Megalopolis (city type)

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Megalopolis (city type)

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A megalopolis (sometimes improperly called a megapolis) or megaregion is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas. The term was used by Patrick Geddes in his 1915 book Cities in Evolution,1 by Oswald Spengler in his 1918 book, The Decline of the West, and Lewis Mumford in his 1938 book, The Culture of Cities, which described it as the first stage in urban overdevelopment and social decline. Later, it was used by Jean Gottmann in 1954, to describe the chain of metropolitan areas along the northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, Massachusetts through New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and ending in Washington, D.C. and Northern Virginia.234 The latter is sometimes called the "BosNYWash megalopolis".

Definitions

A megalopolis is a Western deformation of the Greek word that derived from Greek: μέγας - great and Greek: πόλις - city therefore literally a great city. Because in Greek, πόλις is feminine, the correct term is "megalopolis". The metric prefix mega- represents the number of million (1,000,000) in the metric system.

A megalopolis, also known as a megaregion, is a clustered network of cities. Gottmann defined its population as 25 million.5 Doxiadis defined a small megalopolis a similar cluster with a population of about 10 million.678 America 2050,9 a program of the Regional Plan Association, lists 11 megaregions in the United States and Canada.6 Literally, megalopolis in Greek means a city of exaggerated size where the prefix megalo- represents a quantity of exaggerated size.10 Megapolitan areas were explored in a July 2005 report by Robert E. Lang and Dawn Dhavale of the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech.11 A later 2007 article by Lang and Nelson uses 20 megapolitan areas grouped into 10 megaregions.12 The concept is based on the original Megalopolis model.8

Modern interlinked ground transportation corridors, such as rail and highway, often aid in the development of megalopolises. Using these commuter passageways to travel throughout the megalopolis is informally called megaloping. This term was coined by Davide Gadren and Stefan Berteau.13

Africa

Asia

East Asia

China

Emerging megalopolises in China (in decreasing order of population):

  • The central Liaoning city cluster in China. Within 150 km from its center Shenyang (7.2 million), it has Fushun (3 million), Anshan City (3.6 million), Benxi (1.5 million), Liaoyang (1.8 million), Yingkou (2.2 million), Panjin (1.2 million), and Tieling (3.4 million), with a total population of 23 million. And it can be further extended to Dalian (6.2 million), Fuxin (2 million) and Dandong (2.4 million). This area used to be the most industrialized region in China. It declined during 1980s-1990s, but in recent years, it has rapidly revived.

In July 2012, the Economist Intelligence Unit brought out a report entitled; Supersized cities: China’s 13 megalopolises, which pinpoints the 13 emerging megalopolises in China, and highlights the demographic and income trends that are shaping their development.

Japan

South Korea

(24,000,000)21

(8,500,000)citation needed

India / South Asia

South City in Kolkata, India
  • West Bengal-Kolkata-Murshidabad (35,000,000)
  • Indo-Gangetic-Brahmaputra Plain Megalopolis[Guwahati-Dhaka-Kolkata-Patna-Lucknow-Delhi-Chandigarh-Lahore-Multan-Karachi] (176,500,000)
  • S. India [Bengaluru-Chennai] (25,000,000)
  • Maharashtra [Mumbai-Pune] (30,000,000)
  • Gujarat [Ahmedabad-Surat] (14,000,000)

Iran

  • Greater Tehran: A region located in Iranian Tehran and Alborz Province in central Northern Iran with its influence expanding in Qom Province, Qazvin Province and Mazandaran Province, home for at least 15 million people, it is one of the most populous urban areas in the Greater Middle East and the surrounding regions. Tehran was a small village 200 years ago when it was first chosen as the Capital city and it has been growing at a very fast rate.

Southeast Asia

Largest megalopolis in South East Asia (in decreasing order of population):

Europe

The Blue Banana
The Golden Banana

Transnational

Rank Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Blue Banana 11024 LiverpoolManchesterLeedsBirminghamLondonBrusselsAntwerpAmsterdamRotterdamThe HagueLuxembourgRhine-RuhrFrankfurt am MainMunichStuttgartStrasbourgBaselZürichTurinMilan
2 Golden Banana 3025 TurinGenoaLyonMonacoNiceToulonMarseilleNîmesMontpellierNarbonnePerpignanToulouseAndorra
Manresa

GironaBarcelonaTarragonaCastellón de la PlanaSaguntValenciaAlicanteMurciaCartagena

France

Rank Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Paris metropolitan area 12,326 Paris & most of Île-de-France
2 Lyon economic region 5,5 25 Lyon & Rhône-Alpes river area
3 Marseille metropolitan region 1,8 25 Marseille, Aix-en-Provence
4 Toulouse economic region 1,5 25 Toulouse, Andorra (independent state, not part of France
5 Nice economic region 1,1 25 Nice, Monaco (independent city state, not part of France

Germany2725

Rank Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Rhine-Ruhr 11,5 Cologne, Düsseldorf, Dortmund, Essen
2 Berlin-Brandenburg 5,95 Berlin, Potsdam
3 Frankfurt Rhine-Main 5,52 Frankfurt, Wiesbaden, Mainz
4 Stuttgart Metropolitan Region 1,5 25 Stuttgart
5 Saxon triangle 1,1 25 Leipzig, Halle, Dresden

Italy2825

Rank Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Grande Milano 7,5 Milan
2 Naples metropolitan area 4,46 Naples
3 Rome metropolitan area 4,3 Rome
4 Turin economic region 4,1 Turin & Piedmont centre and south area
5 Genoa metropolitan region 1,5 Genoa

Low Countries25

Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg:

Rank Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Randstad 7,5 Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht
2 Flemish Diamond 5,5 Brussels, Antwerp

Spain25

Rank Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Greater Barcelona 6,1 Barcelona & coastal towns of Catalonia
2 Madrid region 5,8 Madrid
3 Valencia 2,2 Valencia, Sagunto
3 Murcia-Alicante 2,2 Murcia, Alicante, Cartagena, Benidorm

United Kingdom

Rank Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 London commuter belt 21,029 London, Southend-on-Sea, Chatham, Luton, Reading
2 Northern England 9,42530 Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield, Warrington, Bradford, Birkenhead, Preston, Blackburn, Blackpool
3 English midlands 6,32531 Birmingham, Nottingham, Coventry, Leicester, Wolverhampton, Derby, Stoke-on-Trent
4 Scottish Lowlands 3,632 Glasgow, Edinburgh
5 South Hampshire-Brighton 2,82533 Southampton, Portsmouth, Brighton, Worthing, Littlehampton, Bournemouth
6 Tyne & Wear Region 2,22534 Newcastle, Sunderland, Middlesbrough
7 Cardiff-Bristol-Swansea 2,22535 Cardiff, Bristol, Swansea, Newport

North America

MapofEmergingUSMegaregions.png

Canada

Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
2000
Population
in millions
2025 (projected)
Population
percent growth 2000 - 2025 (projected)
Major cities Related articles
Quebec City – Windsor Corridor 18 21 16.7% Hamilton, Kitchener, London, Mississauga, Montreal, Oshawa, Ottawa, Quebec City, Toronto, Windsor Quebec City – Windsor Corridor, Southern Ontario
Calgary-Edmonton Corridor 2 4 100% Calgary, Edmonton, Red Deer, St. Albert, Airdrie Calgary-Edmonton Corridor, Calgary Region, Edmonton Capital Region, Central Alberta

Mexico

Greater Mexico City
Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
2000
Population
in millions
2025 (projected)
Population
percent growth 2000 - 2025 (projected)
Major cities Related articles
Bajío 5.1  ?  ?% León, Querétaro, Aguascalientes, Celaya, Irapuato, San Francisco del Rincón Bajío
Greater Mexico City 28  ?  ?% Mexico City, Puebla, Cuernavaca, Toluca and Pachuca Central Mexico

United States636

Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
2000
Population
in millions
2025 (projected)
Population
percent growth 2000 - 2025 (projected)
Major cities Related articles
Arizona Sun Corridor3738 5.7 7.4 29.8% Mesa, Phoenix, Tucson, Prescott Arizona Sun Corridor, Arizona, Valley of the Sun
Cascadia 10.3 10.2 -1.0% Abbotsford, Boise, Eugene, Portland (OR), Salem, Seattle, Tacoma, Spokane, Tri-Cities, Vancouver (BC), Vancouver (WA), Victoria Pacific Northwest, Metro Vancouver
Florida 14.7 21.4 45.6% Fort Lauderdale, Jacksonville, Miami, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tampa South Florida, Central Florida, North Florida
Front Range 4.7 6.8 44.7% Albuquerque, Cheyenne, Colorado Springs, Denver, Pueblo, Rio Rancho, Santa Fe, Taos Front Range Urban Corridor
Gulf Coast 11.7 15.8 35.0% Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Houston, Mobile, Gulfport, Biloxi, New Orleans, Pensacola Gulf Coast
Great Lakes 54.1 64.3 18.9% Akron, Ann Arbor, Buffalo, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Des Moines, Detroit, Duluth, Erie, Flint, Fort Wayne, Green Bay, Grand Rapids, Hamilton, Indianapolis, Kalamazoo, Kansas City, Lansing, London, Madison, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Oshawa, Ottawa, Pittsburgh, Quad Cities, Rochester (NY), Rochester (MN), Rockford, Saginaw, St. Louis, Saint Paul, Toledo, Toronto, Windsor Great Lakes region, Midwestern United States
Northeast 49.6 58.1 17.1% Allentown-Bethlehem, Atlantic City, Baltimore, Boston, Harrisburg, Nashua, Newark, New York, Norfolk, Ocean City, Philadelphia, Portland (ME), Providence, Richmond, Knowledge Corridor (Springfield and Hartford), Trenton, Virginia Beach, Washington, Wilmington, Worcester Northeast megalopolis, Northeast Corridor, New England, Middle Atlantic
Northern California 12.7 17.3 36.2% Fresno, Modesto, Oakland, Reno, Sacramento, San Francisco, San Jose, Stockton California megapolitan areas
Piedmont Atlantic 14.9 20.5 37.6% Atlanta, Birmingham, Charlotte, Greensboro, Greenville, Huntsville, Knoxville, Memphis, Montgomery, Nashville, Raleigh, Winston-Salem Piedmont, New South, South Atlantic States, I-85 Corridor, Piedmont Crescent
Southern California 24.9 34.7 39.4% Anaheim, Bakersfield, Las Vegas, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Tijuana California megapolitan areas
Texas Triangle 16.5 26.8 62.4% Austin, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio TTC-35, I-35 Corridor

Oceania

Australia

Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
2000
Population
in millions
2025 (projected)
Population
percent growth 2000 - 2025 (projected)
Major cities Related articles
East Coast 9 18+  ?% Brisbane, Canberra, Gold Coast Melbourne, Newcastle, Sydney and Wollongong Eastern states of Australia

South America

Composite image of the Earth at night, created by NASA and NOAA. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. It is possible to see various metropolises close to each other in South America, but to the exception of a few central Argentine cities close to Buenos Aires, only in between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo there is a continual strip of urbanization (that is not as thin as the Argentine ones).

Peru

Megalopolis Name Population
in
2013
Major cities Other cities
Lima-Callao Megalopolis 10,523,796 Lima and Callao Provincias Lima Norte, Provincias Lima Sur, and Provincias Lima Este

Brazil

Megalopolis Name Population
in
2010
Major cities Other cities
Rio-São Paulo Megalopolis 45,678,990 São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro Santos, Campinas, Niterói and São José dos Campos
Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo 30 millions São Paulo and Campinas Sorocaba, Jundiaí, São José dos Campos and Piracicaba

See also

References

  1. ^ Geddes, Patrick (1915). Cities in Evolution. London: Williams & Norgate. 
  2. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1954). L'Amerique. Paris: Hachette. 
  3. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1957). "Megalopolis, or the urbanization of the Northeastern Seaboard". Economic Geography 33 (3): 189–200. doi:10.2307/142307. 
  4. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1961). Megalopolis. The Urbanized Northeastern seaboard of the United States. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund. 
  5. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1989). Since Megalopolis. The Urban Writings of Jean Gottmann. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 163. 
  6. ^ a b c http://www.america2050.org/megaregions.html
  7. ^ http://www.bnet.com/2403-13070_23-192951.html
  8. ^ a b Cities: Capital for the New Megalopolis.Time magazine, November 4, 1966. Retrieved on July 19, 2010.
  9. ^ http://www.america2050.org/about.html
  10. ^ Definition of the prefix megalo-. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
  11. ^ http://www.mi.vt.edu/uploads/megacensusreport.pdf "Beyond Megalopolis" by the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech
  12. ^ http://www.surdna.org/usr_doc/The_Rise_of_the_Megapolitans.pdf
  13. ^ Tremble, Sam (May 30, 2007). "Fumbling Toward Portland". Philadelphia City Paper. 
  14. ^ http://www.joburg.org.za/2006/aug/aug30_globalcity.stm
  15. ^ http://www.joburg.org.za/2006/july/jul20_cityregion.stm
  16. ^ M Shilowa to debate Gauteng's position on global city region, 29 Aug
  17. ^ report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'
  18. ^ http://www.china.com.cn/chinese/zhuanti/qy/550016.htm
  19. ^ Vidal, John (2010-03-22). "UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'". The Guardian (London). 
  20. ^ "Foreign investment shows trend of "moving northward"". china-embassy.org. 2004-05-14. Retrieved 2010-01-09. 
  21. ^ A government publication states that on 1 November 2010, the population of “Seoul Metropolitan Area” stood at 23,616 thousand, which is the sum of the figures given for Gyeonggi-do (11,270 thousand), Seoul (9,708 thousand) and Incheon (2,638 thousand), apparently including the periphery.
    Source: “Preliminary Results of the 2010 Population and Housing Census” (PDF). Statistics Korea. 21 January 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
  22. ^ http://www.bbw.gov.cn/staticpages/20090319/bbw49c2670d-2117.shtml
  23. ^ http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/english/200009/02/eng20000902_49585.html
  24. ^ http://www.eu-partner.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9:the-blue-banana&catid=1:news&Itemid=16
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p From Territorial Cohesion to the New Regionalized Europe
  26. ^ INSEE - Paris
  27. ^ EMR
  28. ^ Brookings
  29. ^ Greater London Authority
  30. ^ ESPON
  31. ^ ESPON
  32. ^ ESPON
  33. ^ ESPON
  34. ^ ESPON
  35. ^ ESPON
  36. ^ Regional Plan Association (2008). America 2050: An Infrastructure Vision for 21st Century America. New York: Regional Plan Association.
  37. ^ "Megapolitan: Arizona's Sun Corridor". Morrison Institute for Public Policy. May 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  38. ^ "When Phoenix, Tucson Merge". The Arizona Republic. 2006-04-09. Retrieved 2008-06-03.