Temporal range: Pleistocene–present Pleistocene to Recent
|male (left) and female ostriches|
S. c. australus Gurney, 18682
The Ostrich or Common Ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either one or two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family. Some analyses indicate that the Somali Ostrich may be better considered a full species separate from the Common Ostrich, but most taxonomists consider it to be a subspecies.
The ostrich shares the order Struthioniformes with the kiwis, emus, rheas, and cassowaries. It is distinctive in its appearance, with a long neck and legs, and can run at up to about 70 km/h (43 mph),3 the fastest land speed of any bird.4 The ostrich is the largest living species of bird and lays the largest eggs of any living bird (extinct elephant birds of Madagascar and the giant moa of New Zealand laid larger eggs).
The ostrich's diet consists mainly of plant matter, though it also eats invertebrates. It lives in nomadic groups of 5 to 50 birds. When threatened, the ostrich will either hide itself by lying flat against the ground, or run away. If cornered, it can attack with a kick of its powerful legs. Mating patterns differ by geographical region, but territorial males fight for a harem of two to seven females.
The ostrich is farmed around the world, particularly for its feathers, which are decorative and are also used as feather dusters. Its skin is used for leather products and its meat is marketed commercially.3
Ostriches usually weigh from 63 to 145 kilograms (140–320 lb),35 Ostriches of the East African race (S. c. massaicus) averaged 115 kg (250 lb) in males and 100 kg (220 lb) in females, while the nominate subspeciesclarification needed was found to average 111 kg (240 lb) in unsexed adults.3 Exceptional male ostriches (in the nominate subspecies) can weigh up to 156.8 kg (346 lb).3 At sexual maturity (two to four years), male ostriches can be from 2.1 to 2.8 m (6 ft 11 in to 9 ft 2 in) in height, while female ostriches range from 1.7 to 2 m (5 ft 7 in to 6 ft 7 in) tall.3 New chicks are fawn in colour, with dark brown spots.6 During the first year of life, chicks grow at about 25 cm (9.8 in) per month. At one year of age, ostriches weigh around 45 kilograms (99 lb). Their lifespan is up to 40 or 45 years.
The feathers of adult males are mostly black, with white primaries and a white tail. However, the tail of one subspecies is buff. Females and young males are greyish-brown and white. The head and neck of both male and female ostriches is nearly bare, with a thin layer of down.56 The skin of the female's neck and thighs is pinkish gray,6 while the male's is blue-gray, gray or pink dependent on subspecies.
The long neck and legs keep their head up to 2.8 m (9 ft) above the ground, and their eyes are said to be the largest of any land vertebrate: 50 mm (2.0 in) in diameter;7 they can therefore perceive predators at a great distance. The eyes are shaded from sunlight from above.89 However, the head and bill are relatively small for the birds' huge size, with the bill measuring 12 to 14.3 cm (4.7 to 5.6 in).3
Their skin varies in colour depending on the subspecies, with some having light or dark gray skin and others having pinkish or even reddish skin.3 The strong legs of the ostrich are unfeathered and show bare skin, with the tarsus (the lowest upright part of the leg) being covered in scales: red in the male, black in the female.3 The tarsus of the ostrich is the largest of any living bird, measuring 39 to 53 cm (15 to 21 in) in length.3 The bird has just two toes on each foot (most birds have four), with the nail on the larger, inner toe resembling a hoof. The outer toe has no nail.10 The reduced number of toes is an adaptation that appears to aid in running, useful for getting away from predators. Ostriches can run at a speed over 70 km/h (43 mph) and can cover 3 to 5 m (9.8 to 16 ft) in a single stride.11 The wings reach a span of about 2 metres (6 ft 7 in), and the wing chord measurement of 90 cm (35 in) is around the same size as for the largest flying birds.312 The wings are used in mating displays and to shade chicks. The feathers lack the tiny hooks that lock together the smooth external feathers of flying birds, and so are soft and fluffy and serve as insulation. Ostriches can tolerate a wide range of temperatures. In much of their habitat, temperatures vary as much as 40 °C (100 °F) between night and day. Their temperature control mechanism relies on action by the bird, which uses its wings to cover the naked skin of the upper legs and flanks to conserve heat, or leaves these areas bare to release heat. They have 50–60 tail feathers, and their wings have 16 primary, four alular and 20–23 secondary feathers.3
The ostrich's sternum is flat, lacking the keel to which wing muscles attach in flying birds.13 The beak is flat and broad, with a rounded tip.5 Like all ratites, the ostrich has no crop,14 and it also lacks a gallbladder.15 They have three stomachs, and the caecum is 71 cm (28 in) long. Unlike all other living birds, the ostrich secretes urine separately from faeces.16 All other birds store the urine and faeces combined in the coprodeum, but the ostrich stores the faeces in the terminal rectum.16 They also have unique pubic bones that are fused to hold their gut. Unlike most birds, the males have a copulatory organ, which is retractable and 8 in (20 cm) long. Their palate differs from other ratites in that the sphenoid and palatal bones are unconnected.3
The ostrich was originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th-century work, Systema Naturae under its current binomial name.17 Its scientific name is derived from Latin, struthio meaning "ostrich" and camelus meaning "camel", alluding to its dry habitat.18
The ostrich belongs to the ratite order Struthioniformes. Other members include rheas, emus, cassowaries, moa, kiwi and the largest bird ever, the now-extinct Elephant Bird (Aepyornis). However, the classification of the ratites as a single order has always been questioned, with the alternative classification restricting the Struthioniformes to the ostrich lineage and elevating the other groups.
Five subspecies are recognized:
- Common Ostrich (S. struthio) complex:
- S. c. australis, Southern Ostrich, southern Africa. It is found south of the Zambezi and Cunene rivers. It is farmed for its meat, leather and feathers in the Little Karoo area of Cape Province.19
- S. c. camelus, North African Ostrich, or Red-necked Ostrich, North Africa. Historically it was the most widespread subspecies, ranging from Ethiopia and Sudan in the east throughout the Sahel20 to Senegal and Mauritania in the west, and north to Egypt and southern Morocco, respectively. It has now disappeared from large parts of this range,21 and it only remains in 6 of the 18 countries where it originally occurred, leading some to consider it Critically Endangered.22 It is the largest subspecies, at 2.74 m (9.0 ft) in height and up to 154 kilograms (340 lb) in weight.23 The neck is pinkish-red, the plumage of males is black and white, and the plumage of females is grey.23
- S. c. massaicus, Masai Ostrich, East Africa. It has some small feathers on its head, and its neck and thighs are pink. During the mating season, the male's neck and thighs become brighter. Its range is essentially limited to southern Kenya and eastern Tanzania20 and Ethiopia and parts of Southern Somalia.23
- S. c. syriacus, Arabian Ostrich or Middle Eastern Ostrich, Middle East. Was formerly very common in the Arabian Peninsula, Syria,20 and Iraq; it became extinct around 1966.
- S. c. molybdophanes, Somali Ostrich, southern Ethiopia, northeastern Kenya, and Somalia.20 The neck and thighs are grey-blue, and during the mating season, the male's neck and thighs become brighter and bluer. The females are more brown than those of other subspecies.23 It generally lives in pairs or alone, rather than in flocks. Its range overlaps with S. c. massaicus in northeastern Kenya.23
Some analyses indicate that the Somali Ostrich may be better considered a full species, but there is no consensus among experts about this. The Tree of Life Project and IOC recognize it as a different species, but The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International do not. As of 2010 BirdLife International is reviewing the proposed split.1 Mitochondrial DNA haplotype comparisons suggest that it diverged from the other ostriches not quite four mya due to formation of the East African Rift. Hybridization with the subspecies that evolved southwestwards of its range, S. c. massaicus, has apparently been prevented from occurring on a significant scale by ecological separation, the Somali Ostrich preferring bushland where it browses middle-height vegetation for food while the Masai Ostrich is, like the other subspecies, a grazing bird of the open savanna and miombo habitat.24
The population from Río de Oro was once separated as Struthio camelus spatzi because its eggshell pores were shaped like a teardrop and not round. However, as there is considerable variation of this character and there were no other differences between these birds and adjacent populations of S. c. camelus, the separation is no longer considered valid.25 This population disappeared in the latter half of the 20th century. There were 19th century reports of the existence of small ostriches in North Africa; these are referred to as Levaillant's Ostrich (Struthio bidactylus) but remain a hypothetical form not supported by material evidence.26
The earliest fossil of ostrich-like birds is the Palaeotis living near the Asiatic steppes,3 from the Middle Eocene, a middle-sized flightless bird that was originally believed to be a bustard. Apart from this enigmatic bird, the fossil record of the ostriches continues with several species of the modern genus Struthio which are known from the Early Miocene onwards. While the relationship of the African species is comparatively straightforward, a large number of Asian species of ostrich have been described from fragmentary remains, and their interrelationships and how they relate to the African Ostriches are confusing. In China, ostriches are known to have become extinct only around or even after the end of the last ice age; images of ostriches have been found there on prehistoric pottery and petroglyphs.
Several of these fossil forms are ichnotaxa (that is, classified according to the organism's footprints or other trace rather than its body) and their association with those described from distinctive bones is contentious and in need of revision pending more good material.27
- Struthio coppensi (Early Miocene of Elizabethfeld, Namibia)
- Struthio linxiaensis (Liushu Late Miocene of Yangwapuzijifang, China)
- Struthio orlovi (Late Miocene of Moldavia)
- Struthio karingarabensis (Late Miocene – Early Pliocene of SW and CE Africa) – oospecies(?)
- Struthio kakesiensis (Laetolil Early Pliocene of Laetoli, Tanzania) – oospecies
- Struthio wimani (Early Pliocene of China and Mongolia)
- Struthio daberasensis (Early – Middle Pliocene of Namibia) – oospecies
- Struthio brachydactylus (Pliocene of Ukraine)
- Struthio chersonensis (Pliocene of SE Europe to WC Asia) – oospecies
- Asian Ostrich, Struthio asiaticus (Early Pliocene – Late Pleistocene of Central Asia to China ?and Morocco)
- Giant Ostrich, Struthio dmanisensis (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene of Dmanisi, Georgia)
- Struthio oldawayi (Early Pleistocene of Tanzania) – probably subspecies of S. camelus
- Struthio anderssoni – oospecies (?)
Ostriches formerly occupied Africa north and south of the Sahara, East Africa, Africa south of the rain forest belt, and much of Asia Minor.3 Today ostriches prefer open land and are native to the savannas and Sahel of Africa, both north and south of the equatorial forest zone.12 In Southwest Africa they inhabit the semi-desert or true desert. They rarely go above 100 m (330 ft).3 Farmed ostriches in Australia have established feral populations.1 The Arabian Ostriches in the Near and Middle East were hunted to extinction by the middle of the 20th century. Ostriches have occasionally been seen inhabiting islands on the Dahlak Archipelago, in the Red Sea near Eritrea.
Ostriches normally spend the winter months in pairs or alone. Only 16 percent of ostrich sightings were of more than two birds.3 During breeding season and sometimes during extreme rainless periods ostriches live in nomadic groups of five to 50 birds (led by a top hen) that often travel together with other grazing animals, such as zebras or antelopes.12 Ostriches are diurnal, but may be active on moonlit nights. They are most active early and late in the day.3 The male ostrich territory is between 2 and 20 km2 (0.77 and 7.7 sq mi).6
With their acute eyesight and hearing, Ostriches can sense predators such as lions from far away. When being pursued by a predator, they have been known to reach speeds in excess of 70 km/h (43 mph),3 and can maintain a steady speed of 50 km/h (31 mph), which makes the ostrich the world's fastest two-legged animal.28 When lying down and hiding from predators, the birds lay their heads and necks flat on the ground, making them appear like a mound of earth from a distance, aided by the heat haze in their hot, dry habitat.2930
When threatened, ostriches run away, but they can cause serious injury and death with kicks from their powerful legs.12 Their legs can only kick forward.31 Contrary to popular belief, ostriches do not bury their heads in sand.32 This myth likely began with Pliny the Elder (AD 23–79), who wrote that ostriches "imagine, when they have thrust their head and neck into a bush, that the whole of their body is concealed."33 This may have been a misunderstanding of their sticking their heads in the sand to swallow sand and pebbles,34 or, as National Geographic suggests, of the defensive behavior of lying low, so that they may appear from a distance to have their head buried.35
They mainly feed on seeds, shrubs, grass, fruit and flowers;36 occasionally they also eat insects such as locusts. Lacking teeth, they swallow pebbles that act as gastroliths to grind food in the gizzard. When eating, they will fill their gullet with food, which is in turn passed down their esophagus in the form of a ball called a bolus. The bolus may be as much as 210 ml (7.1 US fl oz). After passing through the neck (there is no crop) the food enters the gizzard and is worked on by the aforementioned pebbles. The gizzard can hold as much as 1,300 g (46 oz), of which up to 45% may be sand and pebbles.6 Ostriches can go without drinking for several days, using metabolic water and moisture in ingested plants,36 but they enjoy liquid water and frequently take baths where it is available.12 They can survive losing up to 25% of their body weight through dehydration.37
Ostriches become sexually mature when they are 2 to 4 years old; females mature about six months earlier than males. As with other birds, an individual may reproduce several times over its lifetime. The mating season begins in March or April and ends sometime before September. The mating process differs in different geographical regions. Territorial males typically boom in defence of their territory and harem of two to seven hens;38 the successful male may then mate with several females in the area, but will only form a pair bond with a 'major' female.38
The cock performs with his wings, alternating wing beats, until he attracts a mate. They will go to the mating area and he will maintain privacy by driving away all intruders. They graze until their behaviour is synchronized, then the feeding becomes secondary and the process takes on a ritualistic appearance. The cock will then excitedly flap alternate wings again, and start poking on the ground with his bill. He will then violently flap his wings to symbolically clear out a nest in the soil. Then, while the hen runs a circle around him with lowered wings, he will wind his head in a spiral motion. She will drop to the ground and he will mount for copulation.3 Ostriches raised entirely by humans may not direct their courtship behaviour at other ostriches, but toward their human keepers.39
A female incubating eggs in a shallow nest on the ground in the Serengeti, Tanzania
The female ostrich lays her fertilised eggs in a single communal nest, a simple pit, 30–60 cm (12–24 in) deep and 3 m (9.8 ft) wide,40 scraped in the ground by the male. The dominant female lays her eggs first, and when it is time to cover them for incubation she discards extra eggs from the weaker females, leaving about 20 in most cases.3 A female ostrich can distinguish her own eggs from the others in a communal nest.41 Ostrich eggs are the largest of all eggs (and by extension, the yolk is the largest single cell),42 though they are actually the smallest eggs relative to the size of the adult bird.43 — on average they are 15 cm (5.9 in) long, 13 cm (5.1 in) wide, and weigh 1.4 kilograms (3.1 lb), over 20 times the weight of a chicken's egg and only 1 to 4% the size of the female.6 They are glossy cream-coloured, with thick shells marked by small pits.13 The eggs are incubated by the females by day and by the males by night.38 This uses the colouration of the two sexes to escape detection of the nest, as the drab female blends in with the sand, while the black male is nearly undetectable in the night.13 The incubation period is 35 to 45 days, which is rather short compared to other ratites. This is believed to be the case due to the high rate of predation.6 Typically, the male defends the hatchlings and teaches them to feed, although males and females cooperate in rearing chicks. Fewer than 10% of nests survive the 9 week period of laying and incubation, and of the surviving chicks, only 15% of those survive to 1 year of age.6 However, among those ostriches who survive to adulthood, the species is one of the longest-living bird species. Ostriches in captivity have lived to 62 years and 7 months.44
As a flightless species in the rich biozone of the African savanna, the ostrich must face a variety of formidable predators throughout its life cycle. Animals that prey on ostriches of all ages may include cheetahs, lions, leopards, african hunting dogs, and spotted hyena.3 Ostriches can often outrun most of their predators in a pursuit, so most predators will try to ambush an unsuspecting bird using obstructing vegetation or other objects.45 A notable exception is the cheetah, which is the most prolific predator of adult ostriches due to its own great running speeds.46
Common predators of nests and young ostriches include jackals, various birds of prey, warthogs, mongoose and Egyptian vultures.3847 If the nest or young are threatened, either or both of the parents may create a distraction, feigning injury.6 However, they may sometimes fiercely fight predators, especially when chicks are being defended, and have been capable of killing even their largest enemies, the lions, in such confrontations.35
The wild ostrich population has declined drastically in the last 200 years, with most surviving birds in reserves or on farms.3 However, its range remains very large (9,800,000 square kilometres (3,800,000 sq mi)), leading the IUCN and BirdLife International to treat it as a species of Least Concern.1 Of its 5 subspecies, the Middle Eastern Ostrich (S. c. syriacus) became extinct around 1966, and the North African Ostrich (S. c. camelus) has declined to the point where it now is included on CITES Appendix I and some treat it as Critically Endangered.212223
Ostriches have inspired cultures and civilizations for 5,000 years in Mesopotamia and Egypt. A statue of Arsinoe II of Egypt riding an ostrich was found in a tomb in Egypt.48 The Kalahari bushmen still use their eggs as water jugs.349
Hunter-gatherers in the Kalahari use ostrich eggshells as water containers in which they puncture a hole to enable them to be used as canteens. The presence of such eggshells with engraved hatched symbols dating from the Howiesons Poort period of the Middle Stone Age at Diepkloof Rock Shelter in South Africa suggests ostriches were an important part of human life as early as 60,000 BP.50
In Roman times, there was a demand for ostriches to use in venatio games or cooking. They have been hunted and farmed for their feathers, which at various times have been popular for ornamentation in fashionable clothing (such as hats during the 19th century). Their skins are valued for their leather. In the 18th century they were almost hunted to extinction; farming for feathers began in the 19th century. At the start of the 20th century there were over 700,000 birds in captivity.6 The market for feathers collapsed after World War I, but commercial farming for feathers and later for skins and meat became widespread during the 1970s. Ostriches are so adaptable that they can be farmed in climates ranging from South Africa to Alaska.
It is claimed that ostriches produce the strongest commercial leather.51 Ostrich meat tastes similar to lean beef and is low in fat and cholesterol, as well as high in calcium, protein and iron. Uncooked, it is dark red or cherry red, a little darker than beef.52
Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Similar behaviors are noted in captive or domesticated ostriches, which retain the same natural instincts and can occasionally respond aggressively to stress. When attacking a person, ostriches kick with their powerful feet, armed with long claws, which are capable of disemboweling or killing a person with a single blow.53 In one study of ostrich attacks, it was estimated that two to three attacks that result in serious injury or death occur each year in the area of Oudtshoorn, South Africa, where a large number of ostrich farms abut against both feral and wild ostrich populations.44
In some countries, people race each other on the back of ostriches. The practice is common in Africa54 and is relatively unusual elsewhere.55 The ostriches are ridden in the same way as horses with special saddles, reins, and bits. However, they are harder to manage than horses.56
The racing is also a part of modern South African culture.57 Within the United States, a tourist attraction in Jacksonville, Florida called 'The Ostrich Farm' opened up in 1892; it and its races became one of the most famous early attractions in the history of Florida.58
In the United States, Chandler, Arizona hosts the annual 'Ostrich Festival' which features ostrich races.5960 Racing has also occurred at many other locations such as Virginia City in Nevada, Canterbury Park in Minnesota,61 Prairie Meadows in Iowa, and Ellis Park in Kentucky.62
- BirdLife International (2012). "Struthio camelus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 3.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 Feb 2011. BirdLife International (2012). "Ostrich Struthio camelus – BirdLife Species Factsheet". Data Zone. Retrieved 17 Feb 2011.
- Brands, Sheila (14 August 2008). "Systema Naturae 2000 / Classification, Genus Struthio". Project: The Taxonomicon. Retrieved 2009-02-04.
- Davies, S.J.J.F. (2003). "Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins". In Hutchins, Michael. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia 8 (2 ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. pp. 99–101. ISBN 0-7876-5784-0.
- Doherty, James G. (March 1974). Natural History (The American Museum of Natural History).
- Gilman, Daniel Coit; Peck, Harry Thurston; Colby, Frank Moore, eds. (1903). "Ostrich". The New International Encyclopædia XIII. New York, NY: Dodd, Mead and Company. pp. 497–498.
- Davies, S. J. J. F.; Bertram, B. C. R. (2003). "Ostrich". In Perrins, Christopher. Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, Ltd. pp. 34–37. ISBN 1-55297-777-3.
- Brown, L. H.; Urban, E.K.; Newman, K. (1982). "Ostriches and to Birds of Prey". In Curry-Lindahl, Kai. The Birds of Africa I. London, UK: Academic Press. pp. 32–37. ISBN 978-0-12-137301-6.
- Martin, G. R.; Katzir, G. (2000). "Sun Shades and Eye Size in Birds". Brain Behavior and Evolution 56 (6): 340–344. doi:10.1159/000047218.
- Martin, G. R.; Ashash, U.; Katzir, Gadi (2001). "Ostrich ocular optics". Brain Behavior and Evolution 58 (2): 115–120. doi:10.1159/000047265.
- Fleming, John (1822). Canterbury brings the Middle East to the Midwest 2. Edinburgh, UK: Archibald Constable & Co. p. 258.
- San Diego Zoo's Animal Bytes: Ostrich. Sandiegozoo.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
- Donegan, Keenan (2002). "Struthio camelus". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.
- Nell, Leon (2003-10-10). The Garden Route and Little Karoo. Cape Town: Struik Publishers. p. 164. ISBN 1-86872-856-0. Retrieved 2003.
- Brand, T. S.; Gous, R. M. (2006-09-27). "Feeding ostriches". In Bels, Vincent L. Feeding in Domestic Vertebrates. Wallingford, UK: Cabi Publishing. pp. 136–155. ISBN 1-84593-063-0. Retrieved 2006.
- Marshall, Alan John (1960). Biology and Comparative Physiology of Birds. Academic Press. p. 446.
- Skadhauge, E.; Erlwanger, K. H.; Ruziwa, S. D.; Dantzer, V.; Elbrønd, V. S.; Chamunorwa, J. P. (2003). "Does the ostrich (Struthio camelus) have the electrophysiological properties and microstructure of other birds?". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 134 (4): 749–755. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03)00006-0. PMID 12814783.
- Linnaeus, Carolus (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata (in latin). p. 155.
- Gotch, A.F. (1995) . "Ostriches". Latin Names Explained. A Guide to the Scientific Classifications of Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. London: Facts on File. p. 176. ISBN 0-8160-3377-3.
- Stöcker, Friedrich W.; Dietrich, Gerhard, eds. (1995). "Ostrich". Concise Encyclopedia Biology. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1149. ISBN 3-11-010661-2. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- Clements, James (2007). The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World (6th ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9.
- Thiollay, J.M. (2006). "Severe decline of large birds in the Northern Sahel of West Africa: a long-term assessment". Bird Conservation International 16 (4): 353–365. doi:10.1017/S0959270906000487.
- CITES (3 April 2012). "Appendices I, II and III". Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
- Roots, Clive (2006). Flightless Birds. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-313-33545-1.
- Freitag, Stefanie; Robinson, Terence J. (1993). "Phylogeographic patterns in mitochondrial DNA of the Ostrich (Struthio camelus)" (PDF). Auk 110 (3): 614–622. doi:10.2307/4088425.
- Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos (1999). "Studies of the population structure and genetic diversity of domesticated and ‘wild’ ostriches (Struthio camelus)". PhD thesis.
- Fuller, Errol (2001) . In Bunney, Sarah. Extinct Birds (2nd ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-19-850837-9.
- Bibi, Faysal; Shabel, Alan B.; Kraatz, Brian P.; Stidham, Thomas A. (2006). "New Fossil Ratite (Aves: Palaeognathae) Eggshell Discoveries from the Late Miocene Baynunah Foramation of the United Arab Emirates, Arabian Peninsula" (PDF). Palaeontologia Electronica 9 (1): 2A. ISSN 1094-8074.
- Desert USA (1996). "Ostrich". Digital West Media. Retrieved 17 Feb 2011.
- Werness, Hope B. (2006). The Continuum Encyclopedia of Animal Symbolism in Art. London: Continuum. p. 300. ISBN 9780826419132.
- Hiskey, Daven (2010-08-12). "Ostriches Don’t Hide Their Heads in the Sand". Todayifoundout.com. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- Halcombe, John Joseph (1872). Mission life. vol3 Part 1. W. Wells Gardner. p. 304.
- Gosselin, Michael (December 2010). "Ostrich". Natural History Notebooks. Canadian Museum of Nature.
- Kruszelnicki, Karl (2 November 2006). "Ostrich head in sand". ABC Science: In Depth. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- Thomas, David (2008-05-15). "Why ostriches DON'T bury their heads in the sand... and the surprising truths behind other great animal myths". Daily Mail. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- National Geographic Society (2009). "Ostrich Struthio camelus".
- Maclean, Gordon Lindsay (1996). The Ecophysiology of Desert Birds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. p. 26. ISBN 3-540-59269-5. Retrieved 1996.
- Perrins, C.M.; Jackson, J.A.; Ford, H. (1996). "Order Struthioniformes". In Elphick, J. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Birds. Barnes and Noble Inc. ISBN 0-7607-0152-0.
- Bertram, Brian C.R. (1992). The Ostrich Communal Nesting System. Princeton University Press.
- "Ostriches "Flirt With Farmers"". BBC News. 9 March 2003.
- Harrison, C.; Greensmith, A. (1993). In Bunting, E. Birds of the World. New York, NY: Dorling Kindersley. p. 39. ISBN 1-56458-295-7.
- Bertram, B.C.R. (1979). "Ostriches recognise their own eggs and discard others". Nature 279 (5710): 233–234. doi:10.1038/279233a0. PMID 440431.
- Hyde, Kenneth (2004). Zoology: An Inside View of Animals (3rd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing. p. 475. ISBN 0-7575-0170-2.
- Trails.com (1999)
- Wood, Gerald (1983). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts & Feats. Sterling Publishing Co. ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9.
- Namibia Wildlife | Leopard kills ostrich on an open plain | Wildlife sightings in Sossusvlei. Wildwatch.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
- Ostrich. The Animal Files. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
- Thouless, C.R.; Fanshawe, J.H. & Bertram, B.C.R. (1989). "Egyptian Vultures Neophron percnopterus and Ostrich Struthio camelus eggs: the origins of stone-throwing behaviour". Ibis 131: 9–15. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1989.tb02737.x.
- Thompson, Dorothy Burr (Jul 1955). "A Portrait of Arsinoe Philadelphos". American Journal of Archaeology 59 (3): 199–206. doi:10.2307/500319. JSTOR 500319.
- Laufer, B. (1926). "Ostrich Eggshell Cups of Mesopotamia and the Ostrich in Ancient and Modern Times". Anthropology Leaflet (Chicago, IL: Chicago Field Museum of Natural History,) 23.
- Texier, P. J.; Porraz, G.; Parkington, J.; Rigaud, J. P.; Poggenpoel, C.; Miller, C.; Tribolo, C.; Cartwright, C.; Coudenneau, A. (2010). "A Howiesons Poort tradition of engraving ostrich eggshell containers dated to 60,000 years ago at Diepkloof Rock Shelter, South Africa" (PDF). PNAS 107 (14): 6180–6185. doi:10.1073/pnas.0913047107. PMC 2851956. PMID 20194764.
- Best, Brendan (2003). "Ostrich Facts | access". The New Zealand Ostrich Association. Archived from the original on 2007-10-17.
- Canadian Ostrich Association (April 2008). "Cooking Tips".
- Jerry A. Coyne (2010). Why Evolution Is True. Penguin. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-0-14-311664-6. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Bradley, John H. (June 2009). "Riding and racing ostriches in Oudtshoorn, South Africa". Cape Town to Cairo Website. CapeTowntoCairo.com. Retrieved 2009-11-10.
- Palosaari, Ben (19 July 2008). "Extreme Race Day at Canterbury Park". City Pages. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- Modern Mechanix (1929). "'They’re Off!' Thrills of the Turf in Ostrich Racing". Mechanix Illustrated. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- Pyke, Magnus (1985). Weird and Wonderful Science Facts. Sterling Pub Co. Inc. p. 82. ISBN 0-8069-6254-2.
- Clark, James C. (2000). 200 Quick Looks at Florida History. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press, Inc. pp. 86–87. ISBN 1-56164-200-2.
- Scott, Luci (8 March 2011). "Shake a tail feather, get out to Ostrich Festival". AZCentral.com. Arizona Republic.
- Hedding, Judy (2008). "Ostrich Festival". About.com. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- Fluker, Meryn (July 2007). "Canterbury brings the Middle East to the Midwest". Southwest Newspapers. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- Ethridge, Tim (18 July 2009). "King of the Roxy seeks another crown at Ellis". Evansville Courier & Press. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- Cooper, J. C. (1992). Symbolic and Mythological Animals. New York, NY: Harpercollins. pp. 170–171. ISBN 1-85538-118-4.
- Folch, A. (1992). "Family Struthionidae (Ostrich)". In del Hoya, Josep; Sargatal, Jordi. Handbook of the Birds of the World. 1, Ostrich to Ducks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 76–83. ISBN 84-87334-09-1.
- O'Shea, Michael Vincent; Foster, Ellsworth D.; Locke, George Herbert, eds. (1918). "Ostrich". 6. Chicago, IL: The World Book, Inc. pp. 4422–4424. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
|Look up Ostrich in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Struthio camelus|
- Works related to a description of traditional methods used by Arabs to capture wild ostriches. at Wikisource
- (Common) Ostrich – Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds.
- British Domesticated Ostrich Association
- Index for various ostrich studies and papers
- World Ostrich Association.