Pearl of the Orient
Paris of Asia1
The City of Our Affections
Distinguished and Ever Loyal City
|Motto: Forward Ever, Backward Never|
Location within Metro Manila
|Region||National Capital Region|
|District||1st to 6th districts of Manila|
|Bruneian Empire (Kingdom of Maynila)||1500s|
|Spanish City of Manila||June 24, 1571|
|• Mayor||Joseph Ejercito Estrada (UNA/PMP)|
|• Vice Mayor||Francisco Domagoso (UNA/PMP)|
|• City Council|
|• City||38.55 km2 (14.88 sq mi)|
|• Land||24.98 km2 (9.64 sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,474.82 km2 (569.43 sq mi)|
|• Metro||638.55 km2 (246.55 sq mi)|
|Elevation||16.0 m (52.5 ft)|
|• Density||42,858/km2 (111,000/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||15,400/km2 (40,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||18,567/km2 (48,090/sq mi)|
|Demonym||Manileño (m) / Manileña (f), Manilan|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|ZIP code||0900 to 1096|
Manila (Philippine English: //; Filipino: Maynilà) is the capital city of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities which, along with the municipality of Pateros, make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region, that has an overall population of around 12 million.
The city of Manila is located on the eastern shore of Manila Bay and is bordered by the cities of Navotas and Caloocan to the north; Quezon City and San Juan to the northeast; Mandaluyong to the east; Makati to the southeast, and Pasay to the south. It has a total population of 1,652,1715 making it the second most populous city in the Philippines, behind Quezon City. The populace inhabit a land area of only 2,498 hectares,4 making Manila arguably the most densely populated city in the world.78
Manila (and more broadly speaking, Metro Manila) is the economic and political capital of the Philippines, home to extensive commerce and some of the most historically and culturally significant landmarks in the country, as well as the seat of the executive and judicial branches of the government. Manila was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2012.9 Manila is among the world's original Global Cities alongside Madrid and Mexico. The Manila Galleon trade-route (c. 1565 to 1815), being the first instance in human-history wherein world-trade truly became global (previous world-trade routes had not yet crossed the Pacific and had not reached a global nature),10 made Manila a primordial foundation-stone of true globalization. Manila is also the host to the Embassy of the United States and the Apostolic Nunciature to the Philippines.
Manila has many scientific and educational institutions, numerous sport facilities, and other culturally and historically significant venues. The city is politically divided into six legislative districts and geographically into: Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Port Area, Quiapo, Sampaloc, San Andres, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa and Tondo. These places are towns and parishes absorbed by Manila during the 19th Century.
The earliest written account of the city is the 10th-century Laguna Copperplate Inscription which describes a Malay kingdom in what is now Manila maintaining diplomatic relations with the Indianized Kingdom of Medang in modern-day Java. The city had preferential trade with Ming Dynasty China, which registered the place as "東都" (Dongdu).11 It then became a province of the Maharajanate of Majapahit and was called by its Sanskrit title, "षेलुरोन्ग्" (Selurong)12 before it was invaded by Brunei's Sultan Bolkiah and renamed كوتا سلودونڠ (Kota Saludong)13 or simply Maynilà, from the word "Maynilad", a native Tagalog term indicating the presence of Nila, a flowering mangrove plant once abundant in the area.
By the 15th century, it was nominally Islamized until the Spanish Conquistadors arrived via Mexico. They renamed the area Nuevo Reino de Castilla (New Kingdom of Castille) and shortened the nickname, Maynilà to Manila and using it as the official name.
Manila eventually became the center of Spanish activity in the Far East and one end of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade route linking Latin America and Asia.14 The city would eventually be given the moniker of the "Pearl of the Orient", as a result of its central location in the vital Pacific sea trade routes. Several Chinese insurrections, local revolts, a British Occupation and a Sepoy mutiny15 also occurred shortly thereafter. Manila also saw the rise of the Philippine Revolution which was followed by the arrival of the Americans who made contributions to the city's urban planning16 and development only to have most of those improvements lost in the devastation of World War II.17 Since then the city has been rebuilt and has rapidly grown.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Cityscape
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Arts, culture and religion
- 7 Sports
- 8 Government and politics
- 9 Infrastructure
- 10 Healthcare
- 11 Education
- 12 Global outreach
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 Sources
- 17 External links
The earliest evidence of human life in and around the area of Manila is the nearby Angono Petroglyphs dated to around 3000 BC. Furthermore, negritos, a class of Australoid peoples, became the aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippines. They were found across Luzon before the Malayo-Polynesians migrated in and assimilated them.18
The Kingdom of Maynila flourished during the latter half of the Ming Dynasty as a result of direct trade relations with China. Ancient Tondo was maintained as the traditional capital of the empire, with its rulers as sovereign kings and not mere chieftains, and were addressed variously as panginuan ln Meranau or panginoón in Tagalog ("lords"); anák banwa ("son of heaven"); or lakandula ("lord of the palace"), the Emperor of China considered the Lakans (rulers of ancient Manila) "王" (Kings). In the 13th century, the city consisted of a fortified settlement and trading quarter at the shores of the Pasig River, on top of previous older towns. Manila was then invaded by the Indianized empire of Majapahit as referenced in the epic eulogy poem Nagarakretagama which inscribed its conquest by Maharaja Hayam Wuruk.12 Selurong "षेलुरोन्ग्" which is a historical name for the city of Manila is listed in Canto 14 alongside Sulot, which is now Sulu, and Kalka.12
During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah from 1485 to 1521, the Bruneian Empire invaded, wanting to take advantage of Tondo's China trade by attacking its environs and establishing "كوتا سلودوڠ Kota Saludong" (Now Manila). They ruled under and gave yearly tribute to the Sultanate of Brunei as its satellite state.13 They established a new dynasty under the local leader who accepted Islam and became Rajah Salalila or Tariq Sulayman I. He also established a trading challenge to the already rich House of Lakan Dula in Tondo. Islam was further strengthened by the arrival of Muslim traders from the Arab-Indian area and Southeast Asia.19 Manila was temporarily besieged by the invasion of Chinese pirate-warlord Limahong (1574) before it became the seat of the colonial government of Spain.
On June 24, 1571, Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from New Spain (now Mexico), and then exercised rule of the Spanish city of Manila as a territory of New Spain with the establishment of a city council in what today is the district of Intramuros.20 López de Legazpi had the local royalty executed or exiled, after the failure of the Tondo Conspiracy; a plot wherein an alliance between Japanese merchants, Luzon's Huangs with several Datus and Rajahs plus the Bruneian Empire would band together to execute the Spaniards and their Latin-American mercenaries, and Visayan allies. At the conclusion of which, the victorious Spaniards made Manila the capital of the Spanish East Indies and of the Philippines, which the empire would control for the next three centuries, from 1565 to 1898.
Manila then became famous during the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade which lasted for three centuries and brought goods from Europe, Africa and Latin America across the Pacific Islands to Southeast Asia (Which was already an entrepot for goods coming from India, Indonesia and China) and trade also flowed vice versa. Silver that was mined in Mexico and Peru were exchanged for Chinese silk, Indian gems, and the spices of the Southeast Asia, some of which even flowed to Europe. Likewise wines and olives grown from Europe and North Africa were transshipped via Mexico towards Manila.21
The city was occupied by Great Britain for two years, from 1762 to 1764, as part of the European Seven Years' War between Spain and France and Great Britain.22 The city remained the capital of the Philippines under the government of the provisional British governor, Dawsonne Drake, acting through the Mexico-born Archbishop of Manila, Manuel Rojo del Río y Vieyra and the captive Audiencia Real.23 However, armed resistance to the British persisted, centered in Pampanga, and was led by Oidor Don Simón de Anda y Salazar.23 During the course of the occupation, the captive Hashemite Sultan of Sulu, Azim ud-Din I, was used as a hostage by both the British and Spanish. Also, the Chinese at Binondo rebelled against Spain and afterwards, the British's Sepoy mercenaries from India, mutinied against them.24 Eventually, the British withdrew as per agreements in the Treaty of Paris (1763).25 The Sepoys however, elected to stay and they settled in the area around Cainta, Rizal.15 As for the Chinese, thereafter, the fortress-city of Intramuros (Populated mostly by Europe-born colonists) always pointed their cannons against Binondo (The world's oldest Chinatown) to create a quick response against any more Chinese uprisings.26
After the British occupation, direct trade and communications with Spain facilitated by the opening of the Suez Canal, supplanted indirect rule via the Viceroyalty. Eventually, Mexican Independence in 1821 necessitated direct rule from Spain.27 Under direct Spanish rule, banking, industry and education flourished more than in the past two centuries.28
The growing wealth and education attracted Indian, Chinese, Latino, European, and local migrants from the Philippine provinces to Manila, all of whom elected a nascent Filipino nationality regardless of ethnicity.29 The developments also facilitated the rise of an illustrado class which espoused liberal ideas, the ideological foundations of the Philippine Revolution which sought independence from Spain.
After the Battle of Manila (1898), Spain ceded the surrendered city of Manila to the United States. The First Philippine Republic based at nearby Bulacan fought against the Americans for control of the city of Manila.30 The Americans defeated the First Philippine Republic and captured president Emilio Aguinaldo who announced allegiance to the United States on April 1, 1901.
Upon drafting a new charter for Manila in June 1901, the Americans made official what had long been tacit: that the City of Manila was not Intramuros alone but also all its arrabales. The new city charter proclaimed that Maila was composed of eleven districts, or wards—presumably Tondo, Binondo, Santa Cruz, Sampaloc, San Miguel, Pandacan, Santa Ana, Paco, Malate, Ermita and Intramuros. In addition to these, the Church recognized five parishes as Manileno—namely, Gagalangin, Trozo, Balic-Balic, Santa Mesa and Singalong. Later times would add two more: Balut and San Andres Bukid.31
Under American control, a new civilian oriented Insular Government headed by then Governor-General William Howard Taft invited city planner Daniel Burnham for the transformation of Manila, to adapt the old city to changed times and modern needs.32 The Burnham Plan included development of the road system, the use of waterways for transportation, and beautification of Manila with the improvement of waterfronts, construction of parks, parkways and various building for various activities.3334 The latter included a government center occupying all of Wallace Field, which extends from Luneta to the present Taft Avenue. The Philippine Capitol was to rise at the Taft Avenue end of the field, facing toward the sea, and would form, with the buildings of different government bureaus and departments, a quadrangle, lagoon in the center, and a monument to José Rizal at its Luneta end. Of Burnham's proposed government center, only three units — the Legislative Building and the building of the Finance and Agricultural departments — were completed when World War II erupted.
Due to the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, American soldiers were ordered to withdraw from the city and all military installations were removed on December 24, 1941. General Douglas MacArthur declared Manila an open city to prevent further death and destruction; despite this, the Japanese warplanes continued to bomb the city. Manila was occupied by the Japanese forces on January 2, 1942.
Manila was also the site of the bloodiest battle in the Pacific theater during the Second World War. After falling to the Empire of Japan on January 2, 1942, it was recaptured by joint American and Filipino troops from February 3 to March 3, 1945. Some 100,000 civilians were killed in Manila in February 1945.35 It was the second most devastated city in the world after Warsaw during the Second World War. At the end of World War II, almost all of the structures in the city, particularly Intramuros, were destroyed but after the war, reconstruction took place.
In 1948, President Elpidio Quirino moved the seat of government of the Philippines to Quezon City, a new capital city in the suburbs and fields northeast of Manila, created in 1938 by former President Manuel L. Quezon, which was named after him.36 The move ended any implementation of the Burnham Plan's intent for the government centre to be at Luneta.
With the Visayan-born Arsenio Lacson as its first elected mayor in 1952 (all mayors were appointed prior to this), the city of Manila underwent The Golden Age,37 was revitalized, and once again became the "Pearl of the Orient", a moniker it earned before the Second World War. After Lacson's term in the 1950s, the city was led by Antonio Villegas during most of the 1960s, and Ramon Bagatsing (An Indian-Filipino) for nearly the entire decade of the 1970s until the 1986 People Power Revolution, making him the longest serving Mayor of Manila. Mayors Lacson, Villegas, and Bagatsing are often collectively considered as the "Big Three of Manila" less for their rather long tenures as the city's chief executive (continuously for over three decades, from 1952–1986), but more for their indelible contribution to the development and progress of the city and their lasting legacy in uplifting the quality of life and welfare of the people of the city of Manila.
During the dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos, the region of the Greater Manila Area was created as an integrated unit with the enactment of Presidential Decree No. 824 on November 7, 1975. The area encompassed four cities and thirteen adjoining towns, as a separate regional unit of government.38 On the 405th anniversary of the city's foundation on June 24, 1976, Manila was reinstated by Marcos as the capital of the Philippines for its historical significance as the seat of government since the Spanish Period. Presidential Decree No. 940 states that Manila has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the world, the premier city of the Philippines being the center of trade, commerce, education and culture.39 Under Marco's dictatorship, Manila became a hot-bed of resistance activity as youths and student demonstrators repeatedly clashed with the police and military which were subservient to the regime. However, only after decades of resistance, did the non-violent People Power Revolution (Predecessor of the peaceful-revolutions that fell the iron-curtain in Europe), finally ousted the Authoritarian Marcos from power.40
In 1992, Alfredo Lim was elected mayor, the first Chinese-Filipino to hold the office. He was known for his anti-crime crusades. Lim was succeeded by Lito Atienza, who served as his vice-mayor. Atienza was known for his campaign (and city slogan) "Buhayin ang Maynila" (Revive Manila), which saw the establishment of several parks and the repair and rehabilitation of the city's deteriorating facilities. He was the city's mayor for 3 terms (9 years) before being termed out of office.
Alfredo Lim once again ran for mayor and defeated Atienza's son Ali in the 2007 city election and immediately reversed all of Atienza's projects41 claiming Atienza's projects made little contribution to the improvements of the city. The relationship of both parties turned bitter, with the two pitting again during the 2010 city elections in which Lim won against Atienza.
Among the numerous controversies surrounding Lim's administration were the filing of human rights complaints against him and other city officials by councilor Dennis Alcoreza on 2008,42 the resignation of 24 city officials because of the maltreatment of Lim's police forces, and his bloody resolution of the Rizal Park hostage taking incident, one of the deadliest hostage crisis in the Philippines. Lim was also accused of graft and corruption,43 believed to be the cause of the city's bankruptcy. These allegations were later followed by a complaint on 2012 by Vice Mayor Isko Moreno and 28 city councilors which cited that Lim's statement in a meeting were "life-threatening" to them.4445 On the 2013 elections, former President Joseph Estrada defeated Lim in the mayoral race.
Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila bay, which rests on the western shores of Luzon. The city lies 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) from mainland Asia.46 The Pasig River bisects the city. Almost all of Manila sits on top of centuries of prehistoric alluvial deposits built by the waters of the Pasig and on some land reclaimed from Manila Bay. The city's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since the American colonial times. Some of the natural variations in topography have been evened out due to the urbanization of the city. As of 2007, the city has a land area of 24.98 square kilometres (9.64 sq mi)4 and has a total area of 38.55 square kilometres (14.88 sq mi).3
Manila sits astride the Pacific typhoon belt and is criss-crossed by several fault lines. This led to Manila and its metropolitan region to be ranked as the second riskiest capital (city) to live in according to Swiss Re.47 The seismically active Marikina Valley Fault System poses a threat to Manila and the surrounding regions.47 Manila endured several deadly earthquakes, notably in 1645 and in 1677 which destroyed the stone and brick medieval city.48 The Earthquake Baroque style was used by the Colonial architects during the Spanish colonial period in order to adapt to the frequent earthquakes.49
Under the Köppen climate classification system, Manila features a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw). Together with the rest of the Philippines, Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that the temperature range is very small, rarely going below 20 °C (68 °F) or above 38 °C (100 °F). Temperature extremes have ranged from 14.5 °C (58.1 °F) on January 11, 191450 to 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) on May 7, 1915.51
Humidity levels are usually very high all year round. Manila has a distinct dry season from December through May, and a relatively lengthy wet season that covers the remaining period with slightly cooler temperatures. In the rainy season it rarely rains all day but the rainfall is very heavy during short periods. Typhoons usually occur from June to September.52
|Climate data for Port Area, Manila|
|Average high °C (°F)||29.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||25.9
|Average low °C (°F)||22.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||13.5
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.10 mm)||4||2||3||3||10||16||22||22||20||18||14||9||143|
|Avg. relative humidity (%)||72||73||66||64||68||76||80||83||81||78||76||75||74.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||176.7||197.8||225.8||258.0||222.7||162.0||132.8||132.8||132.0||157.6||153.0||151.9||2,103.1|
|Percent possible sunshine||51||61||61||70||57||42||34||34||36||44||45||44||48|
|Source #1: PAGASA53|
|Source #2: Climatemps.com (sunshine)54|
Largely due to industrial waste and heavy reliance on automobiles, Manila suffers from air pollution5556 in the form of smog57 which affects 98% of its populace.58 Air pollution causes more than 4,000 deaths per year.59 Ermita is the city's most air polluted place.60 Open dump sites and industrial waste contribute to increasing pollution in Manila.60 The Pasig River, where 150 tons of domestic waste and 75 tons of industrial waste were dumped daily according to a report in 2003, is one of the most polluted rivers in the world.61
Manila is affected by as many as 6 or 7 typhoons every year that creates constant flooding.62 In the aftermath of Typhoon Ketsana, lack of infrastructure which could avert future disasters was cited as one of the causes of flooding and pollution in the city.63 In order to adapt, the city has resorted to dredging its rivers and improving its drainage network. The Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission is in charge of cleaning up the Pasig River and its tributaries for transportation, recreation and tourism purposes.64 Because of rehabilitation efforts, several waterways in Manila are now cleaned-up and already lined with trees, plants and flowers instead of slums, which are now relocated in other areas.6566
Manila has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles spanning distinct historical and cultural periods. Architectural styles reflect American, Spanish, Chinese, and Malay influences.67 Architects such as Antonio Toledo and Juan M. Arellano designed some significant buildings in Manila. Works of Arellano includes the Manila Metropolitan Theater and the Manila Central Post Office Buildings, while Antonio Toledo designed the Manila City Hall.
Some of the Art Deco theaters of Manila are designed by National Artists Juan Nakpil and Pablo Antonio. The historic Escolta Street in Binondo features many buildings of neo-classical and beaux-arts architectural style, some of which were designed by prominent Filipino architects in the 1920s to the late 1930s. At present, many architects, artists, historians and heritage advocacy groups are pushing for the revival of Escolta Street, which was once the premier street of the Philippines.68
Since Manila is prone to earthquakes, the Spanish colonial architects invented the style called Earthquake Baroque which the churches and government buildings during the Spanish colonial period adopted.49 As a result, succeeding earthquakes of the 18th and 19th centuries barely affected Manila, although it did periodically level the surrounding area. Modern buildings in and around Manila are designed or have retrofitted to withstand an 8.2 magnitude quake in accordance to the country's building code.69
Manila is composed of 16 places, which are formerly towns and parishes absorbed by the city in the 19th Century. These places are subdivided into 897 barangays that are only known by sequential numbers instead of names.5 These barangays are grouped into zones, which are clusters of two or more barangays. These zones have no set of elected officials and are only used for political convenience and statistical purposes.
Data presented by the National Statistics Office does not recognize San Andrés and Santa Mesa. Data for San Andrés was included in Santa Ana while data from Santa Mesa is still included in Sampaloc. Santa Mesa seceded from Sampaloc after having its own parish70 and now belongs to the 6th District. Meanwhile, San Andrés is now a part of the 5th District.
The headquarters of the Philippine Coast Guard is located at the South Harbor in Port Area near Intramuros and Ermita. The Philippine Navy on the other hand has its headquarters in Naval Station Jose Andrada located along Roxas Boulevard in Malate.
The AFP Joint Task Force-National Capital Region is created in 2012 to ensure peace and stability in Metro Manila, of which Manila is a part. It bears the functions of the National Capital Regional Command, although it operates on a much smaller size than its predecessor.71
Manila is the most densely populated city in the world with 43,079 inhabitants per km2.8 District 6 is listed as being the most dense with 68,266 inhabitants per km2, followed by District 1 with 64,936 and District 2 with 64,710, respectively. District 5 is the least densely populated area with 19,235.72
Manila's population density dwarfs that of Kolkata (27,774 inhabitants per km2), Mumbai (22,937 inhabitants per km2), Paris (20,164 inhabitants per km2), Dhaka (19,447 inhabitants per km2), Shanghai (16,364 inhabitants per km2, with its most dense district, Nanshi, having a density of 56,785 inhabitants per km2), and Tokyo (10,087 inhabitants per km2).72
The vernacular language is Filipino, based mostly on the Tagalog of surrounding areas, and this Manila form of speaking Tagalog has essentially become the lingua franca of the Philippines, having spread throughout the archipelago through mass media and entertainment. Meanwhile, English is the language most widely used in education, business, and heavily in everyday usage throughout the Metro Manila region and the Philippines itself. A number of older residents can still speak basic Spanish, which used to be a mandatory subject in the curriculum of Philippine universities and colleges, and many children of Japanese Filipino, Indian Filipino, and other migrants or expatriates also speak their parents' languages at home, aside from English and/or Filipino for everyday use. Minnan Chinese (known as Lannang-oe) is spoken by the city's Chinese-Filipino community.
The city is a major center for banking and finance, retailing, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media as well as traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the Philippines.
Manila ranks 3rd in terms of economic dynamism in the Philippines and its economy size ranks as the 5th largest according to the Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index. The CMCI is published by the National Competitiveness Council of the Philippines.73
The Port of Manila is the largest seaport in the Philippines, making it the premier international shipping gateway to the country. The Philippine Ports Authority is government agency responsible to oversee the operation and management of the ports. The International Container Terminal Services Inc. cited by the Asian Development Bank as one of the top five major maritime terminal operators in the world7475 has its headquarters and main operations on the ports of Manila. The Asian Terminal Incorporated also operates and employs local residents in the city, having its main operation along the Manila South Harbor and its container depository located in Santa Mesa.
Binondo, the largest Chinatown in the world, was the center of commerce and business activities in the city. Numerous residential and office skyscrapers are found within its medieval streets. Plans to make the Chinatown area into a business process outsourcing (BPO) hub progresses and is aggressively pursued by the city government of Manila. 30 buildings are already identified to be converted into BPO offices. These buildings are mostly located along the Escolta Street of Binondo, which are all unoccupied and can be converted into offices.76 Near Binondo is Divisoria, a place in Manila dubbed as the shopping mecca of the Philippines. Clusters of shopping malls are found within this place, along with several small-scale stores that sells products and goods at bargain price. Divisoria's famous landmark is the Tutuban Center, a large shopping mall that is a part of the Philippine National Railways' Main Station. It attracts 1 million people every month, but is expected to add another 400,000 people when the LRT-2 West Extension is constructed, making it Manila's busiest transfer station.77
Diverse manufacturers within the city produce industrial-related products such as chemicals, textiles, clothing, and electronic goods. Food and beverages and tobacco products also produced. Local entrepreneurs continue to process primary commodities for export, including rope, plywood, refined sugar, copra, and coconut oil. The food-processing industry is one of the most stable major manufacturing sector in the city.
The Pandacan Oil Depot houses the storage facilities and distribution terminals of the three major players in the country's petroleum industry, namely Caltex Philippines, Pilipinas Shell and Petron Corporation. The oil depot has been a subject of various concerns, including its environmental and health impact to the residents of Manila. The Supreme Court has ordered a decision for the oil depot to submit its relocation plans and is expected to be relocated outside the city by July 2015.7879
Manila is a major publishing center in the Philippines.80 Manila Bulletin, the Philippines' largest broadsheet newspaper by circulation, is headquartered inside Intramuros.81 Other major publishing companies in the country like The Manila Times, The Philippine Star and Manila Standard Today are headquartered inside the Port Area. The Chinese Commercial News, the Philippines' oldest existing Chinese-language newspaper, and the country's third-oldest existing newspaper82 is headquartered in Binondo.
Manila serves as the headquarters of the Central Bank of the Philippines which is located along Roxas Boulevard.83 Some universal banks in the Philippines that has its headquarters in the city are the Landbank of the Philippines and Philippine Trust Company. Philam Life Insurance Company, currently the largest life insurance company in the Philippines in terms of assets, net worth, investment and paid-up capital,848586 has its headquarters along United Nations Avenue in Ermita. Unilever Philippines has its main headquarters and operations along United Nations Avenue, Paco, Manila.87 Multinational companies like Coca-cola and Toyota also has its regional headquarters along UN Avenue, both of which are listed in the Forbes Global 2000.
On September 25, 2014, the Commission on Audit released its 2013 Annual Financial Report citing the city's income at ₱10.1 billion with an asset worth of ₱18.6 billion.88 Its local income stood at ₱5.41 billion and its national government allocation was ₱1.74, having an annual regular income (ARI) of an estimated ₱7.15 billion.89
Among the local government units, Manila has the highest budget allocation to health. It was also one of the cities with the highest tax and internal revenue.90 Tax revenue accounts for 46% of the city's income in 2012.91
Tourism is a vital industry in Manila, and it welcomes approximately over 1 million tourists each year.80 Major destinations include the walled city of Intramuros, the National Theater at the Cultural Center of the Philippines,note 1 Manila Ocean Park, Binondo, Ermita, Malate, Manila Zoo, National Museum of the Philippines and Rizal Park.
Rizal Park, also known as Luneta Park, is the national park of the country and has an area of 58 hectares (140 acres),92 making it the largest urban park in Asia.93 In the Tourism Act of 2009, Rizal Park along with Intramuros are designated as flagship destination to become a tourism enterprise zone.94 A new attraction called Paseo de Manila is expected to rise in the park.95 The park was constructed as an honor and dedication to the country's national hero José Rizal, who was executed by the Spaniards on charges of subversion. The flagpole west of the Rizal Monument is the Kilometer Zero marker for distances to the rest of the country.
Intramuros is the historic center of Manila. Originally, it was considered to be Manila itself at the time when the Philippines was under the Spanish Empire colonial rule. Owing to its history and cultural value, Intramuros and Rizal Park are designated as flagship destination to become a tourism enterprise zone in the Tourism Act of 2009.9495 Intramuros is managed by the Intramuros Administration (IA).
The architecture of Intramuros reflects the Spanish colonial style and the American neoclassical architectural style, since the Philippines was formerly a colony of Spain and the United States before it is granted its independence in 1946. Kalesa is a popular mode of transportation in Intramuros and nearby places96 such as Binondo, Ermita and the Rizal Park.
Popular tourist destinations in Intramuros include the Baluarte de San Diego, Club Intramuros Golf Course, Cuartel de Santa Lucia, Fort Santiago, Manila Cathedral, Palacio Arzobispal, Palacio de Santa Potenciana, Palacio del Gobernador, Plaza Mexico, Plaza de Roma, San Agustin Church and its newest tourist attraction, the Ayuntamiento de Manila.97
Some of the country's oldest schools are founded in Intramuros, these are the University of Santo Tomas (1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620), and Ateneo de Manila University (1859). Only Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620) remains at Intramuros; the University of Santo Tomas transferred to a new campus at Sampaloc in 1927, and Ateneo left Intramuros for Loyola Heights, Quezon City (while still retaining "de Manila" in its name) in 1952. Other prominent educational institutions include the Manila High School and the University of the City of Manila.
The Department of Tourism designates Manila as the pioneer of medical tourism, expecting it to generate $1 billion in revenue annually.98 However, lack of progressive health system, inadequate infrastructure and the unstable political environment are seen as hindrances for its growth.99
Robinsons Place Manila is the largest shopping mall in the city.102 The mall was the second and by-far, the largest Robinson Mall ever built by John Gokongwei. SM Supermall maintains presence in the city. One of their shopping mall is the SM City Manila, the first SM Supermall in the city featuring major SM brands like the The SM Store, SM Supermarket, SM Cinemas and SM Foodcourt. It is located right beside the Manila City Hall. SM City San Lazaro is the second SM Supermall in Manila. It is located in Santa Cruz. SM City San Lazaro was constructed on the site of the former San Lazaro Hippodrome. The building of the former Manila Royal Hotel in Quiapo which is famed for its revolving restaurant atop is now the SM Clearance Center which was established in 1972.103 The site of the first SM Store is located at Carlos Palanca Sr. (formerly Echague) Street in San Miguel.
Quiapo is referred as the "Old Downtown" where tiangges, markets, botique shops, music and electronics stores are common. C.M. Recto Avenue is where lots of department stores are located. One of Recto Avenue's famous destination is Divisoria, home to numerous shopping malls in the city. It is also dubbed as the shopping mecca of the Philippines where everything is sold at bargain price. Binondo, the oldest Chinatown in the world,26 is the city's center of commerce and trade for all types of businesses run by Filipino-Chinese merchants with a wide variety of Chinese and Filipino shops and restaurants.
As a result of Spanish cultural influence, Manila is a predominantly Christian (Catholic) city. As of 2010, Roman Catholics comprises 93.5% of the population, followed by adherents of the Philippine Independent Church (2.4%); Iglesia ni Cristo (1.9%); various Protestant churches (1.8%); and Buddhists (1.1%). Members of other religions comprises the remaining 1.4% of the city's population.105
Manila is the site of prominent Catholic churches and institutions. The Manila Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila. It is also oldest established church in the country and its Archbishop is the de facto Primate of the Philippines.106not in citation given Aside from the Manila Cathedral, there are also three other basilicas in the city: Quiapo Church, Binondo Church, and the Minor Basilica of San Sebastián. The San Agustín Church in Intramuros is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the two fully air-conditioned Catholic churches in the city. Manila also has other parishes located throughout the city, with some of them dating back to the Spanish Colonial Period when the city serves as the base for numerous Catholic missions both within the Philippines and to Asia beyond.
Several Mainline Protestant denominations are headquartered in the city. St Stephen's Parish pro-cathedral in the Sta. Cruz district is the see of the Episcopal Church in the Philippines' Diocese of Central Philippines, while align Taft Avenue are the main cathedral and central offices of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (also called the Aglipayan Church, a national church that was a product of the Philippine Revolution).
The indigenous Iglesia ni Cristo has several locales (akin to parishes) in the city, including its very first chapel (now a museum) in Punta, Sta. Ana. Evangelical and Pentecostal denominations also thrives within the city. The headquarters of the Philippine Bible Society is in Manila. Also, the main campus of the Cathedral of Praise is located along Taft Avenue. Jesus Is Lord Church also has several branches and campuses in Manila, and celebrates its anniversary yearly at the Burnham Green and Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park.
The city also hosts other religions. There are many Buddhist and Taoist temples serving the Chinese Filipino community. Quiapo is home to a sizable Muslim population which worships at Masjid Al-Dahab. Members of the Indian expatriate population have the option of worshiping at the large Hindu temple in the city, or at the Sikh gurdwara along United Nations Avenue. The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the Philippines, the governing body of the Filipino Bahá'í community, is headquartered near Manila's eastern border with Makati.
Manila celebrates civic and national holidays. Manila Day, which celebrates the city's founding on June 24, 1571, was first proclaimed by Herminio A. Astorga (then Vice Mayor of Manila) on June 24, 1962 and has been annually commemorated, under the patronage of John the Baptist. Locally, each of the city's barangays also have their own festivities guided by their own patron saint. The city is also the host to the Feast of the Black Nazarene, held every January 9, which draws millions of Catholic devotees. Another religious feasts held in Manila was the Feast of the Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados de Manila (Our Lady of the Abandoned), the patron saint of Santa Ana and was held every May 12. Non-religious holidays include the New Year's Day, National Heroes' Day, Bonifacio Day and Rizal Day.
As the cultural center of the Philippines, Manila is the home to a number of museums. The National Museum of the Philippines Complex, which include the Museum of the Filipino People and the Museum of Natural History, is located on the proposed new national government center during the American time. Museums established by educational institutions include the Mabini Shrine, the Museum of Contemporary Art and Design, UST Museum of Arts and Sciences, and the UP Museum of a History of Ideas.
Bahay Tsinoy, one of Manila's most prominent museums, documents the Chinese lives and contributions in the history of the Philippines. The Intramuros Light and Sound Museum chronicles the Filipinos desire for freedom during the revolution under Rizal's leadership and other revolutionary leaders. The Metropolitan Museum of Manila exhibits the Filipino arts and culture.
Other museums in the city are the Museum of Manila, the city-owned museum that exhibits the city's culture and history, Museo Pambata, a children's museum, the Museum of Philippine Political History, which exhibits notable political events in the country, the Parish of the Our Lady of the Abandoned and the San Agustin Church Museum, which houses religious artifacts, and Plaza San Luis, a public museum.
Sports in Manila have a long and distinguished history. The city's, and in general the country's main sport is basketball, and most barangays have a makeshift basketball court, with court markings drawn on the streets. Larger barangays have covered courts where interbarangay leagues are held every summer (April to May).
The city has several well-known sports venues, such as the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex and San Andres Gym, the home of the now defunct Manila Metrostars.107 The Rizal Memorial Sports Complex houses the Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium, the Baseball Stadium, Tennis Courts, Memorial Coliseum and the Ninoy Aquino Stadium (the latter two are indoor arenas).
The Rizal complex had hosted several multi-sport events, such as the 1954 Asian Games and the 1934 Far Eastern Games. Whenever the country hosts the Southeast Asian Games, most of the events are held at the complex, but in the 2005 Games, most events were held elsewhere. The 1960 ABC Championship and the 1973 ABC Championship, forerunners of the FIBA Asia Championship, was hosted by the complex, with the national basketball team winning on both tournaments. The 1978 FIBA World Championship was held at the complex although the latter stages were held in the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City, Southeast Asia's largest indoor arena.
Manila also hosts several well-known sports facilities such as the Enrique M. Razon Sports Center and the University of Santo Tomas Sports Complex, both of which are private venues owned by a university; collegiate sports are also held, with the University Athletic Association of the Philippines and the National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball games held at Rizal Memorial Coliseum and Ninoy Aquino Stadium, although basketball events had transferred to San Juan's Filoil Flying V Arena and the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City. Other collegiate sports are still held at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex. Professional basketball also used to play at the city, but the Philippine Basketball Association now holds their games at Araneta Coliseum and Cuneta Astrodome at Pasay; the now defunct Philippine Basketball League played some of their games at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex.
Previously a widely played sport in the city, Manila is now the home of the only sizable baseball stadium in the country, at the Rizal Memorial Baseball Stadium. The stadium hosts games of Baseball Philippines; Lou Gehrig and Babe Ruth were the first players to score a home run at the stadium at their tour of the country on December 2, 1934.108
The Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium hosted the first FIFA World Cup qualifier in decades when the Philippines hosted Sri Lanka in July 2011. The stadium, which was previously unfit for international matches, had undergone a major renovation program prior to the match.110 The Football Stadium now regularly hosts matches of the United Football League. The stadium also hosted its first rugby test when it hosted the 2012 Asian Five Nations Division I tournaments.111
Manila is politically divided into 897 barangays, the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines. Each barangay has its own chairperson and councilors. For administrative convenience, all the barangays in Manila are grouped into 100 zones. These zones have no form of local government. The city itself is composed of 16 former towns and municipalities absorbed by the city in the 19th century. These places are further grouped into six Legislative Districts.
Manila City Council composed of the six elected City Councilors of the legislative districts; the local President of the Association of Barangay Captains; and the Sangguniang Kabataan (youth council) president. The Mayor's office and Council seat is Manila City Hall. The civic judicial branch is administered by the Supreme Court of the Philippines under the Metro Manila judicial region.
Manila has six legislative districts that serve as the constituencies for the election of the city's representatives to the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines and of the regular members to the Sangguniang Panlungsod (SP; City Council). Each district elects one representative to the House of Representatives and six SP members to the council. The city, along with the rest of the nation, elects 12 senators as one at-large district.
- The 1st District (2007 population: 407,331) is Manila's (and the country's) most densely populated congressional district. It covers the western portion of Tondo that lies along Manila Bay.
- The 2nd District (2007 population: 223,273) covers the eastern inland portion of Tondo, a neighborhood or sub-district known as Gagalangin.
- The 5th District (2007 population: 315,961) covers Ermita, Malate, Port Area, Intramuros, San Andres Bukid, and a portion of Paco (except Zone 90).
- The 6th District (2007 population: 261,294) covers Paco (Zone 90 only), Pandacan, San Miguel, Santa Ana and Santa Mesa.
Manila, being the seat of political power of the Philippines, has several national government offices headquartered at the city. Planning for the development for being the center of government started during the early years of American colonization to the country when they envisioned a well-designed city outside the walls of Intramuros. The strategic location chosen was Bagumbayan, a former town which is now the Rizal Park to become the center of government and a design commission was given to Daniel Burnham to create a master plan for the city patterned after Washington D.C.. These improvements were eventually abandoned under the Commonwealth Government of Manuel L. Quezon.
A new government center was to be built on the hills northeast of Manila, or what is now Quezon City. Several government agencies have set up their headquarters in Quezon City but several key government offices still reside in Manila. However, many of the plans were substantially altered after the devastation of Manila during World War II and by subsequent administrations.
The city, as the capital, still hosts the Office of the President, as well as the president's official residence. Aside from these, important institutions such as the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the Departments of Budget and Management, Finance, Health, Justice, Labor and Employment and Public Works and Highways still call the city home. Manila also hosts important national institutions such as the National Library, National Archives, National Museum and the Philippine General Hospital.
Congress previously held office at the Old Congress Building. In 1972, due to declaration of martial law, Congress was dissolved; its successor, the unicameral Batasang Pambansa, held office at the new Batasang Pambansa Complex. When a new constitution restored the bicameral Congress, the House of Representatives stayed at the Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the Senate remained at the Old Congress Building. In May 1997, the Senate transferred to a new building it shares with the Government Service Insurance System at reclaimed land at Pasay.
Water services are formerly provided by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System, which serves 30% of the city with most other sewage being directly dumped into storm drains, septic tanks, or open canals.112 MWSS was privatized in 1997 which splits the water concession into the east and west zones. The Maynilad Water Services took over the west zone of which Manila is a part. It now provides the supply and delivery of potable water and sewerage system in Manila,113 but it does not provide service to the southeastern part of the city which belongs to the east zone that is served by Manila Water. Electric services are provided by Meralco, the sole electric power distributor in Metro Manila.
One of the more famous modes of transportation in Manila is the jeepney. Patterned after U.S. army jeeps, these have been in use since the years immediately following World War II.114 Today, the Tamaraw FX, the third generation Toyota Kijang, has begun to compete directly with jeepneys. Along with buses, jeepneys and Tamaraws follow fixed routes for a set price.
On a for-hire basis, the city is served by numerous taxicabs, "tricycles" (motorcycles with sidecars, the Philippine version of the auto rickshaw), and "trisikads" or "sikads" (bicycles with a sidecars, the Philippine version of pedicabs). In some areas, especially in Divisoria, motorized pedicabs are popular. Spanish-era horse-drawn calesas are still a popular tourist attraction and mode of transportation in the streets of Binondo and Intramuros. All types of public transport are privately owned and operated under government franchise.
The city is serviced by the LRT-1 and LRT-2 which forms the LRTA system, as distinct from the MRT-3 which is under the MRTC system that services other parts of Metro Manila. Development of the railway system began in the 1970s under the Marcos administration, making it the first light rail transport in Southeast Asia. These systems are currently undergoing a multi-billion dollar expansion.115 LRT Line 1 runs along the length of Taft Avenue (R-2) and Rizal Avenue (R-9), and the LRT Line 2 runs along Claro M. Recto Avenue (C-1) and Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard (R-6) from Santa Cruz, through Quezon City, up to Santolan in Marikina. The city used to be the center of railways on Luzon, but PNR's services to the north and south gradually diminished and they ceased all operations in May 2015. The Port of Manila, located in the vicinity of Manila Bay is the chief seaport of the Philippines. The Pasig River Ferry Service which runs on the Pasig River is another form of transportation. The city is also served by the Ninoy Aquino International Airport and Clark International Airport.
In 2006, Forbes magazine ranked Manila "the world's most congested city". Manila has become notorious for its frequent traffic jams and high densities.116 The government has undertaken several projects to alleviate the traffic in the city. Some of the projects include: the construction of a new flyover at Sampaloc,117 the construction of the Metro Manila Skyway Stage 3, the proposed LRT Line 2 (west) extension from Recto to Tondo or the Port Area,118 and the expansion of several national and local roads. However, such projects have yet to make any meaningful impact, and the traffic jams and congestion continue unabated.119 The urban planning of the Manila and the whole metropolis was based on the Metro Manila Dream Plan. It was commenced to address Metro Manila's urban planning and transportation. It consists of a list of short term priority projects and medium to long term projects lasting up to 2030.120121
The Manila Health Department is responsible for the planning and implementation of the health care programs provided by the city government. It operates 49 health centers and lying-in clinic.122 Manila boasts of six city-run hospitals. The six hospitals are: the University of the City of Manila affiliate Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center, Ospital ng Tondo Medical Center, Ospital ng Sampaloc Medical Center, Gat. Andres Bonifacio Memorial Medical Center, Santa Ana Hospital, and the Justice Jose Abad Santos General Hospital.123124 Manila is also the site of the Philippine General Hospital, the flagship hospital of the country affiliated with the University of the Philippines Manila.
Manila's healthcare is also provided by private corporations. Among the well-known private hospitals in the city are the Manila Doctors Hospital, Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center, Dr. José R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Metropolitan Medical Center, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, and the University of Santo Tomas Hospital.
The Department of Health has its main office in Manila. The national health department also operates the San Lazaro Hospital, a special referral tertiary hospital. Manila is also the home to the headquarters of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific and the World Health Organization Country Office for the Philippines.
The center of education since the colonial period, Manila — particularly Intramuros — is home to several Philippine universities and colleges as well as its oldest ones. It served as the home of the University of Santo Tomas (1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620), and Ateneo de Manila University (1859). Only Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620) remains at Intramuros; the University of Santo Tomas transferred to a new campus at Sampaloc in 1927, and Ateneo left Intramuros for Loyola Heights, Quezon City (while still retaining "de Manila" in its name) in 1952.
The University of the City of Manila located at Intramuros, and Universidad De Manila located just outside the walled city, are both owned and operated by the Manila city government. The national government controls the University of the Philippines Manila, the oldest of the University of the Philippines constituent universities and the center of health sciences education in the country.125 The city is also the site of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, the largest university in the country in terms of student population.126
The University Belt refers to the area where there is a high concentration or a cluster of colleges and universities in the city and it is commonly understood as the one where the San Miguel, Quiapo and Sampaloc districts meet. Generally, it includes the western end of España Boulevard, Nicanor Reyes St. (formerly Morayta St.), the eastern end of Claro M. Recto Avenue (formerly Azcarraga), Legarda Avenue, Mendiola Street, and the different side streets. Each of the colleges and universities found here are at a short walking distance of each other. Another cluster of colleges lies along the southern bank of the Pasig River, mostly at the Intramuros and Ermita districts, and still a smaller cluster is found at the southernmost part of Malate near the border with Pasay such as the private co-educational institution of De La Salle University, the largest of all De La Salle University System of schools.
The Division of the City Schools of Manila, a branch of the Department of Education, refers to the city's three-tier public education system. It governs the 71 public elementary schools, 32 public high schools.127
The city also contains the Manila Science High School, the pilot science high school of the Philippines; the National Museum, where the Spoliarium of Juan Luna is housed; the Metropolitan Museum of Manila, a museum of modern and contemporary visual arts; the Museo Pambata, the Children's Museum, a place of hands-on discovery and fun learning; and, the National Library, the repository of the country's printed and recorded cultural heritage and other literary and information resources.
|Sister cities of Manila128|
- Cities of the Philippines
- Greater Manila Area
- Imperial Manila
- Kingdom of Maynila
- List of cities in the Philippines
- Mega Manila
- The city limits was at Vicente Sotto Street. The rest of the place south of the street belongs to Pasay. Buildings and structures in CCP that falls under the jurisdiction of Manila includes the National Theater.
- "'PEARL OF ORIENT' STRIPPED OF FOOD; Manila, Before Pearl Harbor, Had Been Prosperous—Its Harbor One, of Best Focus for Two Attacks Osmeña Succeeded Quezon". New York Times. 5 February 1945. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
Manila, modernized and elevated to the status of a metropolis by American engineering skill, was before Pearl Harbor a city of 623,000 population, contained in an area of fourteen square miles.
- "Cities". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- "Manila City Profile". FuturArc. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "List of Cities". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010" (PDF). 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- "Demographia World Urban Areas PDF (March 2013)" (PDF). Demographia. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- Carbone, Nick (October 26, 2011). "The 10 Fastest-Growing Cities of Tomorrow". TIME. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "World's Densest Cities". Forbes. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "The World According to GaWC 2012". Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Loughborough University. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
- "Early Global Commodities". Rethinking the rise of the West: Global Commodities (Silver Connects the World: The Americas and the Manila Galleon). Columbia University. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- Volume 5 of 東西洋考 (A study of the Eastern and Western Oceans) mentions that Luzon first sent tribute to Yongle Emperor in 1406
- Gerini, G. E. (1905). "The Nagarakretagama List of Countries on the Indo-Chinese Mainland (Circâ 1380 A.D.)". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland) (July 1905): 485–511. JSTOR 25210168.
- "Pusat Sejarah Brunei" (in Malay). Government of Brunei Darussalam. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Guevarra, Rudy P. (2007). Mexipino: A history of multiethnic identity and the formation of the Mexican and Filipino communities of San Diego, 1900–1965. University of California, Santa Barbara. ISBN 0549122869
- Leebrick, Karl Clayton (2007). The English expedition to Manila and the Philippine Islands in the year 1762. University of California, Berkeley. p. 52.
- Gates, John M. (November 2002). "The Pacification of the Philippines". The U.S. Army and Irregular Warfare. Retrieved 20 February 2010.
- White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century". Retrieved August 1, 2007.
- Mijares, Armand Salvador B. (2006). .The Early Austronesian Migration To Luzon: Perspectives From The Peñablanca Cave Sites. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 26: 72–78.
- Agoncillo 1990, p. 22
- Wright, Hamilton M. (1907). "A Handbook of the Philippines", p. 143. A.C. McClurcg & Co., Chicago.
- Kane, Herb Kawainui (1996). "The Manila Galleons". In Bob Dye. Hawaiʻ Chronicles: Island History from the Pages of Honolulu Magazine I. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 25–32. ISBN 0-8248-1829-6.
- "Manila (Philippines)". Britannica. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Tracy 1995, p. 58
- Backhouse, Thomas (1765). The Secretary at War to Mr. Secretary Conway. London: British Library. pp. v. 40.
- "Wars and Battles: Treaty of Paris (1763)". www.u-s-history.com.
In a nutshell, Britain emerged as the world's leading colonial empire.
- Raitisoja, Geni " Chinatown Manila: Oldest in the world", Tradio86.com, July 8, 2006, accessed March 19, 2011.
- Fundación Santa María (Madrid) 1994, p. 508
- John Bowring, "Travels in the Philippines", p. 18, London, 1875
- Olsen, Rosalinda N. "Semantics of Colonization and Revolution". http://www.bulatlat.com/. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- The text of the amended version published by General Otis is quoted in its entirety in José Roca de Togores y Saravia; Remigio Garcia; National Historical Institute (Philippines) (2003), Blockade and siege of Manila, National Historical Institute, pp. 148–150, ISBN 978-971-538-167-3
See also Wikisource:Letter from E.S. Otis to the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands, January 4, 1899.
- Joaquin, Nick (1990). Manila My Manila. Vera-Reyes, Inc. p. 137, 178.
- Moore 1921, p. 162.
- Moore 1921, p. 162B.
- Moore 1921, p. 180.
- White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century". Retrieved 1 August 2007.
- "Milestone in History". Quezon City Official Website. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Hancock 2000, p. 16
- "Presidential Decree No. 824 November 7, 1975". The LawPhil Project. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- "Presidential Decree No. 940 June 24, 1976". Chan C. Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- "Edsa people Power 1 Philippines". Angela Stuart-Santiago. Retrieved 3 December 2007.
- Mundo, Sheryl (December 1, 2009). "It's Atienza vs. Lim Part 2 in Manila". Manila: ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. Archived from the original on 3 December 2009. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
Environment Secretary Jose 'Lito' Atienza will get to tangle again with incumbent Manila Alfredo Lim in the coming 2010 elections.
- Legaspi, Amita (July 17, 2008). "Councilor files raps vs Lim, Manila execs before CHR". GMA News. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
A Manila City councilor on Thursday filed human rights complaints against Mayor Alfredo Lim, other city officials and policemen over the violent takeover of the Dealco slaughterhouse in Vitas, Tondo last July 11.
- "Mayor Lim charged anew with graft over rehabilitation of public schools". The Daily Tribune. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Jenny F. Manongdo (June 23, 2012). "Isko, 28 Dads Rap Lim; Mayor Strikes Back". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 25 June 2012.dead link
- "Isko Moreno, 28 councilors file complaint vs Lim". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Geography of Manila". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- Lozada, Bong (March 27, 2014). "Metro Manila is world's second riskiest capital to live in–poll". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
- "Fire and Quake in the construction of old Manila". The Frequency of Earthquakes in Manila. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- "The City of God: Churches, Convents and Monasteries" Discovering Philippines. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
- "Temperatures drop further in Baguio, MM". Philippine Star. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- "Metro Manila temperature soars to 36.2C". ABS-CBN. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
- "Manila". Jeepneyguide. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Climatological Normals of the Philippines (1951-1985) (PAGASA 1987)" (PDF). PAGASA. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- "Manila, Luzon Climate & Temperature". Climatemps.com. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- "City Profiles:Manila, Philippines". United Nations. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- Alave, Kristine L. (18 August 2004). "METRO MANILA AIR POLLUTED BEYOND ACCEPTABLE LEVELS". Clean Air Initiative – Asia. Manila: Cleanairnet.org. Archived from the original on 3 December 2005. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- Wallerstein, Claire (1999). "Philippines tackles air pollution". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) (NCBI) 318 (7185): 689. doi:10.1136/bmj.318.7185.689. PMC 1115138. PMID 10074001.
- "POLLUTION ADVERSELY AFFECTS 98% OF METRO MANILA RESIDENTS". Hong Kong: Cleanairnet.org. 31 January 2005. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Air pollution is killing Manila". GetRealPhilippines. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- Fajardo, Feliciano (1995). Economics. Philippines: Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 357. ISBN 978-971-23-1794-1. Retrieved 6 May 2010.
- de Guzman, Lawrence (11 November 2006). "Pasig now one of world's most polluted rivers". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. "Frequently Asked Questions: What are the upcoming tropical cyclone names?". NOAA. Retrieved 11 December 2006.
- Tharoor, Ishaan (September 29, 2009). "The Manila Floods: Why Wasn't the City Prepared?". TIME. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Presidential Decree Number 274, Pertaining to the Preservation, Beautification, Improvement, and Gainful Utilization of the Pasig River, Providing for the Regulation and Control of the Pollution of the River and Its Banks In Order to Enhance Its Development, Thereby Maximizing Its Utilization for Socio-Economic Purposes.". Archived from the original on 3 May 2007. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "A dying river comes back to life" - Santelices, Menchit. Philippine Information Agency.
- "Estero de San Miguel: The great transformation". Yahoo! Philippines. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
- "Manila : : Architecture". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Escolta Street tour shows retro architecture and why it's worth reviving as a gimmick place". News5. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Lila Ramos Shahani (May 11, 2015). "Living on a Fault Line: Manila in a 7.2 Earthquake". The Philippine Star. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- Alcazaren, Paulo (June 13, 2012). "Sta. Mesa: Manila's northeastern edge". PhilStar.com. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Alexis Romero (July 12, 2012). "New AFP task force launched". PhilStar.com. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- "Manila – The city, History, Sister cities" (PDF). Cambridge Encyclopedia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2010. (from Webcite archive)
- "Cities Profile: Manila City". National Competitiveness Council. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- "International Container Terminal Services Inc.". Philippine Stock Exchange. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
- "Asia's 200 Best Under A Billion: International Container Terminal Services". Forbes. 27 September 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
- "Plan to turn Chinatown into BPO hub gains ground". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- "Tutuban Center may become Manila's busiest transfer station". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- "Estrada: Oil depot closed by July 15". The Philippine Daily Inquirer. December 16, 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Pandacan oil depot 'decontamination' pushed after Big 3 exit". The Philippine Daily Inquirer. December 21, 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- MSN Encarta: Manila. MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "MB Website". Manila Bulletin.
- Andrade, Jeannette (December 1, 2007). "Lino Brocka, 3 others installed on remembrance wall". Philippine Daily Inquirer (Philippine Daily Inquirer, Inc.). Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "BSP Website". Central Bank of the Phils.
- "Ranking of Life Insurance Companies according to Assets as of December 31, 2010" (PDF). Insurance Commission. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "Ranking of Life Insurance Companies according to Net worth as of December 31, 2010" (PDF). Insurance Commission. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "Ranking of Life Insurance Companies according to Investment at Cost as of December 31, 2010" (PDF). Insurance Commission. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "Unilever Philippines". Unilever.
- "Annual Financial Report of Local Government Units (Volume III)". Commission on Audit. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Tax ad: 1 in every 2 PH cities relies on national gov’t allocation". Rappler. June 25, 2014. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- "Quezon City, Makati richest cities in RP". Philippine Today US. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Top 10 Philippine Cities: Per Capita Income, Tax Revenues". Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Rizal Park". WordTravels. Archived from the original on 20 April 2009. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- Gwen de la Cruz (January 12, 2015). "FAST FACTS: Rizal Park". Rappler. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
- "REPUBLIC ACT No. 9593 otherwise known as Tourism Act of 2009 and Its Implementing Rules and Regulations" (PDF). Department of Tourism. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
- Pia Ranada (August 31, 2013). "Paseo de Manila tourism zone to rise in Luneta Park". Rappler. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
- Jovic Lee (July 20, 2014). "Intramuros cocheros: Hooves, history and hope for a fare hike". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Jennifer Ambanta (February 22, 2015). "New tourist attraction to open in Intramuros". Manila Standard Today. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Medical Tourism, Treatments and Surgery in Manila". World Guides. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- Edgardo S. Tugade (June 1, 2014). "Challenges to PH medical tourism". The Manila Times. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- "Manila 11th most attractive shopping destination in Asia Pacific –study — Yahoo! News Philippines". Ph.news.yahoo.com. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Arveen, Kim (30 October 2012). "Manila outperforms 15 Asian cities in 'shopping' index — Yahoo! News Philippines". Ph.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Manila". Robinsons Malls. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Miss Earth candidates visits 100 Revolving Restaurant". Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- "World Heritage: San Sebastian Church". Tentative List for the World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved 20 April 2008.
- "Manila ("Maynila")" (PDF). Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- "Wow Philippines: Manila-Cosmopolitan City of the Philippines". Department of Tourism. Archived from the original on 30 July 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Manila: Sports". Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- Talao, Tito (March 10, 2004). "Baseball loses no time in preparing for SEAG". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "World Cup of Pool begins". ABS-CBNnews.com. 7 September 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- Fenix, Ryan (4 June 2011). "All systems go for Azkals' World Cup qualifier at Rizal Memorial". Interaksyon.com. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- "Teams ready for RWC Qualifiers in Manila". Rugbyworldcup.com. 14 April 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- Orozco, G; Zafaralla, M, (2011), Socio-Economic Study of Two Major Metro Manila Esteros (PDF), Makati, Philippines: Journal of Environmental Science and Management, retrieved 3 December 2014
- Inocencio, A; David, C, (2001), Public-Private-Community Partnerships in Management and Delivery of Water to Urban Poor: The Case of Metro Manila (PDF), Makati, Philippines: Philippine Institute for Development Studies, retrieved 3 December 2014
- "Transportation in the Philippines". AsianInfo.org. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
- Republic of the Philippines. Office of the President. (July 21, 2005). "SONA 2005 Executive Summary".
- "World's Densest Cities". Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- "Lacson-España flyover takes off despite protests". August 6, 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- Tomas S. Noda III (January 28, 2015). "DMCI gets $51.5m rail contract in PH". Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Rodel Rodis (23 October 2014). "Manila’s traffic jams cost $57 million a day". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- (The Philippines) Mega Manila Infrastructure Roadmap (Long Version). JICAChannel02: The Official Global Channel of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), National Economic Development Authority (NEDA)). June 10, 2014.
- Main Points of the Roadmap (PDF) (Report). Japan International Cooperation Agency. September 2014.
- Mabasa, Roy C. (April 14, 2007). "Free hospital, health aid in Manila assured". The Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- Dennis Carcamo (April 7, 2014). "New fees in Manila City hospitals hit". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- Ernie Reyes (February 19, 2014). "Erap disputes claim poor Manilans will be hurt by fee hikes in city hospitals". News5. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- "About UP Manila". University of the Philippines Manila. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
- "PUP: Profile". Polytechnic University of the Philippines. March 30, 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- Cabayan, Itchie G. (7 April 2010). "Good education a right, not privilege – Lim". City Government of Manila. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
NO one should be deprived of a sound education for being poor
- "About Manila: Sister Cities". City of Manila. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Relationship with Sister Cities: Manila". Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Beijing's Sister Cities". eBeijing. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Overview of China-Philippines Bilateral Relations: III. Exchanges and Cooperation in the Fields of Culture, Education, Science and the Military, etc.". Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Republic of the Philippines. March 5, 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
There are 24 pairs of sister-cities or sister-provinces between China and the Philippines, namely: Hangzhou and Baguio City, Guangzhou and Manila City, Shanghai and Metro Manila, Xiamen and Cebu City, Shenyang and Quezon City, Fushun and Lipa City, Hainan and Cebu Province, Sanya and Lapu-Lapu City, Shishi and Naya City, Shandong and Ilocos Norte Province, Zibo and Manduae City, Anhui and Nueva Ecija Province, Hubei and Leyte Province, Liuzhou and Muntinlupa City, Hezhou and San Fernando City, Haerbin and Cagayan de Oro City, Laibin and Laoag City, Beijing and Manila City, Jiangxi and Bohol Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Davao City, Lanzhou and Albay Province, Beihai and Puerto Princessa City, Fujian Province and Laguna Province, Wuxi and Puerto Princessa City.
- "Sisterhood Agreement With Democratic Republic Of Timor Leste". City of Manila.
- "Sister Cities - Ho Chi Minh City". Ho Chi Minh City. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- "Sister and Friendship Cities". Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- "International Sister Cities". Taipei City Council. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- "Manila-Takatsuki sisterpact". City of Manila. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "List of Sister City Affiliations with Japan (by country): Philippines". Singapore: Japan Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR, Singapore). February 29, 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- "How the Filipino hero found his samurai wife in Yokohama". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "Manila, Philippines". Sister Cities International. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- "US-Asia Sister Cities by State". Asia Matters for America. Honolulu, Hawaii: East West Center. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Foreign Relations (June 24, 2005). "Manila-Montreal Sister City Agreement Holds Potential for Better Cooperation". The Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on December 5, 2009. Retrieved October 2, 2009.
- "NYC's Partner Cities". New York City Global Partners. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- "Winnipeg's Sister Cities: Manila (Maynila), Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas)". Retrieved June 2, 2015.
- Moore, Charles (1921). "Daniel H. Burnham: Planner of Cities". Houghton Mifflin and Co., Boston and New York.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|Capital of the Philippines
|Capital of the Philippines
||Navotas||South Caloocan||Quezon City|
|Manila Bay||San Juan