Mantra

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"Om Shanti" redirects here. For the 2010 film, see Om Shanti (film). For other uses, see Mantra (disambiguation).
The Om syllable is considered a mantra in its own right in Vedanta school of Hinduism.
In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of meditation.
A mantra chant set to Indian classical music (6 minutes 19 seconds)1

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"Mantra" (/ˈmæntrə, ˈmɑːn-, ˈmʌn-/;2 Sanskrit: मंत्र) means a sacred utterance, numinous sound, or a syllable, word, phonemes, or group of words believed by some to have psychological and spiritual power.34 Mantra may or may not be syntactic or have literal meaning; the spiritual value of mantra comes when it is audible, visible, or present in thought.35

Earliest mantras were composed in Vedic times by Hindus in India, and those are at least 3000 years old.6 Mantras are now found in various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism.47 Similar hymns, chants, compositions and concepts are found in Zoroastrianism,8 Taoism, Christianity and elsewhere.3

The use, structure, function, importance and types of mantras vary according to the school and philosophy of Hinduism and of Buddhism. Mantras serve a central role in the tantric school of Hinduism.69 In this school, mantras are considered equivalent to deities, a sacred formula and deeply personal ritual, and considered to be effective only after initiation. However, in other schools of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism or Sikhism, this is not so.810

Mantras come in many forms, including ṛc (verses from Rigveda for example) and sāman (musical chants from the Sāmaveda for example).36 They are typically melodic, mathematically structured meters, resonant with numinous qualities. At its simplest, the word ॐ (Aum, Om) serves as a mantra. In more sophisticated forms, they are melodic phrases with spiritual interpretations such as human longing for truth, reality, light, immortality, peace, love, knowledge and action.310 In other forms, they are literally meaningless, yet musically uplifting and spiritually meaningful.6

Etymology and origins

Mantras written on a rock near Namche Bazaar Nepal

The Sanskrit word mantra- (m.; also n. mantram) consists of the root man- "to think" (also in manas "mind") and the suffix -tra, designating tools or instruments, hence a literal translation would be "instrument of thought".1112

Scholars36 consider mantras to be older than 1000 BC. By the middle Vedic period - 1000 BC to 500 BC - claims Frits Staal, mantras in Hinduism had developed into a blend of art and science to include verses, saman, yajus, and nigada.6

The Chinese translation is zhenyan 眞言, 真言, literally "true words", the Japanese on'yomi reading of the Chinese being shingon (which is also used as the proper name for the prominent esoteric Shingon sect).

According to Schlerath, the concept of sātyas mantras is found in Indo-Iranian Yasna 31.6 and Rigveda, where it means more than 'true Word', it is considered formulated thought which is in conformity with the reality or poetic (religious) formula with inherent fulfillment.13

Mantras are neither unique to Hinduism, nor to other Indian religions such as Buddhism; similar creative constructs developed in Asian and Western traditions as well.6 Mantras, suggests Staal, may be older than language.

Definition

There is no generally accepted definition of mantra.14

Renou has defined mantra as thought.15 Mantras are structured formulae of thoughts, claims Silburn.16 Farquhar concludes that mantras are a religious thought, prayer, sacred utterance, but also believed to be a spell or weapon of supernatural power.17 Zimmer defines mantra as a verbal instrument to produce something in one’s mind.18 Bharati defines mantra, in the context of tantric school of Hinduism, to be a combination of mixed genuine and quasi morphemes arranged in conventional patterns, based on codified esoteric traditions, passed on from a guru to a disciple through prescribed initiation.19

Jan Gonda, a widely cited scholar on Indian mantras,20 defines mantra as general name for the verses, formulas or sequence of words in prose which contain praise, are believed to have religious, magical or spiritual efficiency, which are meditated upon, recited, muttered or sung in a ritual, and which are collected in the methodically arranged ancient texts of Hinduism.21 There is no universally applicable uniform definition of mantra because mantras are used in different religions, and within each religion in different schools of philosophy. In some schools of Hinduism for example, suggests Gonda, mantra is sakti (power) to the devotee in the form of formulated and expressed thought.3 Staal clarifies that mantras are not rituals, they are what is recited or chanted during a ritual.6

The meaning or meaninglessness of mantras

Hindu's mantra for universe as source of knowledge, sun as source of primordial energy (19 seconds)

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There has been a long, scholarly disagreement on the meaning of mantras and whether they are really instruments of mind as implied by the etymological origin of the word mantra. One school suggests mantras are mostly meaningless sound constructs, the other school suggests mantras are mostly meaningful linguistic instruments of mind.10 Both schools agree that mantras have melody, a well designed mathematical precision in their construction, and their influence on the reciter and listener is similar to one observed on people around the world listening to their beloved music that is devoid of words.36

Staal6 presents a non-linguistic view of mantras. He suggests that verse mantras are metered and harmonized to mathematical precision (for example, in the viharanam technique), which resonate, but a lot of them are hodge podge meaningless constructs that is found in folk music around the world. Staal cautions that there are many mantras that can be translated and do have spiritual meaning and philosophical themes central to Hinduism, but that does not mean all mantras have literal meaning. He further notes that even when mantras do not have literal meaning, they do set a tone and ambience in the ritual they are recited, and thus have a straightforward and uncontroversial ritual meaning.6 The sounds may lack literal meaning, but they can have an effect. He compares mantras to bird songs, that have the power to communicate, yet do not have a literal meaning.22 On saman category of Hindu mantras, which Staal calls as resembling the arias of Bach's oratorios and other European classics, he notes that these mantras have musical structure, but they almost always are completely different from anything in the syntax of natural languages known to man. Mantras are literally meaningless, yet musically meaningful to Staal.23 The saman chant mantras were transmitted, from one Hindu generation to next, verbally for over 1000 years, but never written, a feat suggests Staal that was made possible by the strict mathematical principles used in constructing the mantras. These saman chant mantras are also mostly meaningless, cannot be literally translated as Sanskrit or any Indian language, but nevertheless are beautiful in their resonant themes, variations, inversions and distribution.6 They draw the devotee in. Staal is not the first person to view Hindu mantras in this manner. The ancient Hindu Vedic ritualist Kautsa was one of the earliest scholars to note that mantras are meaningless; its function is phonetic and syntactic, not semantic.24

Harvey Alper,25 along with others,26 present the linguistic view of mantras. They admit Staal's observation that many mantras do contain bits and pieces of meaningless jargon, but they question what language or text doesn't. Presence of superfluous abracadabra bits, does not necessarily imply the entire work is meaningless. Alper lists numerous mantras that have philosophical themes, moral principles, a call to virtuous life, and even mundane petitions. He suggests that from a set of millions of mantras, the devotee chooses some mantras voluntarily, thus this expresses the intention of that speaker, and the audience for that mantra is that speaker's chosen spiritual entity. Mantra deploy the language of spiritual expression, they are religious instruments, and that is what matters to the devotee. Mantras create a feeling in the practicing person, it has an emotive numinous effect, it mesmerizes, it defies expression, it creates sensations that are by definition private, and at the heart of all religions and spiritual phenomena.31927

Hinduism

History of Hindu mantras

During early vedic period, claims Staal,6 Vedic poets became fascinated by the inspirational power of poems, metered verses and music. They referred to them with the root dhi-, which evolved into dhyana (meditation) of Hinduism, and the language used to start and assist this process manifested as mantra. By middle vedic period (1000 BC to 500 BC), mantras were derived from all vedic compositions. They included ṛc (verses from Rigveda for example), sāman (musical chants from the Sāmaveda for example), yajus (a muttered formula from the yajurveda for example), and nigada (a loudly spoken yajus). During the Hindu Epics period and after, mantras multiplied in many ways and diversifed to meet the needs and passions of various schools of Hinduism. Mantras took a center stage in Tantric school.28 The tantric school posited that each mantra (bijas) is a deity;9 it is this distinct school of Hinduism and 'each mantra is a deity' reasoning that led to the perception that some Hindus have tens of millions of gods.

Function and structure of Hindu mantras

One function of mantras is to solemnize and ratify rituals.29 Each mantra, in Vedic rituals, coupled to acts. According to Apastamna Srauta Sutra, each ritual act is accompanied by one mantra, unless the Sutra explicitly marks that one act corresponds to several mantras. According to Gonda,30 and others31 there is a connection and rationale between a Vedic mantra and each Vedic ritual act that accompanies it. In these cases, the function of mantras was to be an instrument of ritual efficacy for the priest, and an instrument of instruction for ritual act for others.

Over time, as the Puranas and Epics were composed, the concepts of worship, virtues and spirituality evolved in Hinduism. Religions such as Jainism and Buddhism branched off, new schools were founded. Each of these continued developing and refining their own mantras. In Hinduism, suggests Alper,32 the function of mantras shifted from quotidian to redemptive. In other words,33 in Vedic times, mantras were recited with a practical quotidian goal as intention, goal such as requesting a deity's help in discovery of lost cattle, cure from illness, succeeding in competitive sport or journey away from home. Literal translation of Vedic mantras suggest that the function of mantra, in these cases, was to cope with the uncertainties and dilemmas of daily life. In later period of Hinduism,34 mantras were recited with a transcendental redemptive goal as intention, goal such as escape from cycle of life and rebirth, forgiveness for bad karma, experiencing spiritual connection with the god. The function of mantra, in these cases, was to cope with the human condition as a whole. According to Alper,10 redemptive spiritual mantras opened the door for sounds and structure of mantras where every part need not have literal meaning, but together their resonance and musical quality assisted the transcendental spiritual process. Overall, explains Alper with Śivasūtra mantras example, Hindu mantras have philosophical themes, are metaphoric with social dimension and meaning; in other words, they are a spiritual language and instrument of thought.34

According to Staal,6 Hindu mantras may be spoken aloud, anirukta (not enunciated), upamsu (inaudible), or recited manasa (not spoken, but recited in mind). In ritual use, mantras are often silent, they are instruments of meditation.

Examples

The most basic mantra is Om, which in Hinduism is known as the "pranava mantra," the source of all mantras. The Hindu philosophy behind this is the premise that before existence and beyond existence is only One reality, Brahma, and the first manifestation of Brahma expressed as Om. For this reason, Om is considered as a foundational idea and reminder, and thus is prefixed and suffixed to all Hindu prayers. While some mantras may invoke individual Gods or principles, fundamental mantras, like the 'Shanti Mantra,' the 'Gayatri Mantra' and others all ultimately focus on the One reality.

Tantric school

In the tantric school the universe is sound.citation needed The supreme (para) brings forth existence through the Word (Shabda). Creation consists of vibrations at various frequencies and amplitudes giving rise to the phenomena of the world.

Buhnemann notes deity mantras are an essential part of Tantric compendia. The tantric mantras vary in their structure and length. Malamantras are those mantras which have very large number of syllables. In contrast, are bija mantras, which are one-syllabled typically ending in anusvara (a simple nasal sound). These are derived from the name of deity; for example, deity Durga yields dum and deity Ganesha yields gam. Bija mantras are prefixed and appended to other mantras thereby creating complex mantras. In tantric school, these mantras are believed to have supernatural powers, and they are transmitted by a preceptor to a disciple in an initiation ritual.35 Tantric mantras found a significant audience and adaptations in medieval India, Hindu southeast Asia and numerous Asian countries with Buddhism.36

Majumdar, and other scholars337 suggest mantras are central to tantric school, with numerous functions: from initiating and emancipating a tantric devotee to worshiping manifested forms of the divine, from enabling heightened sexual energy in the male and the female to acquiring supranormal psychological and spiritual power, from preventing evil influences to exorcizing demons, and many others.38 These claimed functions and other aspects of tantric mantra are a subject of controversy among scholars.39 Tantra school is not unique to Hinduism, it is also found in Buddhism in India and outside India.40

Mantra japa

Main article: Japa

Mantra japa is a practice of repetitive muttering the same mantra for an auspicious number of times, the most popular being 108, and sometimes just 5, 10, 28 or 1008.34142 Japa is found in personal prayer or meditative efforts of some Hindus, as well during formal puja (group prayers). These japas are assisted by malas (bead necklaces) containing 108 beads and a head bead (sometimes referred to as the 'meru', or 'guru' bead). The devotee performing japa using his/her fingers counts each bead as he/she repeats the chosen mantra. Having reached 108 repetitions, if he/she wishes to continue another cycle of mantras, the devotee turns the mala around without crossing the head bead and repeats the cycle.43 Japa-yajna is claimed to be most effective if the mantra is repeated silently in mind (manasah).41

According to this school, any shloka from holy Hindu texts like the Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, Yoga Sutra, even the Mahabharata, Ramayana, Durga saptashati or Chandi is a mantra, thus can be part of the japa, repeated to achieve numinous effect.444546 The Dharmasāstra claims Gāyatri mantra derived from Rig Veda verse 3.62.10, and the Purușasūkta mantra from Rig Veda verse 10.90 are most auspicious mantras for japa at sunrise and sunset; it is claimed to purify the mind and spirit.3

Notable Hindu mantras

Mantra of the Hare Krishna bhakti school of Hinduism
Gayatri
Main article: Gayatri Mantra
The Gayatri mantra is considered one of the most universal of all Hindu mantras, invoking the universal Brahman as the principle of knowledge and the illumination of the primordial Sun. The mantra is extracted from the 10th verse of Hymn 62 in Book III of Rig Veda.47
ॐ भूर्भुवस्व: | तत्सवितुर्वरेण्यम् | भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि | धियो यो न: प्रचोदयात्
Oṁ Bhūr Bhuva~Swah' Tat Savitur varenyam bhargo devasya dhīmahi dhiyo yo nah prachodayāt,48
"Let us meditate on that excellent glory of the divine Light (Vivifier, Sun). May he stimulate our understandings (knowledge, intellectual illumination).47
Pavamana mantra
Main article: Pavamana Mantra
असतोमा सद्गमय । तमसोमा ज्योतिर् गमय । मृत्योर्मामृतं गमय ॥
asato mā sad gamaya, tamaso mā jyotir gamaya, mṛtyor māmṛtaṃ gamaya (Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad 1.3.28)49
"from the unreal lead me to the real, from the dark lead me to the light, from death lead me to immortality.
Shanti mantra
Main article: Shanti Mantra
Oṁ Sahanā vavatu
sahanau bhunaktu
Sahavīryam karavāvahai
Tejasvi nāvadhītamastu
Mā vidviṣāvahai
Oṁ Shāntiḥ, Shāntiḥ, Shāntiḥ.
"Om! Let the Studies that we together undertake be effulgent;
"Let there be no Animosity amongst us;
"Om! Peace, Peace, Peace.
Taittiriya Upanishad 2.2.2

There are numerous other important mantras.50

Transcendental Meditation

The Transcendental Meditation technique, also known as 'TM', uses mantras that are assigned to the practitioner to be used as thought sound only, not chanted, without connection to any meaning or idea.51

The spiritual exercises of Surat Shabda Yoga include simran (repetition, particularly silent repetition of a mantra given at initiation), dhyan (concentration, viewing, or contemplation, particularly on the Inner Master), and bhajan (listening to the inner sounds of the Shabda or the Shabda Master).

Repetition of a "mantram" (e.g., mantra) or holy mane is Point 2 in the eight-point Passage Meditation program taught by Eknath Easwaran, who recommended using a mantram drawn from a faith tradition, east or west. The mantram is to be used frequently throughout the day, at opportune moments.52 This method of mantram repetition, and the larger program, was developed for use in any major faith tradition, or outside all traditions.53 Easwaran's method of mantram repetition has been the subject of scientific research at the San Diego Veterans Administration, which has suggested health benefits that include managing stress and reducing symptoms of PTSD.5455

Jainism

The concept of mantras in Jainism is not focused on material aspects, rather mainly deals with seeking forgiveness, praising Arihants, or deities like Nakoda, Padmavati, Manibhadra, Saraswati, Lakshmi, and others. Yet, there exists mantras that claim of enhancing intellect, prosperity, wealth or fame.
There are many mantras in Jainism, most of them being in Sanskrit or Prakrit language. However, since few centuries, some of the novel amongst them are also composed in Hindi or Gujrati languages.
Mantras, couplets, are either chanted or sung, either aloud or by merely moving lips or in silence by thought.

Navkar Mantra

Some examples of Jain mantras are Bhaktamara Stotra, Uvasaggharam Stotra, etc. However,the most supreme amongst all is the Namokar Mantra, also called Namokar Mantra.

The Navkar Mantra is a central mantra in Jainism,56 literally meaning Nine Lined Mantra. The initial 5 lines consists of salutations to various sanctified souls and the latter 4 lines are explanatory in nature, highlighting the benefits and greatness of this mantra.

Namo Arihantânam I bow to the Arihantâs (Conquerors).
Namo Siddhânam I bow to the Siddhâs (Liberated Souls).
Namo Âyariyânam I bow to the Âchâryas (Preceptors or Spiritual Leaders).
Namo Uvajjhâyanam I bow to the Upadhyâya (Teachers).
Namo Loe Savva Sahûnam I bow to all the Sadhûs in the world (Saints or Sages).
Eso Panch Namokkaro,
Savva Pâvappanâsano,
Mangalanam Cha Savvesim,
Padhamam Havai Mangalam.
This fivefold salutation (mantra) destroys all sins
and of all auspicious mantras, (it) is the foremost auspicious one.

Universal Compassion

Pratikraman also contains the following prayer:57

Khāmemi savva-jīve savvë jive khamantu me I ask pardon of all creatures, may all creatures pardon me.
Mitti me savva-bhūesu, veraṃ mejjha na keṇavi May I have friendship with all beings and enmity with none.

Micchami Dukkadam

In Jainism, forgiveness is one of the main virtues that needs to be cultivated by the Jains. Kṣamāpanā or supreme forgiveness forms part of one of the ten characteristics of dharma.58
In the Jain prayer, (pratikramana) Jains repeatedly seek forgiveness from various creatures—even from ekindriyas or single sensed beings like plants and microorganisms that they may have harmed while eating and doing routine activities.59 Forgiveness is asked by uttering the phrase, Micchāmi dukkaḍaṃ. Micchāmi dukkaḍaṃ is a Prakrit language phrase literally meaning "may all the evil that has been done be fruitless."60

Forgiveness

In their daily prayers and samayika, Jains recite following Iryavahi sutra in Prakrit language, seeking forgiveness from literally all creatures while involved in routine activities:61

May you, O Revered One, voluntarily permit me. I would like to confess my sinful acts committed while walking. I honour your permission. I desire to absolve myself of the sinful acts by confessing them. I seek forgiveness from all those living beings which I may have tortured while walking, coming and going, treading on living organism, seeds, green grass, dew drops, ant hills, moss, live water, live earth, spider web and others. I seek forgiveness from all these living beings, be they — one sensed, two sensed, three sensed, four sensed or five sensed. Which I may have kicked, covered with dust, rubbed with ground, collided with other, turned upside down, tormented, frightened, shifted from one place to another or killed and deprived them of their lives. (By confessing) may I be absolved of all these sins.

Buddhism

Non-esoteric Buddhism

In Buddhism in China and Vietnam, ten small mantras62636465666768 were finalized by the monk Yulin (玉琳國師), a teacher of the Shunzhi Emperor for monks, nuns, and laity to chant in the morning.

Along with the ten mantras, the Great Compassion Mantra, the Shurangama Mantra of the Shurangama, Heart Sutra and various forms of nianfo are also chanted.6970

The Shurangama Mantra may be the longest mantra.

There are Thai buddhist amulet katha.71727374

Shingon Buddhism

Kūkai (774-835), a noted Buddhist monk, advanced a general theory of language based on his analysis of two forms of Buddhist ritual language: dharani (dhāra.nī) and mantra. Mantra is restricted to esoteric Buddhist practice whereas dharani is found in both esoteric and exoteric ritual. Dharanis for instance are found in the Heart Sutra. The term "shingon" (lit. true word) is the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese term for mantra, chen yen.

The word dharani derives from a Sanskrit root dh.r which means to hold or maintain. Ryuichi Abe suggests that it is generally understood as a mnemonic device which encapsulates the meaning of a section or chapter of a sutra. Dharanis are also considered to protect the one who chants them from malign influences and calamities.

The term mantra is traditionally said to be derived from two roots: man, to think; and the action-oriented suffix -tra. Thus a mantra can be considered to be a linguistic device for deepening ones thought, or in the Buddhist context for developing the enlightened mind. They have also been used as magic spells for purposes such as attaining wealth and long life, and eliminating enemies. In daily living, many thought the pronunciation of the mantra was not important to take its effect and the expected effect may not happen because of fixed karma (定業), or because there appears a better way to solve the situation.

The distinction between dharani and mantra is difficult to make. We can say that all mantras are dharanis but that not all dharanis are mantras. Mantras do tend to be shorter. Both tend to contain a number of unintelligible phonic fragments such as Om, or Hu.m, which is perhaps why some people consider them to be essentially meaningless. Kūkai made mantra a special class of dharani which showed that every syllable of a dharani was a manifestation of the true nature of reality – in Buddhist terms that all sound is a manifestation of shunyata or emptiness of self-nature. Thus rather than being devoid of meaning, Kūkai suggests that dharanis are in fact saturated with meaning – every syllable is symbolic on multiple levels.

One of Kūkai's distinctive contributions was to take this symbolic association even further by saying that there is no essential difference between the syllables of mantras and sacred texts, and those of ordinary language. If one understood the workings of mantra, then any sounds could be a representative of ultimate reality. This emphasis on sounds was one of the drivers for Kūkai's championing of the phonetic writing system, the kana, which was adopted in Japan around the time of Kūkai. He is generally credited with the invention of the kana, but there is apparently some doubt about this story amongst scholars.

This mantra-based theory of language had a powerful effect on Japanese thought and society which up until Kūkai's time had been dominated by imported Chinese culture of thought, particularly in the form of the Classical Chinese language which was used in the court and amongst the literati, and Confucianism which was the dominant political ideology. In particular Kūkai was able to use this new theory of language to create links between indigenous Japanese culture and Buddhism. For instance, he made a link between the Buddha Mahavairocana and the Shinto sun Goddess Amaterasu. Since the emperors were thought to be descended form Amaterasu, Kūkai had found a powerful connection here that linked the emperors with the Buddha, and also in finding a way to integrate Shinto with Buddhism, something that had not happened with Confucianism. Buddhism then became essentially an indigenous religion in a way that Confucianism had not. And it was through language, and mantra that this connection was made. Kūkai helped to elucidate what mantra is in a way that had not been done before: he addresses the fundamental questions of what a text is, how signs function, and above all, what language is. In this he covers some of the same ground as modern day Structuralists and others scholars of language, although he comes to very different conclusions.

In this system of thought all sounds are said to originate from "a" – which is the short a sound in father. For esoteric Buddhism "a" has a special function because it is associated with Shunyata or the idea that no thing exists in its own right, but is contingent upon causes and conditions. (See Dependent origination) In Sanskrit "a" is a prefix which changes the meaning of a word into its opposite, so "vidya" is understanding, and "avidya" is ignorance (the same arrangement is also found in many Greek words, like e.g. "atheism" vs. "theism" and "apathy" vs. "pathos"). The letter a is both visualised in the Siddham script, and pronounced in rituals and meditation practices. In the Mahavairocana Sutra which is central to Shingon Buddhism it says: Thanks to the original vows of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, a miraculous force resides in the mantras, so that by pronouncing them one acquires merit without limits". [in Conze, p. 183]

A mantra is Kuji-kiri in Shugendo and Shingon.

The practice of writing mantras, and copying texts as a spiritual practice, became very refined in Japan, and the writing in the Siddham script in which the Sanskrit of many Buddhist Sutras were written is only really seen in Japan nowadays.citation needed

Indo-Tibetan Buddhism

Mantrayana (Sanskrit), that may be rendered as "way of mantra", was the original self-identifying name of those that have come to be determined 'Nyingmapa'.citation needed The Nyingmapa which may be rendered as "those of the ancient way", a name constructed due to the genesis of the Sarma "fresh", "new" traditions. Mantrayana has developed into a synonym of Vajrayana.

Noted translator of Buddhist texts Edward Conze (1904–1979) distinguishes three periods in the Buddhist use of mantra.

Initially, according to Conze, like their fellow Indians, Buddhists used mantra as protective spells to ward off malign influences. Despite a Vinaya rule which forbids monks engaging in the Brahminical practice of chanting mantras for material gain, there are a number of protective for a group of ascetic monks. However, even at this early stage, there is perhaps something more than animistic magic at work. Particularly in the case of the Ratana Sutta the efficacy of the verses seems to be related to the concept of "truth". Each verse of the sutta ends with "by the virtue of this truth may there be happiness".

Conze notes that later mantras were used more to guard the spiritual life of the chanter, and sections on mantras began to be included in some Mahayana sutras such as the White Lotus Sutra, and the Lankavatara Sutra. The scope of protection also changed in this time. In the Sutra of Golden Light the Four Great Kings promise to exercise sovereignty over the different classes of demigods, to protect the whole of Jambudvipa (the India sub continent), to protect monks who proclaim the sutra, and to protect kings who patronise the monks who proclaim the sutra. The apotheosis of this type of approach is the Nichiren school of Buddhism that was founded in 13th century Japan, and which distilled many previously complex Buddhist practices down to the veneration of the Lotus Sutra through recitation of the daimoku: "Nam myoho renge kyo" which translates as "Homage to the Lotus Sutra".

The third period began, according to Conze, in about the 7th century, to take centre stage and become a vehicle for salvation in their own right. Tantra started to gain momentum in the 6th and 7th century, with specifically Buddhist forms appearing as early as 300CE. Mantrayana was an early name for the what is now more commonly known as Vajrayana, which gives us a hint as to the place of mantra in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism. The aim of Vajrayana practice is to give the practitioner a direct experience of reality, of things as they really are. Mantras function as symbols of that reality, and different mantras are different aspects of that reality – for example wisdom or compassion. Mantras are often associated with a particular deity, one famous exception being the Prajnaparamita mantra associated with the Heart Sutra. One of the key Vajrayana strategies for bringing about a direct experience of reality is to engage the entire psycho-physical organism in the practices. In one Buddhist analysis the person consists of 'body, speech and mind' (refer: Three Vajra). So a typical sadhana or meditation practice might include mudras, or symbolic hand gestures; the recitations of mantras; as well as the visualisation of celestial beings and visualising the letters of the mantra which is being recited. Clearly here mantra is associated with speech. The meditator may visualise the letters in front of themselves, or within their body. They may be pronounced out loud, or internally in the mind only.

Om mani padme hum

Main article: Om mani padme hum

Probably the most famous mantra of Buddhism is Om mani padme hum, the six syllable mantra of the Bodhisattva of compassion Avalokiteśvara (Tibetan: Chenrezig, Chinese: Guanyin). This mantra is particularly associated with the four-armed Shadakshari form of Avalokiteśvara. The Dalai Lama is said to be an incarnation of Avalokiteshvara, and so the mantra is especially revered by his devotees.

The book Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism by Lama Anagarika Govinda, gives a classic example of how such a mantra can contain many levels of symbolic meaning.

Donald Lopez gives a good discussion of this mantra and its various interpretations in his book Prisoners of Shangri-LA: Tibetan Buddhism and the West. Lopez is an authoritative writer and challenges the stereotypical analysis of the mantra as meaning "The Jewel in the Lotus", an interpretation that is not supported by either a linguistic analysis, nor by Tibetan tradition, and is symptomatic of the Western Orientalist approach to the 'exotic' East. He suggests that Manipadma is actually the name of a bodhisattva, a form of Avalokiteshvara who has many other names in any case including Padmapani or lotus flower in hand. The Brahminical insistence on absolutely correct pronunciation of Sanskrit broke down as Buddhism was exported to other countries where the inhabitants found it impossible to reproduce the sounds. So in Tibet, for instance, where this mantra is on the lips of many Tibetans all their waking hours, the mantra is pronounced Om mani padme hum.

Some other mantras in Tibetan Buddhism

The following list of mantras is from Kailash - Journal of Himalayan Studies, Volume 1, Number 2, 1973. (pp. 168–169) (augmented by other contributors). It also includes renderings of Om mani padme hum.

Please note that the word swaha is sometimes shown as svaha, and is usually pronounced as 'so-ha' by Tibetans. Spellings tend to vary in the transliterations to English, for example, hum and hung are generally the same word. The mantras used in Tibetan Buddhist practice are in Sanskrit, to preserve the original mantras. Visualizations and other practices are usually done in the Tibetan language.

  • Om vagishvara hum This is the mantra of the Mahabodhisattva Manjusri, Tibetan: Jampelyang (Wylie "'jam dpal dbyangs")... The Buddha in his wisdom aspect.
  • Om mani padme hum The mantra of Avalokitesvara, Mahabodhisattva, the Buddha in his compassion aspect.
  • Om vajrapani namo hum The mantra of the Buddha as Protector of the Secret Teachings. i.e.: as the Mahabodhisattva Channa Dorje (Vajrapani).
  • Om vajrasattva hum The short mantra for White Vajrasattva, there is also a full 100-syllable mantra for Vajrasattva.
  • Om ah hum vajra guru padma siddhi hum The mantra of the Vajraguru Guru Padma Sambhava who established Mahayana Buddhism and Tantra in Tibet.
  • Om tare tuttare ture mama ayurjnana punye pushting svaha The mantra of Dölkar or White Tara, the emanation of Arya Tara [Chittamani Tara]. Variants: Om tare tuttare ture mama ayurjnana punye pushting kuru swaha (Drikung Kagyu), Om tare tuttare ture mama ayu punye jnana puktrim kuru soha (Karma Kagyu).
Om Tare Tutare Ture Soha.
  • Om tare tuttare ture svaha, mantra of Green Arya Tara - Jetsun Dolma or Tara, the Mother of the Buddhas: om represents Tara's sacred body, speech, and mind. Tare means liberating from all discontent. Tutare means liberating from the eight fears, the external dangers, but mainly from the internal dangers, the delusions. Ture means liberating from duality; it shows the "true" cessation of confusion. Soha means "may the meaning of the mantra take root in my mind."

According to Tibetan Buddhism, this mantra (Om tare tutare ture soha) can not only eliminate disease, troubles, disasters, and karma, but will also bring believers blessings, longer life, and even the wisdom to transcend one's circle of reincarnation. Tara representing long life and health.

  • oṃ amaraṇi jīvantaye svāhā (Tibetan version: oṃ ā ma ra ṇi dzi wan te ye svā hā) The mantra of the Buddha of limitless life: the Buddha Amitayus (Tibetan Tsépagmed) in celestial form.
  • Om dhrung svaha The purification mantra of the mother Namgyalma.
  • Om ami dhewa hri The mantra of the Buddha Amitabha (Hopagmed) of the Western Pureland, his skin the colour of the setting sun.
  • Om ami dewa hri The mantra of Amitabha (Ompagme in Tibetan).
  • Om ah ra pa ca na dhih The mantra of the "sweet-voiced one", Jampelyang (Wylie "'jam dpal dbyangs") or Manjusri, the Bodhisattva of wisdom.
  • Om muni muni maha muniye sakyamuni swaha The mantra of Buddha Sakyamuni, the historical Buddha
  • Om gate gate paragate parasamgate bodhi svaha The mantra of the Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra (Heart Sutra)
  • Namo bhagavate Bhaishajya-guru vaidurya-praba-rajaya tathagataya arhate samyak-sambuddhaya tadyata *Tadyata OM bhaishajye bhaishajye maha bhaishajya raja-samudgate svaha The mantra of the 'Medicine Buddha', from Chinese translations of the Master of Healing Sutra.

There are mantras in Bön and some Chinese sects.757677

Other sects and religions

  • Ye Dharma Hetu Ancient Buddhist mantra, often found in India and other countries
  • Om Ma Tri Mu Ye Sa Le Du A mantra of Bon78
  • Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō The mantra of the Nichiren Buddhism.
  • Myō Myōhō Renge Kyō (名妙法連結経) The mantra of the Tenshō Kōtai Jingūkyō
  • Ná Mó Běn Shī Dà Zì Zai Wáng Fó (南無本師大自在王佛)7980 The mantra of the Buddhayana sect (佛乘宗).
  • Námó Tiānyuán Tàibǎo Āmítuófó (南無天元太保阿彌陀佛) The mantra of the Way of Former Heaven and the T'ung-shan She.8182
  • Guān Shì Yīn Pú Sà (觀世音菩薩) The mantra of the Li-ism838485
  • Zhēnkōngjiāxiàng, wúshēngfùmǔ (真空家鄉,無生父母) The mantra of the Luojiao8687
  • Gomtrazan.Gwaarla.Rarunka.Sohuan.Satnum The mantra of Ching Hai.88
  • Zhōngshùliánmíngdé, zhèngyìxìnrěngōng, bóxiàoréncíjiào, jiéjiǎnzhēnlǐhé (忠恕廉明德、正義信忍公、博孝仁慈覺、節儉真禮和) The mantra of the Tiender and the Lord of Universe Church89
  • Qīngjìng guāngmíng dàlì zhìhuì wúshàng zhìzhēn móní guāngfó (清淨光明大力智慧無上至真摩尼光佛) The mantra of the Manichaeism in China90

Collection

The mantra in Chinese Buddhist Canon are collected by Qianlong Emperor into a book. Kuang-Ming Lin (林光明) amended it.9192

Bahá’í Faith

Bahá’ís recite the mantra "Alláh-u-Abha" 95 times a day. Many use beads.

Sikhism

In the Sikh religion, a mantar or mantra is a Shabad (Word or hymn) from the Adi Granth to concentrate the mind on God and the message of the ten Sikh Gurus.

Mantras in Sikhism are fundamentally different from the secret mantras used in other religions.93 Unlike in other religions, Sikh mantras are open for anyone to use. They are used openly and are not taught in secret sessions but are used in front of assemblies of Sikhs.93

The Mool Mantar, the first composition of Guru Nanak, is the most widely known Sikh mantra.

China

When Buddhism arrived in China, the concept of mantras came with it. The emphasis in China was not as much on sound, but towards writing with characters that were flexible in pronunciation but precise in meaning. The Chinese prized written language much more highly than did the Indian Buddhist missionaries, and the writing of mantras became a spiritual practice in its own right.

Taoism

There are mantras in Taoism such as the words in Dafan yinyu wuliang yin (大梵隱語無量音) and the Tibetan Buddhism mantra om (唵).9495969798

There are mantras in Cheondoism, Daesun Jinrihoe, Jeung San Do and Onmyōdō.99100101102103

Zoroastrianism

In the Zoroastrian scriptures is a section called the Gathas or hymns. These hymns are believed to be the original words of Zarathushtra, faithfully preserved as an oral tradition through the generations. Zarathushtra, and later tradition, refer to the Gathas as mathra (later called a manthra).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ This is a Buddhist chant. The words in Pali are: Buddham saranam gacchami, Dhammam saranam gacchami, Sangham saranam gacchami; The equivalent words in Sanskrit, according to Georg Feuerstein, are: Buddham saranam gacchâmi, Dharmam saranam gacchâmi, Sangham saranam gacchâmi. The literal meaning: I go for refuge in knowledge, I go for refuge in teachings, I go for refuge in community. In some traditions of Hinduism, the mantra is expanded to seven lines, with first word of the additional lines being Satyam (truth), Ahimsam (non-violence), Yogam (yoga) and Ekam (one universal life). For example, an additional line with Ahimsam is: Ahimsam saranam gacchâmi.
  2. ^ "mantra". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Jan Gonda (1963), The Indian Mantra, Oriens, Vol. 16, pages 244-297
  4. ^ a b Feuerstein, G. (2003), The Deeper Dimension of Yoga. Shambala Publications, Boston, MA
  5. ^ James Lochtefeld, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 2, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pages 422-423
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Frits Staal (1996), Rituals and Mantras, Rules without meaning, ISBN 978-8120814127, Motilal Banarsidass
  7. ^ Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (2005), Sikhism: a very short introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7
  8. ^ a b Boyce, M. (2001), Zoroastrians: their religious beliefs and practices, Psychology Press
  9. ^ a b Teun Goudriaan (1981), Hindu Tantric and Śākta Literature, in A History of Indian Literature, Vol. 2, ISBN 978-3447020916, Chapter VIII
  10. ^ a b c d Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York
  11. ^ Macdonell, Arthur A., A Sanskrit Grammar for Students § 182.1.b, p. 162(Oxford University Press, 3rd edition, 1927).
  12. ^ Whitney, W.D., Sanskrit Grammar § 1185.c, p. 449(New York, 2003, ISBN 0-486-43136-3).
  13. ^ Schlerath, Bernfried (1987). ""Aša: Avestan Aša"". Encyclopaedia Iranica. 2:694-696. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul  p. 695.
  14. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, page 3-7
  15. ^ T Renou (1946), Litterature Sanskrite, Paris, page 74
  16. ^ L. Silburn (1955), Instant et cause, Paris, page 25
  17. ^ J. Farquhar (1920), An outline of the religious literature of India, Oxford, page 25
  18. ^ Heinrich Robert Zimmer (1946), Myths and symbols in Indian art and civilization, ISBN 9780691017785, Washington DC, page 72
  19. ^ a b Agehananda Bharati (1965), The Tantric Tradition, London: Rider and Co., ISBN 0-8371-9660-4
  20. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, page 9
  21. ^ Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic Literature (Samhitäs and Brähmanas), (HIL I.I) Wiesbaden: OH; also Selected Studies, (4 volumes), Leiden: E. J. Brill
  22. ^ Frits Staal (1985), Mantras and Bird Songs, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 105, No. 3, Indological Studies, pages 549-558
  23. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, page 10-11
  24. ^ Frits Staal (1996), Rituals and Mantras, Rules without meaning, ISBN 978-8120814127, Motilal Banarsidass, page 112-113
  25. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, page 10-14
  26. ^ Andre Padoux, in Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, page 295-317; see also Chapter 3 by Wade Wheelock
  27. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, page 11-13
  28. ^ Frits Staal (1996), Rituals and Mantras, Rules without meaning, ISBN 978-8120814127, Motilal Banarsidass, Chapter 20
  29. ^ Jan Gonda (1963), The Indian Mantra, Oriens, Vol. 16, pages 258-259
  30. ^ Jan Gonda (1980), Vedic Ritual: The non-Solemn Rites, Amsterdam; see also Jan Gonda (1985), The Ritual Functions and Significance of Grasses in the Religion of the Veda, Amsterdam; Jan Gonda (1977), The Ritual Sutras, Wiesbaden
  31. ^ P.V. Kane (1962), History of Dharmasastra, Volume V, part II
  32. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, see Introduction
  33. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, pages 7-8
  34. ^ a b Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, Chapter 10
  35. ^ Gudrun Bühnemann, Selecting and perfecting mantras in Hindu tantrism, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies / Volume 54 / Issue 02 / June 1991, pages 292-306
  36. ^ David Gordon White (2000), Tantra in Practice, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691057798
  37. ^ Jean Herbert, Spiritualite hindoue, Paris 1947, ISBN 978-2226032980
  38. ^ Bhattāchārya, Majumdar and Majumdar, Principles of Tantra, ISBN 978-8185988146, see Introduction by Barada Kanta Majumdar
  39. ^ Brooks (1990), The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu Sakta Tantrism, University of Chicago Press
  40. ^ David Gordon White (Editor) (2001), Tantra in practice (Vol. 8), Motilal Banarsidass, Princeton Readings in Religions, ISBN 978-8120817784, Chapters 21 and 31
  41. ^ a b Monier Monier-Williams (1893), Indian Wisdom, Luzac & Co., London, page 245-246, see text and footnote
  42. ^ A Dictionary of Hinduism, Margaret and James Stutley (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers) 2002, p.126
  43. ^ Radha, Swami Sivananda. Mantras: Words of Power. Timeless Books, Canada. ISBN 1-932018-10-7. Page 54; quote: Mantra Yoga (chanting), Japa Yoga: Vaikhari Japa (speaking), Upamsu Japa (whispering or humming), Manasika Japa (mental repetition), Likhita Japa (writing)
  44. ^ Some very common mantras, called Nama japa, are: "Om Namah (name of deity)"; for example, Om Namah Shivaya or Om Namo Bhagavate Rudraya Namah (Om and salutations to Lord Shiva); Om Namo Narayanaya or Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevãya (Om and salutations to Lord Vishnu); Om Shri Ganeshaya Namah (Om and salutations to Shri Ganesha)
  45. ^ Meditation and Mantras, Swami Vishnu-Devananda (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers) 1981, p.66
  46. ^ A Dictionary of Hinduism, p.271; Some of the major books which are used as reference for Mantra Shaastra are: Parasurama Kalpa Sutra; Shaarada Tilakam; Lakshmi Tantra; Prapanchasara
  47. ^ a b Monier Monier-Williams (1893), Indian Wisdom, Luzac & Co., London, page 17
  48. ^ Meditation and Mantras, p.75
  49. ^ Brhadaranyaka-Upanisad (Brhadaranyakopanisad), Kanva recension; GRETIL version, input by members of the Sansknet project (formerly: www.sansknet.org)
  50. ^ For example, see: Om Namo Narayanaya called as Narayana Ashtakshara Mantra; Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya Dvadasakshari mantra; Om Sri Ram Jai Ram Jai Jai Ram; Hare Krishna Maha Mantra; Om Namah Shivaya Siva Panchakshara mantra; Sūrya namaskāra; So'ham (I am He or I am That) (See Meditation and Mantras, p.80); Ram Nam Rama Mantra; Aham Brahma Asmi (I Am Brahman); Sri Vidya Mantras - There are 3 Sri Vidya Mantras - Bala Tripurasundari Mantra, Panchadasi Mantra, Shodasi Mantra; Dakshinamoorthy Mantra; Chandi Navakshari Mantra; Santhana GopalaKrishna Mantra; Shoolini Durga Mantra; Maha Sudarshana Mantra; Maha Ganapathi Mantra; Svayamvara Kala Parvati Mantra
  51. ^ Shear Jonathon (Editor), The Experience of Meditation:Experts Introduce the Major Traditions,pg.28.Paragon House. St Paul, MN.,2006.
  52. ^ In Hinduism, frequent repetition at opportune moments is a common type of japa.
  53. ^ Eknath Easwaran (2008). Mantram Handbook (see article) (5th ed.). Tomales, CA: Nilgiri Press. ISBN 1-58638-028-1 (originally published 1977).
  54. ^ Jill E. Bormann, Steven Thorp, Julie L. Wetherell, & Shahrokh Golshan (2008). A Spiritually Based Group Intervention for Combat Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Holistic Nursing v26 n2, pp 109-116. PMID 18356284, doi:10.1177/0898010107311276.
  55. ^ Jill E. Bormann & Doug Oman (2007). Mantram or holy name repetition: Health benefits from a portable spiritual practice. In Thomas G. Plante, & Carl E. Thoresen (Eds.), Spirit, science and health: How the spiritual mind fuels physical wellness (pp. 94-112) (table of contents), Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-99506-5
  56. ^ Jain mantras
  57. ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (2000). Collected Papers on Jaina Studies. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-1691-9.  p.18 and 224
  58. ^ Varni, Jinendra; Ed. Prof. Sagarmal Jain, Translated Justice T.K. Tukol and Dr. K.K. Dixit (1993). Samaṇ Suttaṁ. New Delhi: Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti. verse 84
  59. ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (2000). Collected Papers on Jaina Studies. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-1691-9.  p. 285
  60. ^ Chapple. C.K. (2006) Jainism and Ecology: Nonviolence in the Web of Life Delhi:Motilal Banarasidas Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-2045-6 p.46
  61. ^ Translated from Prakrit by Nagin J. shah and Madhu Sen (1993) Concept of Pratikramana Ahmedabad: Gujarat Vidyapith pp.25–26
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References

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External links