Meihuaquan

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Meihua Quan (Chinese: 梅花拳; literally "Plum Flower Fist") is a very common name in kung fu:

  • 1)a style of kung fu that originated in the northern provinces of China centuries ago. Meihuaquan is also known as Meihuazhuang 梅花桩.1

"Meihuazhuang" ("pillars of meihua plum") is a brief variant of "ganzhi wushi meihuazhuang" ("trunks, branches and five forms on pillars of meihua plum"), this style also known as "meihuaquan" ("fist of meihua plum"). It has more than thousand year history. This style origins from monks and belong to Kunlun's branch of chinese martial arts. During long time it passed from father to son, from son to grandson, i.e. only through male line, this was a reason to the name "fuziquan" ("fist of father and son"). Because of it although this style is known from ancient time, it spread only at the end of Ming – beginning of Qing dynasty in countyes, placed on the joint of Hebei, Henan, Shandong and Shanxi provinces.2

Meihuazhuang (pillars of meihua plum)
  • 2)other styles, with this name, like Meishanquan from southern China;
  • 3) many Sets inside other styles, like Da and Xiao Meihuaquan in Songshan Shaolinquan.
Dashi.
Group of steles dedicated to masters of Meihuaquan near the Houmazhuang village.

Meihuaquan and Its Branches

Pingxiang:Meihuaquan practise in Group, Shunshi

There are many Meihuaquan that have same origins: Ganzhi Wushi Meihuazhuang, Baijiazhi Meihuaquan, Luodi Meihuaquan, Wuzi Meihuaquan, Leijia Meihuaquan, etc. About the foundation of this style there are different tradition and there are a said that Meihuaquan has no single founder.

Ganzhi Wushi Meihuazhuang

Ganzhi wushi meihuazhuang 干支五式梅花桩 (can are translate Plum Blossom Piles of stems and branches) is a branch of Meihuaquan, that can are shorten in Meihuazhuang (Plum Blossom Piles). Ganzhi is a contraction of Tiangan Dizhi, then the name can are Tiangan Dizhi Wushi Meihuazhuang. Starting to the eighth generation master Zhang Congfu create a new kind of practise and the new way toke the name Xiaojia (Little Frame) in opposition to old manners that became known as Dajia (Big Frame). Meihuazhuang are divided into two sections:34 Wenchang (Civil Field) that work about theory; Wuchang (Martial Field) that work about martial tecnics, like Jiazi (frame), Shoutao (sparring exercise that train combat skills), Chengquan (combat choreography), Yingquan (combat), Gongquan, Ningquan (moving in war).56 Jiazi is characterized by five static positions (Wushi, 五式 five pattern or 五势 five postures) intermixed with dynamic motion (Xingbu, 行步) consisting of light rapid footwork and large flowing movements. With a simple expansive posture and built-in poise, Meihuaquan releases and strengthens the flow of energy to expand concentration of the mind1 The basic training methods of Meihuaquan are simple and strong yet relaxed and highly adaptable.

Baijiazhi Meihuaquan

Baijiazhi Meihuaquan 白家支梅花拳(Plum Blossom Boxing Branch of Bai Family) is a Meihuaquan that are practised in South West part of Shandong Province. It is founded by Bai Jindou (白金斗, Pai Chin-tou in Wade-Giles) a Nine Generation master of Plum Blossom Boxing. In Taiwan this school take the name Beipai Shaolin Meihuaquan 北派少林梅花拳 (Plum Blossom Boxing of Shaolin Northern Faction) or Meihuamen 梅花门(Plum Blossom School). Jiazi of this school are named Meihuaquan Laojia (Old Frame of Plum Blossom Boxing). After studying this set, disciples train many exercises in pair: Duida (hit in pair) and Duilian (train in pair) with and without weapons. In Basic Level Duida are only for two opponents and two kind: for hands and kiks tecnics or for falling tecnics. In itermediate, disciples study combat against 2,3,4,5 peoples. In High level, maybe study war and Plum Blossom's Arrays (梅花陣攻防, Meihua Zhen Gong Fang).

Leijia Meihuaquan

Leijia Meihuaquan (雷家梅花拳)is a branch of the Meihuaquan. This school derives its name from the fact that gives the fifth generation has been practiced near the Leijiacun village in order then to diffuse itself in the surrounding areas.This branch is referred clearly to the Ganzhi Wushi Meihuazhuang, as it identifies in own lineage Zhang Sansheng (also considered second generation here), but called Zhang Zhenshu (张朕书);This type of Meihuaquan differs from the Ganzhi Wushi Meihuazhuang and the Baijiazhi because it possesses 4 posture rather than to the five usuals that are: dashi, aoshi, xiaoshi and baishi. Dashi is roughly identical to the shunshi of the other branches. Attitude of the hands during the basic structure (Jiazi) is that of the Palm.7

Wuzi Meihuaquan

Wuzi Meihuaquan (武子梅花拳)8 is a name shorten from Sun Wuzi Chuanxin Meihuaquan (孙武子穿心梅花拳, Plum Blossom Boxing Piercing the Heart of Sun Wuzi ), but is also named Sun Wuzi Meihuaquan (孙武子梅花拳) or Chuanxin Meihuaquan (穿心梅花拳), or Zhongxin Meihuaquan (中心梅花拳). Disciples of this school think that the founder is Sun Zi, also known as Sun Wuzi. Famous master of this branch is Kou Yunxing (寇运兴). This is sets of Wuzi Meihuaquan: Shilu Tantui (十二路弹腿); Da Meihuaquan er lu e san lu (大梅花拳二、三路); Xiao Meihuaquan er lu (小梅花拳二路); Meihuadao (梅花刀); Meihua longxingjian (梅花龙形剑); Meihua qiang (梅花枪).8

Luodi Meihuaquan

Luodi Meihuaquan (落地梅花拳, Plum Blossom Boxing on ground) is a generic name of Meihuaquan, but can indicate a branch that was teaching by Li Zhenting (李振亭) in Peixian. The core of this system is Luodi Meihuaquan Bajiao (落地梅花拳八角, Eight Angles of Plum Blossom Boxing on Ground).

Meihua Changquan

Meihua Changquan 梅花长拳9 is the name given to Taiwan to a branch of Meihuaquan taught on the island from Han Qingtang, inside of a wider system that included also other boxings of the north of China,for which its students who continue to transmit its instruction call it or Changquan or Beishaolin. Han Qingtang learned this Meihuaquan in Jimo from Sun Maolin (孫茂林) and Jiang Benhe (姜本河), two masters originally of Liangshan.1011 This Meihua boxing is made up of three forms: Maifuquan (埋伏拳); Shizitang (十字趟); Taizu Changquan (太祖长拳).1213 Also is teaching a Duilian named Xiaowushou 小五手.

Shangsheng Meihuaquan

Shangcheng Meihuaquan 上乘梅花拳 (plum Blossom Boxing of optimal quality ) is a branch of Meihuaquan taught in the Fujian from Wang Jincheng (王金城) to the son Wang Ding (王鼎, 1882–1985).14

Shaomoquan – Wang Xiangzhai and Meihuaquan

Between the several styles analyzed by Wang Xiangzhai in a famous interview15 there is also the Meihuaquan that it indicates also with the name of Wushizhuang (五式桩, Five figures pole) and asserts that to the age he was diffused in Henan and Sichuan. The more meaningful contact with this style, Wang Xiangzhai had it in the within of its travel of search through China: in 1928 it knows and alloy in friendship with master Liu Pixian,16 twelfth generation of Meihuaquan,17 with which it exchanges methods and acquaintances.After this experience Liu Pixian created a new style to which it gave the name of Shaomoquan (少摩拳).

Weapons

Dadao dui Qiang at Liangshan.

Training in Meihuaquan includes eighteen types of traditional weapons (that is the same to said that Meihuaquan use many kinds of weapons), some of which are rarely seen weapons. Masters of Meihuaquan have a relaxed physical lookcitation needed and are free from rigidity in both thought and body posturescitation needed. The practice of Meihuaquan can bring several benefits: good healthcitation needed, self-defense skills, enhanced prevention and recovery from illnesscitation needed, and improved mental abilitycitation needed. This is the list of Weapons in Baijiazhi Meihuaquan in Taiwan: dandao (單刀),18 Qimeigun (齊眉棍),19qiang (槍, spear),20 shuangdao (雙刀, double sabre), Xiao shao gun (小哨棍),21 jian (劍), Da shao gun (大哨棍), jiujie gangbian (九節鋼鞭, see jiujiebian), liuxingchui (流星錘, meteor hammer), sanjiegun (三節棍),22 Meihua Guai (梅花拐), Bishou (匕手),23 dadao (大刀, alebard).

The first book about Rarely seen weapons is Genyuan (根源), that

said that Master Zou Hongyi came from Xuzhou, with a little chariot. When He traversed the Yellow River with four disciples, He separate this object, to do Liuxingchui (流行锤), a Fenghuolun (风火轮), some Sanjiegun (三节棍, also named Da shaozi 大梢子), a Qijiebian (七节鞭), two Wenbang (文棒), a scale (上天梯Shang Tianti), a Qunqiangmu (群枪母), two Xiaoguai (小拐) Liangtianchi (量天尺), Yiben sanqiang (一锛三枪) , etc.24

Le armi nel Meihuaquan

Origins of Meihuaquan

Origins of this style are lost in legend. It is said that, when Zhang Sansheng taught in public, there were 100 generations of teachers before.

In many of the rural areas in which meihuazhuang has been practiced for centuries, the founding of the sect is attributed to the mythological figure Yun Pan. Villagers often say “Meihuazhuang existed since the beginning” and folk legends claim that its history extends to the Han dynasty. Meihuazhuang's oldest written records, genealogies and textual date to the records of 2nd generation master Zhang Sansheng.25

History of meihuazhuang

Other sources claim origin before Han Dynasty, but also in Shaolinquan:

Different versions on the origins of the Meihuaquan: a legend would make to come from the Shaolinquan in order to endure a successive change. An other quite maintain that the Meihuaquan would have been present before the times of Han Wudi Emperor(187-140 B.C.). Because lacking written reports it turns out impossibile make a textual search and informations depends from what my old Master, Liu Baojun, told: the Meihuaquan would have origin from an ancient founder lived in not specify age, it synthetizes the ancient military tactics of our country and it is the quintessence of both Shaolin and Taiji. Meihuaquan is the result of experiences during years and years of study, of transformations and successive experimentations, becoming typical Chinese martial art. The author of the narration is a master of old generation . Meihuaquan is critical search of the movement models of Wushu and, in spite of the resemblance with Shaolin and Taiji, already it is changed (in a style to if being). Its meaning is deep and searched, for this reason becomes absolutely improper to compare it to the Shaolin or the Taiji. In the Meihuaquan there are many moving movements that they are instead absentees in the Shaolin and the Taiji. The oral story of my old Master has the value, therefore, of a written report.26

Chang Dsu Yao, Meihua Quanshu – Jianjie

Meihuaquan and History

Stele of Yang Bing

Some Meihuaquan disciples believe that there are 100 generations of masters before the 20 after Ming Dynasty. During Qing Dynasty people who practiced this style were involved in various uprisings, like Wang Lun in 1774, Feng Keshan in 1813 and Zhao Sanduo in 1900 Boxer Uprising.27 (Meihuaquan was particularly linked with the early phases of the Boxer Uprising.28) Another disciple, Yang Bing, was an Imperial Palace guard:29

The history of this school (Meihuaquan) goes back at least to the kang-xi period, when it was taught by a certain Yang Bing, from Hua county in Henan, who had passed the highest military examination with third place honor, and served in the metropolitan garrison30

The origins of the Boxer Uprising

Now we know that Yang Bing is a master of fifth generation and He born in Neihuangxian, not in Huaxian.31

About Feng Keshan and Meihuaquan:

In the 1800s, Feng Keshan developed the Mei Hua Quan or Plum Flower Boxing style. This style was strongly based on internal chi circulation and large external circular movements. It was developed out of the Shaolin system. In 1814, Feng recruited members for the Eight Diagrams Sect (Ba Qua Jiao) and participated in an anti-Ching uprising. He was caught by the Ching Court, found guilty, and executed by dismemberment. The Mei Hua style was attributed to Wu Mei (also called Ng Mui), who was a legendary figure – a Shaolin nun, in order to disguise Feng Keshan`s underground activities. The style was essentially a condensing of Shaolin`s best techniques into one system and with its own footwork patterns (five directions) unifying the techniques.32

The history of traditional Chinese martial arts: Southern Style During the Qing Dynasty

Unfortunately there aren't other sources who confirm that the style was attributed to Wu Mei. Feng Keshan is an Eighth Generation. The legend of Wu Mei came from another style named Wumeihuaquan or Wumeipai and are founding also in some tale of Yongchunquan, a field completely distant to Feng Keshan history and Meihuaquan.

Other Styles

Meishanquan

Meishanquan 梅山拳 (Plum Mountain Boxing) also known as Meihuaquan is a style created during the Song Dynasty in Meishan county of Hunan.3334 It has 77 sets.

Hunan Meihuaquan

A style named Meihuaquan was spread in Hunan during the period of Guanxu (光绪, 1875–1908), by the master Wan Fuzi (万福子), who learned it in Sichuan.

Emei Meihuaquan

Informations on the Emei Meihuaquan (峨嵋梅花拳, Plum Flower boxing of the Emei mountain) are much insufficient: Zhou Beitao (周北涛) told that has created a set with this name, than it is made up of beyond 100 figures, after a long meditation of forehead to the plants of Meihua.35 The book “Zhongguo Wushu Renmin Cidian 中国武术人名辞典” instead allegates that Zhou would have learned the Meihuaquan and the Taijiquan from Zhang Yimin (张镒民), in 1930.36 They exist then varied forms Meihuaquan calls inside of styles from Sichuan.

De'ang Meihuaquan

Between the members of etnia the De'ang (德昂族) of the Yunnan and the area south of the Sichuan a Meihuaquan is practiced since to the age of the Ming dynasty.Between 1795 and the 1804 a revolt in Sichuan, Shaanxi, Henan and Hubei taken place, dictates Chuanchu Bailianjiao Qi Yi (川楚白莲教起义, Rebellion of shism of the White Lotus in Sichuan and Hubei)or Chuanchu Jiao Luan (川楚教乱, Chaotic Schism of the Sichuan and the Hubei) that it carried this Plum Flower Boxing, to put itself in defiladed position.

Meihua Jiequan

Meihua Jie Quan 梅花捷拳 (Plum Blossom Fast Boxing)37 is a style of Chinese martial arts considered inner, although tasks are a ramification of the Shaolin School.Han Kuisheng (韩愧生), a man of the Shandong, practiced this boxing he transmitted and it to Fu Xiushan (傅秀山) from Yucheng (禹城). Fu has written and given to the press a book from the title it Jiequan Tushuo (捷拳图说)where it speaks about the style.38 Meihua Jie Quan emits the fists like the Xingyiquan, door the palm blows as the Baguazhang and possesses of the figures, like Yunu Chuansuo (玉女穿梭) and Danbian (单鞭),identical to the Taijiquan.It possesses 5 Basics Figures (Wushi): Pi (劈), Tiao (挑), Shan (闪), Chong (冲),Xie (斜). It uses three plans (High, Medium, low) like method for l' agility. The complete form is made up of 48 figures, comprised the start and the end positions, and is characterized from 12 ritmate formulas (十二字诀, Shier zi jue).

Shunshimen and Meihuaquan

Shunshimen (顺式门) appears as a style composite and a part of it are defined Meihuaquan. Queste le forme appartenenti alla parte del Meihuaquan: Meihuaquan (梅花拳), Chuanlinzhang (穿林掌), Bafangzhang (八方掌), Meihua Sanshou Ershi Shi (梅花散手二十式), Meihuaqiang (梅花枪), Wuhu qunyang gun (五虎群羊棍).39

Wumeiquan or Wumeipai

Wumeiquan (五枚拳, boxing of Wumei) or Wumeipai (School of Wumei) is a style of Chinese martial arts maybe put in Nanquan class. In some witnesses we find Wumeiquan (五梅拳, boxing of “5 plums”) with other ideograms. In cantonese it is Ng Mui Kuen. In the “Wumeiquan Quanpu” (五梅拳拳谱) it is narrated that the style has been handed on from a buddhist nun (尼姑) whose religious name was Wu Mei (五梅). For other traditions Wu Mei was Taoist nun (Daogu 道姑).This nun transmitted it to Huang Baoshan (黄宝善, also known like Huang Baolin, 黄宝林) in the city of Lufengxiang (庐丰乡) in the district of Shanghangxian (上杭) of the Fujian, which handed on in its turn it to Gong Rongguang (龚荣煌) of Lanxixiang (兰溪乡) always in Fujian.Gradually the school has spread in the Fujian and the Guangdong.The “annals of the County of Shanghang” (上杭县志, Shanghang Xianzhi) tell that Wumeiquan (五梅拳), the Orthodox Shaolin Boxing, at the end of the age of the Qing dynasty were diffused in the districts of Lanxi (蓝溪), Huangtan (黄潭), Taiba (太拔) and of the same Shanghang.These are some sequences by hand knot taught to New York: Tianguangzhang (天光掌); Wuxingquan (五行拳); Shier Dizhi (十二地支); etc. It must but to specify that in this style they often come practiced “free forms” and gives wide space to the free application of the movements. These are the weapons used in the school of the area of Shanghang Sanchiba (三齿耙); gou lian qiang (钩镰枪); qinglongdao (青龙刀); mupa (木耙); dandao (单刀); shuangdao (双刀); jian (剑); it was (斧); shuang tongchui (双铜锤); tiechi (铁尺); hutoupai (虎头牌); bandeng (板凳); etc.

See also: Ng Mui

Many Sets

Many styles have inside their programs sets named Plum Blossom Boxing. For example in Cailifo, Tanglangquan, Hongdong Tongbeiquan, Songshan Shaolinquan, Hongjiaquan, ecc.

Shaolin Meihuaquan

There are two sets named Shaolin meihuaquan 少林梅花拳 in Songshan Shaolinquan:40 Xiao Meihuaquan (Little Plum Blossom Fist) and Da Meihuaquan (Big Plum Blossom Fist). Xiao Meihuaquan is also known as Shaolin Ditang Meihuaquan.41 Is said that this sets are created by Jinnaluo Wang (紧那罗王).

Cailifo Xiao Meihuaquan

Cailifo 蔡李佛 (Choyleefut) little Plum Blossom Boxing (小梅花拳)42 is a famous set with this name.

Hongjia Meihuaquan (Hunggar Mui Fa Kuen)

Hongjia Meihuaquan (洪家梅花拳, Plum Blossom Fist of Hong Family) is a set of Hongjiaquan. Better known as Mui Fa Kuen, in Cantonese. Complete name is Shizi Meihuaquan (十字梅花拳, Crossing Plum Blossom Fist, in Cantonese Sap Ji Mui Fa Kuen).

Meihuaquan and Tanglangquan

Tanglangquan has varied connections with the Meihuaquan name. One of the main branches of the style is called Meihua Tanglangquan and another Taiji Meihua Tanglangquan.43 some forms are said Meihua and in particular one is called Meihuaquan.4445 Others are Meihualu (梅花路)46 e Meihuashou (梅花手).47 This 3 sets together “3 bloomed hands” are said; Jiang Hualong (姜化龙), founder of the branch Babu Tanglangquan, would have practiced Meihuaquan before beginning to study the boxing of Praying Mantis.48

Qilu Chaquan Meihuaquan

In Chaquan exists a Taolu that calls Meihuaquan and that it is Seventh Way of the Chaquan 七路查拳.49

Gu Ruzhang Bei Shaolin Meihuaquan

Another Seventh Way (Qilu, 七路) is a Meihuaquan of Bei Shaolin of Gu Ruzhang, form and style probably derived from the Chaquan.50

Qianhou Meihuaquan

Qianhou Meihuaquan, 前后梅花拳, is the name of a sequence of the Liuhequan.

Qimen and Meihuaquan

Qi School (亓门, qímén)51 contains a form dictates Meihuaquan that is a method of preparation boxing all' income in the school.

Further reading

  • Yang Yanming 杨彦明, Wu Tanhua Yang Bing yu "Xiwuxu" 武探花杨炳与"习武序" (Yang Bing, grado militare Tanhua, ed l' "ordine in cui ci si esercita militarmente"), Zhongguo Wenshi Chubanshe, Pechino, 2004 ISBN 7-5034-1405-7 /G
  • Kou Fengxian 冠凤仙 ed altri, Wuzi Meihuaquan 武子梅花拳, Renmin Tiyu Chuabanshe, 1991, ISBN 978-7-5009-0686-5
  • Han Jianzhong 韩建中, Meihuazhuang 梅花桩, Guangzhou kepu Chubanshe, 1987
  • Yan Zijie 燕子杰, Zhongguo Meihuazhuang wen wu dafa 中国梅花桩文武大法,
  • Yan Zijie 燕子杰, Zhongguo Meihuazhuang Xunlian Dafa中国梅花桩训练大法,
  • Han Jianzhong 韩建中, Wushi meihuazhuang shiyong ji ji shu五势梅花桩实用技击术, Bei Yu Chubanshe
  • Han Jianzhong 韩建中, Shiyong qinna fa实用擒拿法, Renmin Tiyu Chubanshe
  • Han Jianzhong 韩建中, Shiyong Hu Shen Jiji实用护身技击术, Beijing Tiyu Chubanshe
  • Han Jianzhong 韩建中, Shen zhao ke di 神招克敌, Beijing Tiyu Chubanshe,1996, ISBN 978-7-81003-920-8
  • Han Jianzhong 韩建中, Qin di zhi sheng ba shi ba fa 擒敌制胜八十八法, Beijing Tiyu Chubanshe
  • Yan Zijie 燕子杰, Zhongguo Meihuazhuang Chengquan da fa 中国梅花桩成拳大法,
  • Yan Zijie 燕子杰, Zhongguo Meihuazhuang Qixie de Lianfa 中国梅花桩器械的练法,
  • Yan Zijie 燕子杰, Zhongguo Meihuazhuang Jiji dafa 中国梅花桩技大法,
  • Wang Zhizong, Han Jianzhong e Yan Zijie, Cinq series d’exercise du Meihuazhuang, Editions Haifeng (versione in Cinese-Francese)
  • Wang Zhizong, Han Jianzhong e Yan Zijie, Five Ganzhi Meihuazhuang Techniques, Haifeng, (versione Cinese-Inglese)
  • Lu Gongli 卢恭礼, Meihuazhuang Quanshu 梅花桩拳术, Zhongguo Gongren Chubanshe
  • Yin Wei 尹伟, Meihuazhuang Ji fa Jing Cui 梅花桩技法精粹, Gong'an Daxue Chubanshe
  • Han Xue 韩雪, Zhongzhou Wushu Wenhua Yanjiu 中州武术文化研究, Renmin Tiyu Chubanshe, Beijing, 2006, ISBN 7-5009-3032-1
  • Cao Guangchao曹广超, Shuo Fo gui Dao meihuaquan 说佛归道梅花拳, article originally publishing on number 6 of Jingwu Magazine on 2007
  • Huang Dashou, Zhongguo quanshu jieshao – Meihuaquan, article originally publishing on number 9 of December 1999 of Xing yu Ming magazine

References

  1. ^ a b General introduction to Meihuaquan/Meihuazhuang: Chinese Kung-Fu Series 14, Five Ganzhi Meihuazhuang Techniques, (a bilingual text in Chinese and English) written by Wang Zhizhong, Han Jianzhong, and Yan Zijie, published by Hai Feng Publishing Co. Ltd. Third Edition 1995, Hai Feng Publishing Company ISBN 962-238-122-7
  2. ^ Meihuazhuang (pillars of meihua plum) , in
  3. ^ Very interesting about this question an article write by Cui Zhiqiang 崔志强, Cui Yongsheng 崔永胜,Zhang Shishan 张士闪 e Xie Peiqing谢培青, Meihuazhuang Quan Pai Wenchang Wuchang Xisu yu Chuantong Wenhua Jingshen 梅花桩拳派文场武场习俗与传统文化精神 (Use of Wenchang and Wuchang in Plum Blossom Piles School and essence of traditional culture), published on 04 number in 1996 in Shandong Tiyu Xueyuan Bao. This article tells about the origin of this distinction inside Taoist School Chuanzhen and many sects
  4. ^ The organization model of Mei boxing can be divided into two parts – literary and military, with the former leading the latter. The leading level of literary exercise gives emphasis on the research of theories which contain the essence of "Three Religions", responsible for the management of internal affairs of the boxing school; the pupils of the military exercise learn the boxing skills through the practice of martial arts. The level and form of the military practice can be divided into four parts, namely, posture, boxing forming, boxing wringing, and instruments in Xingtai Mei (Plum-Blossom) Boxing in [1]
  5. ^ see Books on references by Han Jianzhong, Yan Zijie, Wang Zizhong, Lu Gongli, etc.
  6. ^ Wuchang (pratique) comprend différents exercices comme le Jiazi, le Chengquan, le Ningquan, les Armes etc... , in [2]
  7. ^ Storti Enrico, Leijia Meihuaquan in
  8. ^ a b Kou Fengxian 冠凤仙 ed altri, Wuzi Meihuaquan 武子梅花拳, Renmin Tiyu Chuabanshe, 1991
  9. ^ For comfort and in order to distinguish it comes used in this article in order to indicate submits practiced them from Han Qingtang
  10. ^ Adam Hsu , Summary of Sifu Han Ching-Tan's Martial Art: Part 1 - Sifu Han's Life in Mainland China, article translated by Bruce J. L. Chang in [3]
  11. ^ Adam Hsu (original name in Chinese is Xu Ji,徐紀),Han shi Wuji Shuo 韓氏武技說 , in [4]
  12. ^ Adam Hsu , Mental Training: Long Fist's Secret Weapon Developing the Generals and CEO's of Tomorrow, article published in “Journal of the Traditional Wushu Association” in 1999
  13. ^ About the Maifuquan forms, Shizitang and Taizu Changquan of the Meihua Changquan, in deepened way a lot, of it speaks also Ted Mancuso in the article Mei Flower Fist, appeared originally in the review " Wushu Kungfu" of February 1997,
  14. ^ Wang Ding 王鼎, Shangcheng Meihuaquan 上乘梅花拳, Fujian Renmin Chubanshe, Fuzhou, 1998,, ISBN 7-211-02962-5
  15. ^ Wang Xiangzhai Tan Quan Xue Yaoyi 王芗斋谈拳学要义 published in 1940 into Pekin Shibao. The same article are titled Wang Xiangzhai Fangwenji 王芗斋访问记 on Xinminbao
  16. ^ Dachengquan Chuangshiren 大成拳创始人
  17. ^ Meihuaquan di 12 dai chuanren Jin Ligui : Henan canjia de Ao Yun xianqu 梅花拳第12代传人金丽贵:河南参加的奥运先驱, in Hubei Ribao
  18. ^ video of a set of Dandao by Meihuaquan School in Taiwan, named Meihuadao [5]
  19. ^ Meihuagun in Taiwan
  20. ^ video of Meihuaqiang in Taiwan
  21. ^ Shuangjiegun in Taiwan
  22. ^ Sanjiegun in Taiwan
  23. ^ usually writing Bishou (匕首)
  24. ^ Storti Enrico, Le armi nel Meihuaquan, articolo apparso in [6], 02.05.2009
  25. ^ History of Meihuazhuang , in
  26. ^ This is a free translation made from Luca Bizzi of a small paragraph of Meihua Quanshu – Jianjie 梅花拳術-簡介 (Plum Blossom Boxing Art – Introduction ), signed article by Chang Dsu Yao, in Wutan Magazine, Taiwan
  27. ^ Cohen Paul A., History in three keys: The Boxers as Event, Experience, and Myth, New York: Columbia University Press, 1997
  28. ^ The Economist, December 2010. Retrieved March 2011.
  29. ^ Esherick Joseph, The origin of the Boxer Uprising, University Of California Press, 1988, pag.148
  30. ^ Joseph W. Esherick, The origins of the Boxer Uprising, pp 148-149
  31. ^ Yang Yanming 杨彦明, Wu Tanhua Yang Bing yu "Xiwuxu" 武探花杨炳与"习武序", Zhongguo Wenshi Chubanshe, Pechino, 2004 ISBN 7-5034-1405-7 /G
  32. ^ Salvatore Canzonieri, The story of traditional Chinese martial arts: Southern Style During the Qing Dynasty , article in Han Wei Wushu Newsletter (April 1997 issues #29)
  33. ^ The system is showing in a book Chen Yiqiu 陈益球, Meishan Wugong 梅山武功 (Martial Work of Meishan), Hunan Kexue Jishu Chubanshe, 1987, ISBN 75357010
  34. ^ On 2000 year Guangzhou Qiao Jiaren Chubanshe published a series of VCD titled Meishan Wushu Xilie 梅山武术系列, showing by Yan Xizheng 晏西征. Some title: Lan Cao Chan Ma (烂草缠麻) , Meishan Da Hongquan (梅山大洪拳), Shuang Zhu Lian Cao (双猪恋槽) , Menghu Xiashan (猛虎下山).
  35. ^ (es)Emei Meihuaquan , in [7]; Emei Plum Blossom Boxing There are many kinds of plum blossom boxing. The Emei type evolved by Sichuan's Zhao Beitao amalgamates the strong points of several varieties and acquires an easy flowing style of its own. The whole set comprises more than 100 movements which are distinctly of offensive and defensive nature, and is performed at a stretch of within 2 minutes. It is said that Zhou Beitao had spent a whole winter working under plum trees before he succeeded in creating this style of boxing. Hence the name Emei Plum Blossom Boxing. in Colourful Emei Boxing in [8]
  36. ^ Chang Cang 昌沧, Zhou Lishang 周荔裳e altri , Zhongguo Wushu Renming Cidian 中国武术人名辞典, Renmin Tiyu Chubanshe,1994, ISBN 7-5009-0951-9
  37. ^ Shi Ligang施李刚, Qin Yanbo 秦彦博 e altri, "Zhongguo Wushu Da Cidian中国武术大辞典" (The Great Dictionary of the Chinese Martial Arts), Renmin Tiyu Chubanshe,1990, ISBN 7-5009-0463-0, pag.34
  38. ^ Fu Xiushan 傅秀山, Jiequan Tushuo 捷拳图说 , Shanghai Dadong Shuju , Shanghai 193
  39. ^ Yuan Guojun (袁国俊), series of VCD titled Meihuaquan Pai Shiyong Jiji 梅花拳派实用技击
  40. ^ Geng Jun 耿軍 ,Meihuaquan 梅花拳, Renmin tiyu chubanshe, 2006, ISBN 7-5009-2841-6
  41. ^ The Shaolin Traditional Kungfu Series 少林传统功夫系列 / Shaolin Plum-blossom Quan 少林梅花拳 , showing byShi Dejun 释德君, Renmin tiyu chubanshe, ISRC CN-M23-05-0085-0
  42. ^ Wen Yaoqiang 温耀强, Cailifo Meihuaquan 蔡李佛梅花拳, Xiang Gang Yi Mei Tushu, 1984
  43. ^ Zhang Bingdou 張炳斗 e Zhang Kui 張奎, Taiji Meihua Tanglangquan 太極梅花螳螂拳, Xinchaoshe Chubanshe, 2006, ISBN 986-167-087-4
  44. ^ Huang Hanxun 黃漢勛, Tanglang Meihuaquan 螳螂梅花拳, Hualian Chubanshe, 1985, ISBN 6694095937
  45. ^ Huang Hanxun 黄汉勋, Meihuaquan 梅花拳, Xiang Gang Yi Mei Tushu Gongsi, 1976
  46. ^ Geng Jun 耿軍 e Zhao Huibin 趙會斌, Qixing Tanglangquan – Meihualu 七星螳螂拳-梅花路, Renmin Tiyu Chubanshe, 2006, ISBN 7-5009-2844-0
  47. ^ Huang Hanxun 黃漢勛,Tanglang Meihuashou Quan 螳螂梅花手拳,Hualian Chubanshe, ISBN 6694095953
  48. ^ Fernando Blanco Dopazo, Jiang Hualong
  49. ^ Liu Hongchi 刘鸿池 , Chuatong Chaquan (zhong)传统查拳(中) , Renmin Tiyu Chubanshe, 2006, ISBN 750092989, the seventh chapter is dedicated it to the Meihuaquan
  50. ^ Master Chin Kam, student of Gu Ruzhang, is convinced that it is varying of the Chaquan style, even if the majority of people that practise it think that it came from Shaolin Temple of the Songshan. Another test of this assertion is in the numeration of the Taolu, their names and the same likeness
  51. ^ Qimen yu liuhemen quan xiexi lie 亓门与六合门拳械系列 (Series on the boxings of the Qi school and the school of the Six Coordinations), is a series VCD demonstrated from Li Wenjin 李文静 and produced from Guangzhou Qiao Jiaren 广州俏佳人 in 2007. These some titles : 1) Erlangquan 二郎拳 2) Meihuaquan 梅花拳 3) Meihuadao 梅花刀 4) Qinglongjian 青龙剑 5) Liuhe shuangbian 六合双鞭 6) Liuhe lianhua shuangjian 六合莲花双剑 7) Qimen batang ban lan shou 亓门八趟搬拦手

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