Gabriel "Flash" Elorde
|Also known as||Panununtukan, Pangamot, Filipino Boxing, Mano-mano, Panantukan|
|Country of origin||Philippines|
|Famous practitioners||Gabriel "Flash" Elorde, Francisco "Pancho Villa" Guilledo, Ceferino Garcia, Estaneslao "Tanny" del Campo, Buenaventura "Kid Bentura" Lucaylucay, Dan Inosanto,|
Suntukan is the fist-related striking component of Filipino martial arts. In the central Philippine island region of Visayas, it is known as Pangamot or Pakamot. It is also known as Mano-mano and often referred to in Western martial arts circles of Inosanto lineage as Panantukan. Although it is also called Filipino Boxing, this article pertains to the Filipino martial art and should not be confused with the Western sport of Boxing as practiced in the Philippines.
The Visayan terms pangamot and pakamot ("use of hands") come from the Cebuano word for hand, kamot. Due to Cebuano language pronunciation quirks, they are also pronounced natively as pangamut and pakamut, thus the variation of spelling across literature.
Mano-mano comes from the Spanish word for "hand", mano, and can translate to "two hands" or "hand-to-hand". The phrase "Mano-mano na lang, o?" ("Why don't we settle this with fists?") is often used to end arguments when tempers have flared in Philippine male society.
Panantukan (often erroneously referred to as panantuken by USA practitioners due to the way Americans pronounce the letters U and A) is a corruption of panuntukan, which is a contraction of the Tagalog term panununtukan, according to Dan Inosanto.1 It is generally attributed to the empty hands and boxing system infused by FMA pioneers Juan "Johnny" Lacoste, Leodoro "Lucky" Lucaylucay and Floro Villabrille2 into the Filipino martial arts component of the Inosanto Academy and Jeet Kune Do fighting systems developed in the West Coast of the United States. Inosanto picked up the terms from his Visayan elder instructors (Lacoste was Waray), and while their Tagalog was not perfect (the Filipino language based on Tagalog was relatively new when they migrated to the United States), they were highly versed in Filipino martial arts. It is said that originally, Lucaylucay wanted to call his art Suntukan, but he was concerned that it would be confused with Shotokan Karate, so he used the term Panantukan instead.3456 The terms panantukan and its sibling component pananjakman (for the kicking aspect - possibly a corruption of panadiyakan or pananadiyakan) are virtually unknown in the Philippines and are used more in Western Kali/Eskrima systems of Filipino-American origin.
Suntukan is not a sport, but rather a street-oriented fighting system. The techniques have not been adapted for safety or conformance to a set of rules for competition, thus it has a reputation as "dirty street fighting". It consists of upper-body striking techniques such as punches, elbows, headbutts, shoulder strikes and limb destruction. It is often used in combination with Sikaran, the kicking aspect of Filipino fighting which includes low-line kicks, tripping and knee strikes to the legs, shins, and groin. Common targets include the biceps, triceps, eyes, nose, jaws, temples, groin, ribs, spine, and the back of the neck.
While many Filipino boxing champions such as Estaneslao "Tanny" del Campo78 and Buenaventura "Kid Bentura" Lucaylucay29 (Lucky Lucaylucay's father) practiced olympic and sport boxing, they also used pangamot dirty street boxing which is distinct from Western Boxing.1011 A particular trait of Filipino boxing (as opposed to Western Boxing) is that instead of standing and trading blows with an opponent, suntukan practitioners typically circle constantly to avoid getting hit and look for openings, just like with knife fighting. According to Lucky Lucaylucay: "...if your practice is based on knife fighting, you have to become much more sophisticated with your footwork, evasions and delivery because one wrong move could mean death... ...Filipino boxing is exactly like knife fighting, except instead of cutting with a blade, we strike with a closed fist."1213
Even though suntukan is designed to allow an unarmed practitioner to engage in both armed and unarmed confrontations, it easily integrates the use of weapons such as knives, palmsticks (dulo y dulo) and ice picks.1415 These weapons can render suntukan's techniques fatal but do not fundamentally change how the techniques are executed. Weapons in suntukan tend to be small, easily concealed and unobtrusive. Thus, suntukan minimizes contact with the opponent because it is not always known whether an opponent is armed, and knives are very often used in fights and brawls in the Philippines.16171819202122 As such, parries and deflections are preferred over blocks and prolonged grappling.
Suntukan is also a key component of Arnis. It is theorized to have evolved from Filipino weapons fighting because in warfare, unarmed fighting is usually a method of last resort for when combatants are too close in proximity (such as trapping and grappling range) or have lost their weapons. Aside from this, some unarmed techniques and movements in certain Eskrima systems are directly derived from their own weapon-based forms. In some classical Eskrima systems, the terms Mano mano, De Cadena (Spanish for "of chain") and Cadena de Mano (Spanish for "hand chain") are the names for their empty hand components. Aside from punching, the suntukan components in Eskrima includes kicking, locking, throwing and dumog (grappling).
It is interesting to note that a number of Filipino boxing champions are also known to have practiced eskrima.23 World champion Ceferino Garcia (regarded as having introduced the bolo punch to the Western world of boxing) wielded a bolo knife in his youth and developed his signature punch from his experience in cutting sugarcane in farm fields with the bladed implement.2324 Legendary world champion Gabriel "Flash" Elorde studied Balintawak Eskrima (under founder Venancio "Anciong" Bacon)25 and got his innovative, intricate footwork26 from his father, "Tatang" Elorde who was the Eskrima champion of Cebu.132527 Elorde's footwork from eskrima has been adopted by many boxers, including his friend Muhammad Ali.1328
Suntukan emphasizes speed in striking, with the intent of overwhelming the adversary with a flurry of attacks. Indefinite combinations of different strikes are strung together continuously to make successful defense a relative impossibility. Many strikes in suntukan are said to be performed on "half-beats", or in between the major strikes of a combination, so as to disorient and overwhelm an opponent, increasing the opportunity for more devastating attacks. An example of this could be performing a swift slap or eye strike after throwing a jab with the same hand in a standard jab-cross-hook combination; the eye strike both disrupts the defense against and masks the incoming cross. Sometimes, low-line kicks are often executed between boxing combinations to further injure and disorient the opponent.
The angles outlined in eskrima are incorporated to evade and parry incoming strikes and to attack the opponent from an outside angle where they are less able to defend themselves. Constantly switching the fighting lead allows for the exploitation of attack while maintaining flow. The fighter will often use a finishing strike or kick in a combination to step into the new lead. Footwork is of utmost importance for these techniques, so in some systems, much time is invested into practicing stick-fighting drills and combinations.
Some moves which immobilise the limbs are called gunting (scissors) techniques because of the scissor-like motions used to stop an opponent's limb from one side while attacking from the other side. Suntukan focuses on countering an opponent's strike with a technique that will nullify further attack by hitting certain nerve points, bones, and muscle tissue to cause immediate partial paralysis of the attacking limb. Common limb destructions include guiding incoming straight punches into the defending fighter's elbow (siko) to shatter the knuckles,29 or striking the incoming limb in the biceps to inhibit the opponent's ability to use that arm for the remainder of the fight. Gunting focuses on destroying the opponent's ability to wield their weapon. This term derives from the word "scissors" in Filipino, Malaysian and Indonesian. In Filipino martial arts, gunting can be done by cutting the hand or wrist with a pair of blades (hence the name), but it can also be done with a single blade or with the empty hand by striking nerves and tensed muscles.
Suntukan also borrows moves from dumog (upright wrestling). Dumog is based on the concept of “control points” or “choke points” on the human body, which are manipulated – for example: by grabbing, pushing, pulling - in order to disrupt the opponent’s balance and to keep him off balance. This also creates opportunities for close quarter striking using head butts, knees, forearms and elbows. This is accomplished by the use of arm wrenching, shoving, shoulder ramming, and other off-balancing techniques in conjunction with punches and kicks. For example, the attacker's arm could be grabbed and pulled downward to expose their head to a knee strike.
- Interview with Dan Inosanto by Daniel Sullivan
- Ted Luycaylucay Final Interview, Steve Charlson, Inside Kung Fu magazine
- Panantukan Book Review
- Martial Talk: Filipino Boxing Ernie Lake, Inosanto/Lacoste Kali instructor
- Filipino Indonesian Combatives History Ben Fajardo, Nubreed Fighting Systems
- Mousel's MMA Academy Forum
- Estaneslao “Tanny” del Campo - A Legend In His Own Time, Krishna Godhania
- Remembering Filipino Great "Flash" Elorde Ronnie Nathanielsz, BoxingScene.com, Jan 2 2008
- FMA Pulse - Characteristics of Filipino Boxing Perry Gil Mallari, October 20, 2010
- Western Boxing vs Filipino Boxing, two similar but distinct arts?, Krishna Godhania
- Video: Filipino Street Boxing with Peter "Tisoy" Siscon, Jr. Footage of old school Filipino boxer "Mang Tisoy" Siscon demonstrating techniques. Note the use of elbows, shoulders, butting, getting inside the clinch and knees to control the opponent. Vitalpoints, Mar 28, 2011
- ESPN Sports - A look at the history of boxing in the Philippines Don Stradley, June 25, 2008
- Inside Karate Magazine - Did Filipino Martial Arts Revolutionize Boxing?, Lilia Inosanto-Howe
- Abante - Agawan o Holdap?
- Abante - Ngitngit kinambalan ng ice pick
- Pilipino Star Ngayon - Ex-boxer na hindi kaya sa suntukan, pinatay sa saksak
- Pilipino Star - Grinipuhan, tinarakan sa leeg...
- Pang-Masa - Tinalo sa suntukan, rumesbak ng saksak
- Remate - Ungos sa suntukan, nadale sa saksakan
- Abante - Panalo sa Suntukan, Grinipuhan!
- Remate - Kuya grinipuhan ng bunsong kapatid, tigbak
- Rappler - 'Male pride' led to fatal stabbing of American in Makati Carlos Santamaria, Nov 26, 2012
- Corky Pasquil (1994). "Documentary: The Great Pinoy Boxing Era".
- The Manila Times: We should focus on boxing
- Dog Brothers Forum:Filipino Martial Arts and Boxing, see comments by Sayoc Kali instructor Rafael Kayanan (user Sun Helmet )- Kayanan's uncle was the good friend of Elorde and user "antoy" about Elorde's Balintawak lineage - his batchmates were Baltazar "Iti" Gumapon, former Mandaue City Mayor Pedong Ouano and TUCP (Trade Union Congress of the Philippines) honcho Democrito Mendoza
- YouTube: Carlos Ortiz vs. Flash Elorde II fight footage, November 28, 1966
- FMA Talk:Sayoc and Pekiti as they are now, Rafael Kayanan (see comments by user Sun Helmet)
- PhilBoxing - REMEMBERING ‘FLASH’ ELORDE, Ronnie Nathanielsz, Sun, 25 Mar 2012
- Video: Filipino Combat Knife Fighting Mandala Baldwin "Nonoy" Garrucho of Sundangan Baneg, demonstrating Visayan empty hands limb destruction Jun 11, 2007
- A Guide to Panantukan, the Filipino Boxing Art, Rick Faye, Cambridge Academy Publishing, 2000
- The Great Pinoy Boxing Era, 1994 documentary on early 1900s Filipino boxing by Corky Pasquil
- Filipino Martial Arts: From Kali and Escrima to Boxing talk at the Smithsonian Museum with Dan Inosanto, Rosie Abriam, Linda España-Maram, Gem Daus