Mighty Morphin Power Rangers
|Mighty Morphin Power Rangers|
Top: Logo for original Power Rangers series
Bottom: New logo created for the 2010 re-version
|Also known as||MMPR|
|Created by||Haim Saban
|Based on||Super Sentai Series|
|Starring||Austin St. John (Seasons 1-2)
Thuy Trang (Seasons 1-2)
Walter Jones (Season 1-2)
Amy Jo Johnson
Jason David Frank
Johnny Yong Bosch (Seasons 2-3)
Karan Ashley (Seasons 2-3)
Steve Cardenas (Seasons 2-3)
Catherine Sutherland (Season 3)
Gregg Bullock (Season 3)
Machiko Soga (Seasons 1-2)
Carla Perez (Seasons 2-3)
|Voices of||David Fielding (Season 1)
Robert L. Manahan
Michael J. Sorich
|Opening theme||"Go Go Power Rangers"|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||3|
|No. of episodes||145 (List of episodes)|
|Executive producer(s)||Haim Saban
James Simone (Re-version)
Dan Evans III (Re-version)
|Running time||22 minutes|
|Production company(s)||Saban Entertainment
Renaissance Atlantic Entertainment
Toei Company, Ltd.
MMPR Productions, Inc.
|Original channel||FOX (Fox Kids)
ABC (ABC Kids) (Re-version)
|Original run||August 28, 1993– November 27, 1995|
|Followed by||Mighty Morphin Alien Rangers|
Mighty Morphin Power Rangers is an American live action children's television series that premiered on August 28, 1993, on the Fox Kids weekday afternoon block. The show is about a group of teenagers who were chosen to protect the world from a group of alien invaders and were given the ability to "morph" into super-powered warriors and to pilot giant robots called "Zords." It was adapted and used stock footage from the Japanese television show Kyōryū Sentai Zyuranger, which was the 16th installment of Bandai Visual and Toei Company's Super Sentai franchise.1 Both the show and its related merchandise saw unbridled overnight success, becoming a staple of 1990s pop culture in mere months.234 Under the original name, "Mighty Morphin Power Rangers," the series ran from 1993 to 1995 and spawned the feature film Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie.5
The second and third seasons of the show drew on footage and elements from the Super Sentai series Gosei Sentai Dairanger and Ninja Sentai Kakuranger respectively, though the Zyuranger costumes were still used for the lead cast. Only the mecha and the Kiba Ranger costume (worn by the White Ranger) were retained from Dairanger for the second season, while only the mecha from Kakuranger were featured in the third season. However the Kakuranger costumes were later used for the title characters of the mini-series, Mighty Morphin Alien Rangers. The series was produced by MMPR Productions, distributed by Saban Entertainment, and aired on Fox Kids. The show's merchandise was produced and distributed by Bandai Entertainment.
In 1996, the series was rebranded as the Power Rangers franchise, renaming the series every year after, and using costumes, props, and footage from subsequent Super Sentai series, as well as changing the cast and story line. While an overarching story line would continue until Power Rangers Lost Galaxy, subsequent series after MMPR are not sequels or spin-offs in the traditional sense.
In 2010, a re-version of Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, with a new logo, comic book-referenced graphics, and extra alternative special effects, was broadcast on ABC Kids, and Bandai produced brand new toys to coincide with the series.678
Lionsgate has set a date for a big-screen reboot of the '90s TV smash, it will hit theaters July 22, 2016.
The series takes place in the fictional town of Angel Grove, California.9 On an exploratory mission, two astronauts discover an extraterrestrial container (referred to as a dumpster as a result of its smell) and breach the unit, inadvertently releasing the evil alien sorceress Rita Repulsa from 10,000 years of confinement. Upon her release, she and her army of evil space aliens set their sights on conquering the nearest planet: Earth. The wise sage Zordon, who was responsible for capturing Rita Repulsa, becomes aware of her release and orders his robotic assistant Alpha 5 to select five "teenagers with attitude" to defend the Earth from Rita's attacks. The five teens chosen are Jason Lee Scott, Kimberly Hart, Zack Taylor, Trini Kwan, and Billy Cranston. Zordon gives them the ability to transform into a fighting force known as the Power Rangers, providing them with an arsenal of weapons at their disposal, as well as colossal assault machines called Zords, which can combine into the Megazord.101112
The series begins with five teenagers combating Rita and her seemingly endless array of monsters, while also dealing with typical teenage problems and clashing with local bullies Bulk and Skull. However, consecutive failures lead Rita to adopt a new method for conquering Earth and destroying the Power Rangers: by attacking them with one of their own. Using her magic, Rita kidnaps and brainwashes a local teen whose fighting skills prove to equal that of Jason's in a martial-arts contest held in Angel Grove. The new teen, Tommy Oliver, passes Rita's tests, becoming the Green Power Ranger. Entrusted with Rita's Sword of Darkness, the source for the continuance of the evil spell he has fallen victim to, Tommy comes dangerously close to defeating the Power Rangers, especially when Rita causes a solar eclipse that temporarily drains the Megazord's power. However, the Green Ranger is ultimately defeated, and the Sword of Darkness is destroyed by Jason. Now free from Rita's spell, Tommy chooses to use his Green Ranger powers to assist the other Rangers in defeating the evil that gave them to him in the first place. His Zord, the Dragonzord, is reconfigured to enable it to help form more powerful Zord combinations alongside the other Dinozords.13
As time goes on, Rita focuses on eliminating Tommy in order to regain the powers that she believes belong to her. Using a special wax that was touched by Tommy when he was evil, Rita uses a magic Green Candle to slowly remove his powers, returning them to her. In the end, Tommy loses his powers, but he prevents Rita from reclaiming them by transferring them to Jason who, feeling guilt for failing to protect Tommy's powers, accepts them. However, Tommy later returns to the team when the other Rangers' Power Coins are handed over to Rita in exchange for their kidnapped parents. With Zordon's help, Tommy regains his powers and successfully retrieves the other Rangers' Power Coins. However, Tommy's regained powers are only temporary and must be frequently re-charged by Zordon, who mentions that the Green Ranger's powers will ultimately fail. Despite this, Tommy remains determined to continue assisting the other Rangers as long as possible.1415
Lord Zedd, Rita's superior, arrives at Rita's Moon Palace, where he takes her place and throws her into a space dumpster again. He then begins his own campaign to conquer Earth. In order for the Power Rangers to compete with Zedd's monsters, which are superior to the ones Finster made for Rita, Zordon and Alpha upgrade the Dinozords into the more powerful Thunderzords. However, Tommy is forced to retain use of the Dragonzord, due to his powers being too weak to support a new Zord.16
After several defeats, Zedd's attack on the Rangers progressively becomes more violent. He focuses his attention on eliminating Tommy, whom he sees as Rita's biggest mistake in giving him the Dragon Coin. The Green Ranger's powers were rapidly deteriorating, but Zedd's efforts had enhanced the process. He eventually does so with a special Green Crystal, using it to take away the Green Ranger's powers permanently. The crystal also powers up Zedd's Dark Rangers, but when Tommy smashes it, the Dark Rangers powers are transferred back to the regular Rangers. Nevertheless, Zedd finally succeeds in destroying the Green Ranger's powers for good. Following the permanent loss of the Green Ranger's powers, Zordon and Alpha create, in secret, a new White Ranger to aid the other Rangers in battle. The White Ranger is revealed to be Tommy, who in addition receives a new Zord, the Tigerzord, and also becomes the new leader of the Power Rangers.1718
During the Team Ninja Trials in Angel Grove, the Rangers become friends with three teenagers from Stone Canyon: Rocky DeSantos, Adam Park, and Aisha Campbell. During an ensuing battle with Zedd and a magical serpent, Rocky, Adam, and Aisha discover the Rangers' identities and, having been entrusted with their secret by Zordon himself, the three newcomers become allies of the Rangers.19
Later on, Jason, Zack, and Trini are selected to represent Angel Grove at the World Peace Conference in Geneva, Switzerland, and the Rangers are faced with the task of finding replacements. In order to transfer the powers of the Red, Black, and Yellow Rangers, they must find the Sword of Light, which is located on the Deserted Planet. Zedd pursues them across the galaxy in Serpentera, his massive personal Zord, and destroys most of the Deserted Planet. Serpentera runs out of power before being able to finish the Rangers, and they return to Earth safely with the Sword of Light. Zordon then chooses Rocky, Adam, and Aisha to replace Jason, Zack, and Trini as the Red, Black, and Yellow Rangers, respectively.20
Sometime before the power transfer, Rita had returned to Earth when Tommy made his debut as the White Ranger, and fell into the hands of Bulk and Skull, but the Rangers sent her back into space. She later returns to the Moon while the Rangers are in Australia, and with the help of Finster, she gets a special "makeover" to gain a younger and "prettier" face. She then uses a love potion on Zedd, who is in a deep sleep during his centennial re-evilizer, and he falls in love with her when he wakes up. They get married and thus join forces to make an even more terrible threat for the Rangers, but not even this can prepare them for what is to come.21
Rito Revolto, Rita's skeletal brother, comes to Earth and, with the help of a group of monsters, destroys the Rangers' Thunderzords and the Tigerzord. As a result, the Dinozords are also destroyed and the Power Coins are damaged beyond repair. Undaunted, the Power Rangers seek the aid of Ninjor, alleged creator of the Power Coins, who gives them new Ninja Coins, providing them with the even more powerful Ninjazords and the Falconzord.22
An Australian girl named Kat Hillard moves to Angel Grove. She befriends Kimberly, and displays an intense affection for Tommy. Later it is found that Rita had captured Kat and put her under a powerful spell, giving her the ability to transform into a normal cat as well as a cat-like monster. Under this spell, she steals Kimberly's Ninja Coin, vastly weakening the Pink Ranger, whose life force, like that of the other Ninja Rangers, is connected to her Ninja Coin. It is during this time that the Rangers acquire their most powerful Zords ever: the Shogunzords. Eventually, Kat overcomes Rita's evil spell and returns Kimberly's Ninja Coin to her. A short time thereafter, Kimberly gets a chance to pursue her personal athletic dreams. With Zordon's blessing, she leaves to train for the Pan Global Games, choosing Kat to replace her as the Pink Ranger. Though her initial fear and hesitation keeps her from contributing fully to the fight against evil, Kat eventually becomes both comfortable and capable of fulfilling her duty as a Ranger.232425
After several more battles, Zedd and Rita are joined by Rita's father, Master Vile. Following his failed attempts to defeat the Rangers, he reverses time, turning the Rangers into powerless children. These events culminate in the mini-series Mighty Morphin Alien Rangers, which leads to the next incarnation of the Power Rangers franchise, entitled Power Rangers Zeo.26
- Jason Lee Scott
- The original Red Ranger; portrayed by Austin St. John.
- Zack Taylor
- The original Black Ranger; portrayed by Walter Emanuel Jones.
- Billy Cranston
- The original Blue Ranger, and the Blue Ninja Ranger; portrayed by David Yost.
- Trini Kwan
- The original Yellow Ranger; portrayed by Thuy Trang.
- Kimberly Ann Hart
- The original Pink Ranger, and the original Pink Ninja Ranger; portrayed by Amy Jo Johnson.
- Thomas "Tommy" Oliver
- The original Green Ranger, the original White Ranger, and the White Ninja Ranger; portrayed by Jason David Frank.
- Rocky DeSantos
- The second Red Ranger, and Red Ninja Ranger; portrayed by Steve Cardenas.
- Adam Park
- The second Black Ranger, and Black Ninja Ranger; portrayed by Johnny Yong Bosch.
- Aisha Campbell
- The second Yellow Ranger, and Yellow Ninja Ranger; portrayed by Karan Ashley.
- Katherine "Kat" Hillard
- The second Pink Ranger, and second Pink Ninja Ranger; portrayed by Catherine Sutherland.
- An inter-dimensional being trapped in a time warp, he is the wise mentor of the Rangers, who also bestowed their powers. 10,000 years ago, Zordon led the fight against the forces of evil, specifically Rita. Finally, he was able to imprison the evil witch and her minions in a dumpster on the moon. He once had a corporeal human form but now appears as a floating head in an energy tube. Voiced and portrayed by David Fielding, and later voiced by Robert L. Manahan (credited as Bob Manahan).
- Alpha 5
- A multi-functional semi-sentient automaton, Alpha was Zordon's trusted robotic assistant, responsible for the daily operations and upkeep of the Command Center. Voiced by Richard Steven Horvitz (credited as Richard Wood).
- Farkas "Bulk" Bulkmeier and Eugene "Skull" Skullovitch
- Two bullies at Angel Grove High School. Bulk, the leader of the duo, was prone to dragging Skull into wacky schemes, which usually failed miserably and ended in humiliation or injury. Later on, the two decide to discover the identities of the Power Rangers after they were saved by the Rangers in the second season. In the third season, they enroll in the Junior Police Force in order to impress girls. Thanks to the efforts of their superior officer, Lt. Stone, the duo become good-natured goofs. Portrayed by Paul Schrier and Jason Narvy.
- The owner and proprietor of the Youth Center, he could often be seen behind the counter of the Juice Bar, and would sometimes dispense advice to the teens. Portrayed by Richard Genelle.
- Principal Kaplan
- The stern principal of Angel Grove High School, who often encouraged his students in their extracurricular activities. He wore a toupée to cover his bald head. Portrayed by Henry Cannon (uncredited).
- Ms. Appleby
- Portrayed by Royce Herron (uncredited).
- The girl of Zack's affections, he was constantly attempting to impress and go out on a date with her, much to her annoyance. She would often demean Zack for his attempts. Portrayed by Renee Griggs.
- Lt. Jerome B. Stone
- Portrayed by Gregg Bullock.
- Prince Dex/Masked Rider
- Portrayed by Ted Jan Roberts (credited as T.J. Roberts)
- Voiced by Kim Strauss (credited as Kurt Strauss).
- Rita Repulsa
- Portrayed by Soga Machiko in Season 1, and Carla Perez onwards; voiced by Barbara Goodson.
- Lord Zedd
- Portrayed by Ed Neil (uncredited) and voiced by Robert Axelrod.
- Portrayed by Takashi Sakamoto, Kazutoshi Yokoyama and Danny Stallcup (former two uncredited) and voiced by Kerrigan Mahan (credited as Ryan O'Flannigan in the first two seasons).
- Rito Revolto
- Voiced by Bob Papenbrook (credited as Bob Pappenbrook).
- Portrayed by Ami Kawai in Season 1, and Sabrina Lu in Season 2 (1 episode only); voiced by Wendee Lee (credited as Wendee Swan)
- Rita's chief monster maker in the first season. Portrayed by Takako Iiboshi (uncredited) and voiced by Robert Axelrod.
- One of Rita's henchman. A short, fat, blue creature resembles Bulk. Usually blamed for Rita or Zedd's failures. Portrayed by Minoru Watanabe (uncredited) and voiced by Michael J. Sorich.
- One of Rita's henchman. A tall, bat-like creature who wears a monacle resembles Skull. Usually chastises Squatt when Rita's plans fail and too is often blamed. Portrayed by Hideaki Kusaka (uncredited) and voiced by Colin Phillips.
- Master Vile
- Voiced by Tom Wyner (uncredited).
- Voiced by Robert Axelrod.
- Hydro Hog
- Voiced by Brad Orchard (uncredited).
- Putty Patrollers
- Warriors made of clay who act as Rita Repulsa's foot soldiers, the Putties are often sent to wear the Rangers down before a monster battle, as well as for sabotage and other special missions. In Season 2, Lord Zedd upgrades the Putty design, completely replacing Rita's original design. Zedd's Putties are superior to the original Putties and are more expendable. However, Zedd's Putties also have a big weakness—striking the Z-logo on their chests causes these Putties to explode into pieces.
- Tenga Warriors
- Crow-like soldiers that are able to speak, they are introduced in Season 3 when Rito Revolto takes them with him to the Moon as a wedding gift, and replace Zedd's Putties in attacking the Power Rangers. The Rangers normally use their Ninja Ranger powers to fight them. Unlike the Putties, the Tenga Warriors are not expendable and they return to the Moon when defeated. The Tengas originated in Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie (going by the name "Tengu Warriors") under the command of Ivan Ooze. The name change between the movie and television show was because of copyright complications with the movie's producer 20th Century Fox.citation needed
After all available stock footage from Zyuranger was used for the first 40 episodes of season one, Saban commissioned Toei to produce 25 new monster costumes and new battle footage using the existing Zyuranger suits. Saban was able to produce 20 additional episodes using 15 of the monster suits. This new footage has been referred to as "Zyu2" by Power Rangers fans. Saban then used the remaining suits and footage for the first 12 episodes of season two.27
Mid-way through the production of season two, Austin St. John, Thuy Trang, and Walter Emanuel Jones left the show over contract disputes.28 To disguise this incident, a combination of body doubles, voice doubles, and stock footage were used to continue featuring Jason, Trini, and Zack. The subplot of those three Rangers leaving Angel Grove for the World Peace Conference was made to bridge the transition to their replacements Rocky, Aisha, and Adam (played by Steve Cardenas, Karan Ashley, and Johnny Yong Bosch, respectively).
The appearance of Lord Zedd sparked outrage among parents, who deemed him too dark and grim for a children's show.citation needed In response, Saban counterbalanced Zedd's character by bringing back Rita Repulsa. For this, Carla Perez was brought in to play Rita (with Barbara Goodson still providing her voice), with the makeover subplot explaining her change in appearance.citation needed
Despite the popularity of the series, it was also subject to much controversy from parents who felt the show was too violent for young children. The show had aired before television stations issued content warnings, the V-chip, and television ratings. In the USA, numerous complaints were sent to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). In 1993, the Canadian broadcast rights to Mighty Morphin Power Rangers were jointly purchased by the over-the-air Canwest Global System and the YTV cable channel, and the series played to a receptive audience on weekday mornings on Global Television in Ontario and weekday afternoons on YTV, the latter trailing the American broadcast by several months. However, due to complaints sent to the recently formed Canadian Broadcast Standards Council and a negative assessment from that body over the show's violent content,29 YTV removed the series from their line-up.430 Despite not actually being a member of the CBSC, YTV complied and pulled the series before the end of its first season; Global (which was a CBSC member) ultimately did the same. While a phone-in poll was conducted to see if viewers wanted MMPR back on YTV, no further installments of the Power Rangers franchise aired on the network until 2011's Power Rangers Samurai, although commercials for toys and videos were still advertised on it.31 Later Disney-era versions of the series were broadcast on Family.
In Malaysia, the phrase "Mighty Morphin" was censored and removed from the logo due to the word "morphin" being too similar to the drug Morphine.
In 1994, the murder of a young Norwegian girl by two of her young friends prompted Swedish-owned TV3 to pull MMPR from its broadcast schedule in all of its market countries. However, MMPR was not related to the event. Instead, the young children responsible were fans of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles cartoon.32
In 1994, the New Zealand Broadcasting Standards Authority (BSA) upheld several complaints from members of the public about the level of violence in the show. The main concern of those complainants was that the show portrayed violence as the primary means of resolving conflict, and that this was influencing children to behave more violently more frequently. Immediately following the BSA decision, the second season of the show was all but cancelled by Television New Zealand.30 New Zealand is the only country in the world where this show has been prematurely withdrawn from public broadcast to date.33 DVD and video releases of the more-recent Power Rangers series that were filmed in New Zealand can be found at The Warehouse, although general sales through video stores and other retailers are scarce. Later series in the Power Rangers franchise, such as Power Rangers: Mystic Force and Power Rangers: Jungle Fury, were filmed in New Zealand, but the programs were still not shown in the country, until 2011, when Samurai premiered.
When brought up on VH1's I Love the '90s, the original cast members Amy Jo Johnson, and Walter Emanuel Jones as well as other celebrity commentators, made fun of how the original line-up had Jones' role as the Black Ranger and Thuy Trang's role as the Yellow Ranger because the actors and characters were of African and Asian descent, respectively.
In a 2010 interview with fan blog "No Pink Spandex", David Yost revealed that he had left the show in the subsequent Power Rangers: Zeo production due to homophobic reactions to his sexuality, citing that he walked off set one day because "[he] was called 'faggot' one too many times." He also stated that the producers would often ask other cast members what they thought about his homosexuality, and this made him uncomfortable as well.3435 Shortly after this interview, producer Scott Page-Pagter stated that Yost left over a pay dispute and that the allegations of homophobia are false; he added that Yost did not get along with any of the crew.36 In the episode where Yost's character appeared for the last time, "Rangers of Two Worlds", footage from previous episodes was used as well as vocal work from a separate, uncredited actor, to conceal the fact that Yost was not present during filming. A tribute to the Blue Ranger and Billy was seen in the closing credits of this last Billy episode.
Between 1994 and 1996 Saban Home Entertainment released VHSs of the series in the US. In 2012 Shout! Factory released 19 disc to Comic-Con International and a 20 disc set exclusively to Time Life of all three seasons and Mighty Morphin Alien Rangers. In that same year, Shout! reissued the 19 disc to wider retail. They also released two volumes for both season one and season two of the series, as well as the complete third season. The series has also been released on VHS in the UK and Region 2 DVD. The first 30 episodes of season one have been released to Region 4 DVD.
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Fighting Edition
Several comic book series were based on Mighty Morphin Power Rangers. From 1994 to 1995, Hamilton Comics produced three separate series totaling thirteen issues altogether. Marvel Comics produced two series, the first with seven issues based on the second season and the second with five issues called Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Ninja Rangers/VR Troopers which was a flip book with adventures based on the third season on one side and of VR Troopers on the other. The Power Rangers also appeared in the Masked Rider comic book from Marvel.
- Watanabe, Teresa (1995-03-09). "Pop culture: For two decades, Toei Studios of Japan has churned out versions of those ubiquitous Power Rangers-- and as long there are kids, they'll keep right on going.". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-08-22.
- Bellafante, Ginia (1993-12-06). "Mighty Raters". Time. Retrieved 2010-03-03.
- "Ninja Turtles, Eat Our Dust". Newsweek. Retrieved 2010-03-03.
- Collins, Glenn (1994-12-05). "With Power Rangers Scarce, A Frenzied Search by Parents". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-07.
- James, Caryn (1995-06-30). "FILM REVIEW; For Power Rangers, Bikinis Are Not The Issue". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-08.
- "Correcting and replacing photos Bandai America Powers up Like It’s 1993; Brings Back Mighty Morphin Power Rangers in New Toy Line". 2009-10-01. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
- "Press release: Bandai America Powers Up Like It’s 1993; Brings Back Mighty Morphin Power Rangers in New Toy Line | Bandai America". 2009-10-01. Retrieved 2009-10-02.
- "Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: TV Listings". TV Guide. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
- McCormick, Patricia S. (1995-02-12). "TELEVISION; . . . And a Parents' Guide to the Politics of Angel Grove". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-07.
- "From Power Bow to Hip-Hop-Kido". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
- "Superhero Teens Are Hip, Hot". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season One; "Day of the Dumpster"
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season One; "Green With Evil, Parts I-V"
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season One; "The Green Candle, Parts I-II"
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season One; "Return of an Old Friend, Parts I-II"
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season Two; "The Mutiny, Parts I-III"
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season Two; "Green No More, Parts I-II"
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season Two; "White Light, Parts I-II"
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season Two; "The Ninja Encounter, Parts I-III"
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season Two; "The Power Transfer, Parts I-II"
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season Two; "The Wedding, Parts I-III"
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season Three; "Ninja Quest, Parts I-IV"
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season Three; "A Ranger Catastrophe, Parts I-II"
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season Three; "Changing of the Zords, Parts I-III"
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season Three; "A Different Shade of Pink, Parts I-III"
- Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: Season Three; "Rangers in Reverse"
- "Zyu2". GrnRngr.com. 2006-10-24. Retrieved 2013-11-11.
- "Actors in Spandex - Austin St. John". Awwman.com. 1975-09-17. Retrieved 2011-12-23.
- CBSC.ca, Canadian Broadcast Standards Council — Ontario Regional Council October 24, 1994 decision regarding CanWest Global's broadcasting of the show.
- O'Neill, Patrick Daniel (March 1995). "Morphin Prohibited in the Great North". Heroes on Screen (Wizard #43). pp. 68–69.
- Bellafante, Ginia (1996-02-19). "Television: So what's on in Tokyo?". Time. Retrieved 2010-03-03.
- Associated Press (1994-10-20). "Norway Pulls The Plug On `Power Rangers'". Deseret News. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
- "Broadcasting Policy in New Zealand" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- Advocate.com editors (2010-08-26). "Blue Power Ranger Comes Out". Advocate.com. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
- "Interview with David Yost Part 3". No Pink Spandex. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
- "Morphin Producer -- Blue Ranger Was 'Pain in the Ass'". TMZ.com. Retrieved 2010-08-28.
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- Official Power Rangers Website
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