sign claim that it is simple, recognizable and similar to other currency signs.161718 This symbol is also similar to the Armenian letter ք.

On 11 December 2013, the Central Bank of Russia approved the winner of the competition for the new ruble sign. The winning symbol, RUB, is now the official ruble sign.19

On 4 February 2014, the Unicode Technical Committee during its 138th meeting in San Jose accepted U+20BD ruble sign symbol for the Unicode version 7.0,20 the symbol was then included into Unicode 7.0 released on 16 June 2014.21 In August 2014, Microsoft issued updates for all of its mainstream versions of Microsoft Windows that enabled support for the new ruble sign,22 however the updates were later found to feature bugs that result in system crashes.23

History

Five hundred rubles featuring Peter the Great and a personification of Mother Russia, 1912

First ruble, antiquity–31 December 1921

1898 Russian Empire one ruble bill, obverse

The ruble has been the Russian unit of currency for about 500 years. From 1710, the ruble was divided into 100 kopeks.

The amount of precious metal in a ruble varied over time. In a 1704 currency reform, Peter I standardized the ruble to 28 grams of silver. While ruble coins were silver, there were higher denominations minted of gold and platinum. By the end of the 18th century, the ruble was set to 4 zolotnik 21 dolya (almost exactly equal to 18 grams) of pure silver or 27 dolya (almost exactly equal to 1.2 grams) of pure gold, with a ratio of 15:1 for the values of the two metals. In 1828, platinum coins were introduced with 1 ruble equal to 77⅔ dolya (3.451 grams).

On 17 December 1885, a new standard was adopted which did not change the silver ruble but reduced the gold content to 1.161 grams, pegging the gold ruble to the French franc at a rate of 1 ruble = 4 francs. This rate was revised in 1897 to 1 ruble = 2⅔ francs (0.774 grams gold).

With the outbreak of the First World War, the gold standard peg was dropped and the ruble fell in value, suffering from hyperinflation in the early 1920s. With the founding of the Soviet Union in 1922, the Russian ruble was replaced by the Soviet ruble.

Soviet ruble in Russia, 1991–31 December 1997

Further information: Soviet ruble

Following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, the ruble remained the currency of the Russian Federation. A new set of banknotes was issued in the name of Bank of Russia in 1993. During the period of hyperinflation of the early 1990s, the ruble was significantly devalued.

New ruble, 1 January 1998–

The ruble was redenominated on 1 January 1998, with one new ruble equaling 1000 old rubles. The redenomination was a purely psychological step that did not solve the fundamental economic problems faced by the Russian economy at the time, and the currency was devalued in August 1998 following the 1998 Russian financial crisis. The ruble lost 70% of its value against the U.S. dollar in the six months following this financial crisis.

In November 2004, the authorities of Dimitrovgrad (Ulyanovsk Oblast) erected a five-meter monument to the ruble.

On 23 November 2010, at a meeting of the Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin and the Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao, it was announced that Russia and China have decided to use their own national currencies for bilateral trade, instead of the U.S. dollar. The move is aimed to further improve relations between Beijing and Moscow and to protect their domestic economies during the Great Recession. The trading of the Chinese yuan against the ruble has started in the Chinese interbank market, while the yuan's trading against the ruble was set to start on the Russian foreign exchange market in December 2010.2425

Coins

First ruble

At the beginning of the 19th century, copper coins were issued for ¼, ½, 1, 2 and 5 kopeks, with silver 5, 10, 25 and 50 kopeks and 1 ruble and gold 5 although production of the 10 ruble coin ceased in 1806. Silver 20 kopeks were introduced in 1820, followed by copper 10 kopeks minted between 1830 and 1839, and copper 3 kopeks introduced in 1840. Between 1828 and 1845, platinum 3, 6 and 12 rubles were issued. In 1860, silver 15 kopecs were introduced, due to the use of this denomination (equal to 1 złoty) in Poland, whilst, in 1869, gold 3 rubles were introduced.26 In 1886, a new gold coinage was introduced consisting of 5 and 10 ruble coins. This was followed by another in 1897. In addition to smaller 5 and 10 ruble coins, 7½ and 15 ruble coins were issued for a single year, as these were equal in size to the previous 5 and 10 ruble coins. The gold coinage was suspended in 1911, with the other denominations produced until the First World War.

Constantine ruble

The Constantine ruble (Russian: константиновский рубль, pronounced "konstantinovsky rubl'") is a rare silver coin of the Russian Empire bearing the profile of Constantine, the brother of emperors Alexander I and Nicholas I. Its manufacture was being prepared at the Saint Petersburg Mint during the brief Interregnum of 1825, but it was never minted in numbers, and never circulated in public. The fact of its existence became known in 1857 in foreign publications.27

Last Soviet ruble

After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation introduced new coins in 1992 in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 rubles. The coins depict the double headed eagle above the legend "Банк России." The 1 and 5 rubles were minted in brass-clad steel, the 10 and 20 rubles in cupro-nickel and the 50 and 100 rubles were bimetallic (aluminium-bronze and cupro-nickel-zinc). In 1993, aluminium-bronze 50 rubles and cupro-nickel-zinc 100 rubles were issued, and the material of 10 and 20 rubles was changed to nickel-plated steel. In 1995 the material of 50 rubles was changed to brass-plated steel, but the coins were minted with the old date 1993. As high inflation persisted, the lowest denominations disappeared from circulation and the other denominations became rarely used.

During this period the commemorative one-ruble coin is regularly issued. It's practically identical in size and weight to a 5 Swiss franc coin (worth approx. €3 / US$4). For this reason, there have been several instances of (now worthless) ruble coins being used on a large scale to defraud automated vending machines in Switzerland.28

(New) ruble (1998)

In 1998, the ruble was once again revalued and the following coins were introduced:

Currently Circulating Coins29
Value Technical parameters Description Date of first minting
Diameter Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
1 kopek 15.5 mm 1.5 g30 Cupronickel-steel Plain Saint George Value 1997
5 kopeks 18.5 mm 2.6 g31
10 kopeks 17.5 mm 1,95 g32 Brass 1997–2006
Brass plated steel 2006–
Milled for brass and plain for plated Saint George Value 1997
50 kopeks 19.5 mm 2.9 g33
1 ruble 20.5 mm 3.25 g Cupronickel 1997–2009
Nickel plated steel 2009–
Milled 2-headed eagle emblem of the Bank of Russia Value 1997
2 rubles 23 mm 5.1~5.2 g Broken reeding
5 rubles 25 mm 6.45 g Cupronickelclad-copper 1997–2009
Nickel plated steel 2009–
1997
10 rubles 22 mm 5.63 g Brass plated steel Broken reeding 2-headed eagle emblem of the Bank of Russia Value 2009
1 ruble 1998
Value Emblem of the Bank of Russia

1 and 5 kopeck coins are rarely used (especially the 1 kopek coin) due to their low value and in some cases may not be accepted by stores or individuals. In some cases, the 10 kopeck coin is disregarded (refused by individuals but is accepted by vendors and is mandatory for offer in exchange).citation needed

All these coins began being issued in 1998, despite the fact that some of them bear the year 1997. Kopeck denominations all depict St. George and the Dragon, and all ruble denominations (with the exception of bimetallic commemorative pieces) depict the double headed eagle. Mint marks are denoted by "Л" or "M" on kopecks and the logos of either the Leningrad or Moscow mints on rubles. Since 2000, many bimetallic 10 ruble circulating commemorative coins have been issued. These coins have a unique holographic security feature inside the "0" of the denomination 10.

In 2008, it was proposed by the Bank of Russia to withdraw 1 and 5 kopeck coins from circulation and to round all the prices to 10 kopecks, although the proposal hasn't been realized yet (though characteristic "x.99" prices are treated as rounded in exchange).

The material of 1, 2 and 5 ruble coins was switched from copper-nickel-zinc and copper nickel clad to nickel plated steel in the second quarter of 2009. 10 and 50 kopeks were also changed from aluminum-bronze to brass steel clad.

In October 2009, a new 10 ruble coin made of brass plated steel was issued, featuring optical security features.34 The 10 ruble banknote would have been withdrawn in 2012, but a shortage of 10-ruble coins prompted the Central Bank to delay this and put new ones in circulation.35 Bimetallic commemorative 10 ruble coins will continue to be issued.

A series of circulating Olympic commemorative 25 ruble coins will start in 2011. The new coins will be made of cupronickel.citation needed A number of commemorative smaller denominations of these coins exist in circulation as well, depicting national historic events and anniversaries.

The Bank of Russia issues other commemorative non-circulating coins ranging from 1–50,000 rubles. See36 for listing.

Banknotes

For banknotes issued between 1918 and 1992 see: Soviet ruble

Imperial issues

25 Assignation rubles of 1769
1898 Russian Empire one ruble bill, reverse

In 1768, during the reign of Catherine the Great, the Assignation Bank was instituted to issue the government paper money. It opened in St. Petersburg and in Moscow in 1769.

In 1769, Assignation rubles were introduced for 25, 50, 75 and 100 rubles, with 5 and 10 rubles added in 1787 and 200 ruble in 1819. The value of the Assignation rubles fell relative to the coins until, in 1839, the relationship was fixed at 1 coin ruble = 3½ assignat rubles. In 1840, the State Commercial Bank issued 3, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 rubles notes, followed by 50 ruble credit notes of the Custody Treasury and State Loan Bank.

In 1843, the Assignation Bank ceased operations, and state credit notes (Russian: государственные кредитные билеты) were introduced in denominations of 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 rubles. These circulated, in various types, until the revolution, with 500 rubles notes added in 1898 and 250 and 1000 rubles notes added in 1917. In 1915, two kinds of small change notes were issued. One, issued by the Treasury, consisted of regular style (if small) notes for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 50 kopeks. The other consisted of the designs of stamps printed onto card with text and the imperial eagle printed on the reverse. These were in denominations of 1, 2, 3, 10, 15 and 20 kopeks.

Provisional Government issues

In 1917, the Provisional Government issued treasury notes for 20 and 40 rubles. These notes are known as "Kerenski" or "Kerensky rubles". The provisional government also had 25 and 100 rubles state credit notes printed in the U.S.A. but most were not issued.

Last Soviet ruble

In 1961, new State Treasury notes were introduced for 1, 3 and 5 rubles, along with new State Bank notes for 10, 25, 50 and 100 rubles. In 1991, the State Bank took over production of 1, 3 and 5 ruble notes and also introduced 200, 500 and 1,000 ruble notes, although the 25 ruble note was no longer issued. In 1992, a final issue of notes was made bearing the name of the U.S.S.R. before the Russian Federation introduced notes for 5,000 and 10,000 rubles. These were followed by 50,000 ruble notes in 1993, 100,000 rubles in 1995 and finally 500,000 rubles in 1997 (dated 1995). Since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russian ruble banknotes and coins have been notable for their lack of portraits, which traditionally were included under both the Tsarist and Communist regimes. With the issue of the 500 ruble note depicting a statue of Peter I and then the 1000 ruble note depicting a statue of Yaroslav, the lack of recognizable faces on the currency has been partially alleviated.

Banknote Series of the Sixth Ruble
Series Value Obverse Reverse Issuer Languages
1961 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 rubles Vladimir Lenin or views of the Moscow Kremlin Value, and views of the Moscow Kremlin for 50 rubles or higher USSR 15
1991 1, 3, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 rubles Russian3
1992 50, 200, 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000 rubles USSR for 1000 rubles and lower
Bank of Russia for 5000 and 10,000 rubles
Russian
1993 100, 200, 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, 50,000 rubles Moscow Kremlin with the tri-color Russian flag Bank of Russia
1995 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, 500,000 rubles Same design as today's banknotes, where 1 new ruble = 1000 old rubles. See below.4, 5

The 1000 ruble note did not continue as a 1 new ruble note.

Seventh ruble

On 1 January 1998 a new series of notes dated 1997 was released. Modifications to the series were made in 2001, 2004, 2010 and 2014.

1997 Series37
Image Value Dimensions Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark printing* issue witdrawal lapse
Banknote 5 rubles (1997) front.jpg Banknote 5 rubles (1997) back.jpg 5 rubles 137 × 61 mm The Millennium of Russia monument on background of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Veliky Novgorod Fortress wall of the Novgorod Kremlin "5", Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod 1997 1 January 1998 Current, but no longer issued and rarely seen in ciruculation.
Banknote 10 rubles 2004 front.jpg Banknote 10 rubles 2004 back.jpg 10 rubles 150 × 65 mm Kommunalny Bridge across the Yenisei River in Krasnoyarsk and Paraskeva Pyatnitsa Chapel Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric plant "10", Paraskeva Pyatnitsa Chapel 1997
2001
2004
Current, but no longer issued since January 2010. Still in use, but less common than the 10 ruble coin.
Banknote 50 rubles 2004 front.jpg Banknote 50 rubles 2004 back.jpg 50 rubles A Rostral Column sculpture on background of Petropavlosk Fortress in Saint Petersburg Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns "50", Peter and Paul Cathedral Current
Russia100rubles04front.jpg Russia100rubles04back.jpg 100 rubles Quadriga on the portico of the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow The Bolshoi Theatre "100", The Bolshoi Theatre 1997
2001
2004
2014
Banknote 500 rubles 2010 front.jpg Banknote 500 rubles 2010 back.jpg 500 rubles Monument to Peter the Great, Sedov sailing ship and sea terminal in Arkhangelsk Solovetsky Monastery "500", Monument to Peter the Great 1997
2001
2004
2010
Banknote 1000 rubles 2010 front.jpg Banknote 1000 rubles 2010 back.jpg 1,000 rubles 157 × 69 mm Monument to Yaroslav I the Wise and the Lady of Kazan Chapel in Yaroslavl John the Baptist Church in Yaroslavl "1000", Monument to Yaroslav I the Wise 1997
2004
2010
1 January 2001
Banknote 5000 rubles 2010 front.jpg Banknote 5000 rubles 2010 back.jpg 5,000 rubles Monument to Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky in Khabarovsk Khabarovsk Bridge over the Amur "5000", Head of the monument to Muravyov-Amursky 1997
2010
31 July 2006
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter.
  • Each new banknote series has enhanced security features, but no major design changes. Banknotes printed after 1997 bear the fine print "модификация 2001г." (or later date) meaning "modification of year 2001" on the left watermark area.

Commemorative banknotes

In 2013 a special banknote in honor of the Olympic Games in Sochi was issued.

A 100 ruble banknote issued in 2013, printed in commemoration of the 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi38

Printing

All Russian ruble banknotes are currently printed at the state-owned factory Goznak in Moscow, which was organized on 6 June 1919 and has continued to operate ever since. Coins are minted in Moscow and at the Saint Petersburg Mint, which has been operating since 1724.

Controversy

On 8 July State Duma deputy and Vice-Chairman of the Duma Regional Political Committee Roman Khudyakov declared that the image of Apollo driving Quadriga on the portico of the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on the 100 rouble banknote constitutes as pornography that should only be available to persons over the age of 18. Since it is impractical to limit the access of minors to banknotes, he requested in his letter to the Governor of the Bank of Russia Elvira Nabiullina to urgently change the design of the banknote.39

Roman Khudyakov, a member of parliament for the LDPR party stated, "You can clearly see that Apollo is naked, you can see his genitalia. I submitted a parliamentary request and forwarded it directly to the head of the central bank asking for the banknote to be brought into line with the law protecting children and to remove this Apollo."4041

Exchange rates

In January 2014, President Putin said there should be a sound balance on the ruble exchange rate, that regarding the national currency exchange rate, the Central Bank only regulated it when it went beyond the upper and lower limits of the floating exchange rate and that the freer the Russian national currency is, the better it is, adding that this would make the economy react more effectively and timely to processes taking place in it.42

Russian rubles per USD 1998–2014
Year Lowest ↓ Highest ↑ Average
Date Rate Date Rate Rate
1998 1 January 5.9600 29 December 20.9900 9.7945
1999 1 January 20.6500 29 December 27.0000 24.6489
2000 6 January 26.9000 23 February 28.8700 28.1287
2001 4 January 28.1600 18 December 30.3000 29.1753
2002 1 January 30.1372 7 December 31.8600 31.3608
2003 20 December 29.2450 9 January 31.8846 30.6719
2004 30 December 27.7487 1 January 29.4545 28.8080
2005 18 March 27.4611 6 December 28.9978 27.1910
2006 6 December 26.1840 12 January 28.4834 27.1355
2007 24 November 24.2649 13 January 26.5770 25.5808
2008 16 July 23.1255 31 December 29.3804 24.8529
2009 13 November 28.6701 19 February 36.4267 31.7403
2010 16 April 28.9310 8 June 31.7798 30.3679
2011 6 May 27.2625 5 October 32.6799 29.3823
2012 28 March 28.9468 5 June 34.0395 31.0661
2013 5 February 29.9251 5 September 33.4656 31.9063
2014 10 January 32.99200 2 March 36.90275 NA
Source: USD exchange rates in RUB, Bank of Russia43

XE Currency US Dollar to Russian Ruble44

Current RUB exchange rates
From Google Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR
From Yahoo! Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR
From XE.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR
From OANDA.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR
From fxtop.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR

See also

References

  1. ^ Abkhaz: амааҭ; Bashkir: һум; Chuvash: тенкĕ; Komi: шайт; Lak: къуруш; Mari: теҥге; Ossetian: сом; Tatar: сум; Udmurt: манет; Sakha: солкуобай
  2. ^ "Belarus may switch to Russian ruble". The Voice of Russia. 15 June 2012. 
  3. ^ "Belarus may switch to Russian ruble". The American Resolution. 16 June 2012. 
  4. ^ "Is the Russian Ruble Coming to Belarus?". Belarus Digest. 15 June 2012. 
  5. ^ "Russian rouble to play a role in Belarus". The Voice of Russia. 6 May 2011. 
  6. ^ Tatar: тиен; Bashkir: тин; Chuvash: пус; Ossetian: капекк; Udmurt: коны; Mari: ыр; Sakha: харчы
  7. ^ "Экономика: Деньги: Банк России утвердил символ рубля". Lenta.ru. 2013-11-25. Retrieved 2013-12-11. 
  8. ^ 2013-12-11, Russian ruble gets graphic symbol, RT.com
  9. ^ The UTC just accepted the Russian ruble currency symbol
  10. ^ Proposal to add the currency sign for the RUSSIAN RUBLE to the UCS, 2014-02-11, retrieved 16 June 2014 
  11. ^ "Забытый знак российского рубля" (in Russian). РИА Новости. Retrieved 6 May 2006. 
  12. ^ "Currencies of the World". The University of British Columbia Sauder School of Business. Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  13. ^ "Russia". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  14. ^ Valeria Korchagina (15 June 2006). "'R' for Ruble Is Symbol of Pride". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  15. ^ a b Peter Finn (28 June 2006). "Russians Bet Ruble Will Rise To Status of Dollar, Euro, Yen". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  16. ^ "О знаке рубля". 1 August 2007. Retrieved 11 April 2008. 
  17. ^ "Знак рубля. Попытка анализа". Imadesign.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  18. ^ "Оюпюрюио Мнбнярх – Хмтнплюжхъ Н Мнбшу Цюпмхрспюу Х Н Пюгкхвмшу Ьпхтрнбшу Янашрхъу". Fonts.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  19. ^ "Банк России утвердил символ рубля (English: "The Bank of Russia adopted the symbol of the ruble")". lenta.ru. 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  20. ^ The Unicode Consortium (February 10, 2014). "UTC 138 Draft Minutes". 
  21. ^ The Unicode Consortium (June 16, 2014). "Announcing The Unicode Standard, Version 7.0". 
  22. ^ "Update to support the new currency symbol for the Russian ruble in Windows". Microsoft. August 2014. 
  23. ^ "Users find fix for botched KB 2982791 and KB 2970228 Windows update". InfoWorld. August 2014. 
  24. ^ China, Russia quit dollar China Daily
  25. ^ Chinese minister says China-Russia economic, trade co-op at new starting point Xinhua News
  26. ^ http://www.pjsymes.com.au/articles/three.htm
  27. ^ By 1880 Russian numismatists were well aware of the existence of Constantine rubles, but their first printed description was published only in 1886 – Kalinin, p.1.
  28. ^ (German) "Mit alten Rubelmünzen Automaten am Zürcher HB geplündert". Swissinfo. 15 November 2006. 
  29. ^ "Coins, Bank of Russia". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  30. ^ "Монеты, Банк России". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  31. ^ "Монеты , Банк России". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  32. ^ "Монеты, Банк России". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  33. ^ "Монеты, Банк России". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  34. ^ "News article about new 10-ruble coins being issued". Altapress.Ru. 22 September 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2012. 
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  44. ^ http://www.xe.com/

External links