0.15% of global population
0.77% of China's population
|Regions with significant populations|
|People's Republic of China||10,410,5851|
|Republic of China (Taiwan)||12,0002|
|almost all Mandarin Chinese, very few Manchu|
|Mostly non-religious. Manchu shamanism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion; Christian minority.3|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Evenks, Nanai, Oroqen, Udege, Xibe
and other Tungusic peoples
The Manchu note 1 (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ; Möllendorff: manju; simplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú; Wade–Giles: Man3-tsu2) are a Chinese ethnic minority and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.11 They are often known as red tasseled Manchus (Manchu: ᡶᡠᠯᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᡵᠰᠣᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ; Möllendorff: fulgiyan sorson manju; 红缨满洲), a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats.1213
Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic people and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in that country.1 They can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. They also form the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region. Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing has over 100,000 Manchu residents. About half of the population live in Liaoning province and one-fifth in Hebei province. There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhennote 2 and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.15
- 1 History
- 2 Etymology of the ethnic name
- 3 Population
- 4 Culture
- 4.1 Language and alphabet
- 4.2 Names and naming practices
- 4.3 Burial customs
- 4.4 Traditional hairstyle
- 4.5 Traditional garments
- 4.6 Traditional activities
- 4.7 Literature
- 4.8 Folk art
- 4.9 Religion
- 4.10 Traditional holidays
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
The Manchus are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China161718 but as early as the semi-mythological chronicles of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors there is mention of the Sushen,19202122 a Tungusic people from the northern Manchurian region of North East Asia, who paid bows and arrows as tribute to Shun23 and later to Zhou.24 The Sushen used flint headed wooden arrows, farmed, hunted, and fished, and lived in caves and trees.25 The cognates Sushen or Jichen (稷真) again appear in the Shan Hai Jing and Book of Wei during the dynastic era referring to Tungusic Mohe tribes of the far Northeast.26 The Mohe enjoyed eating pork, practiced pig farming extensively, and were mainly sedentary,27 and also used both pig and dog skins for coats. They were predominantly farmers and grew soybean, wheat, millet, and rice, in addition to engaging in hunting.28
Following the fall of Balhae the Jurchens were vassals of the Liao dynasty. The Koreans had been beaten into submission to the Jurchens by the Jurchen leader Wu-ya-shu,29 who secured the Jurchen-Korean border.30 In the year of 1114, Wanyan Aguda united the Jurchen tribes and established the Jin dynasty.31 His brother and successor, Wanyan Wuqimai defeated the Liao dynasty. After the fall of Liao, the Jurchens went to war with the Northern Song, and captured most of northern China in the Jin–Song wars.32 During the Jin dynasty, the first Jurchen scripts came into use in the 1120s. It was mainly derived from Khitan script.31 The Jurchens extorted gifts and rewards from the Korean Kingdom Goryeo by militarily threatening them.33
The Jurchens were sedentary,3435 settled farmers with advanced agriculture. They farmed grain and millet as their cereal crops, grew flax and raised oxen, pigs, sheep, and horses.36 Their farming way of life was very different from the pastoral nomadism of the Mongols and the Khitan on the steppes.3738 "At the most", the Jurchen could only be described as "semi-nomadic" while the majority of them were sedentary.33
In 1206, the Mongols who were vassals to Jurchens rose in Mongolia. Their leader, Genghis Khan, led the Mongol troops to fight against Jurchens. The Jin dynasty could not withstand the Mongols' attack and was finally defeated by Ögedei Khan in 1234.39 Under the Mongols' control, the Jurchens were mainly divided into two groups and treated differently: the ones who were born and raised in North China and fluent in Chinese were considered to be Chinese (Han); but the people who were born and raised in the Jurchen homeland (Manchuria) without Chinese-speaking abilities were treated as Mongols politically.40 From that time, the Jurchens of North China increasingly merged with the Han Chinese, while those living in their homeland started to be Mongolized.41 They adopted Mongolian customs, namesnote 3 and the Mongolian language. As time went on, fewer and fewer Jurchens could recognize their own script.
The Mongol domination of China was replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368. In 1387, the Ming defeated the Nahacu's Mongol resisting forces who settled in Haixi area42 and began to summon the Jurchen tribes to pay tribute43 At the time, some Jurchen clans were vassals to the Joseon dynasty of Korea such as Odoli and Huligai.44 Their elites served in the Korean royal bodyguard.45 The Joseon Koreans tried to deal with the military threat that the Jurchen posed to them by using both forceful means and incentives, by launching military attacks on the Jurchens. At the same time they tried to appease them with titles and degrees, trading with them, and seeking to acculturate them by having Korean women marry Jurchens and integrating them into Korean culture. Despite these measures, fighting continued between the Jurchen and the Koreans.4647 Their relationship was discontinued by Ming, because Ming was planning to make Jurchens a means of protecting the border. Korea had to allow this as it was in Ming's tribute system.45 In 1403, Ahacu, chieftain of Huligai, paid tribute to Yongle Emperor of Ming. Soon after that, Möngke Temür, chieftain of Odoli clan of the Jianzhou Jurchens, defected from paying tribute to Korea, becoming a tributary to China instead. Yi Seong-gye, the Taejo of Joseon asked Ming to send Möngke Temür back but he refused.48 The Ming Yongle Emperor was determined to wrest the Jurchens out of Korean influence and have China dominate them instead.49 Korea tried to persuade Möngke Temür to reject the Ming overtures, but was unsuccessful since Möngke Temür submitted to the Ming.50515253 Since then, more and more Jurchen tribes presented tribute to Ming in succession.43 They were divided in 384 guards by Ming,45 and the Jurchen became vassals to the Ming.54 The Ming dynasty name for the Jurchen land was Nurgan. The Jurchens became part of the Ming dynasty's Nurgan Regional Military Commission under the Yongle Emperor, with Ming forces erecting the Yongning Temple Stele in 1413 at the headquarters of Nurgan. The stele was inscribed in Chinese, Jurchen, Mongolan, and Tibetan.
In 1449, Mongol taishi Esen assaulted the Ming dynasty and captured Zhengtong Emperor in Tumu. Some Jurchen guards in Jianzhou and Haixi cooperated with Esen's action,55 but more were attacked by the Mongol invasion. Many Jurchen chieftains lost their hereditary certificates granted by the Ming.56 They had to present tribute as secretariats (中书舍人) with less reward from the Ming court than in the time when they were heads of guards - an unpopular development.57 Subsequently, more and more Jurchens recognised Ming's declining power due to Esen's invasion. Zhengtong Emperor's capture directly caused Jurchen guards to go out of control.58 Tribal leaders publicly plundered Ming's area, such as Cungšannote 4 and Wang Gao. At about this time, the Jurchen script was officially abandoned.60 More Jurchens adopted Mongolian as their writing language and fewer used Chinese.61
The Manchu way of life (economy) was described as agricultural, farming crops and raising animals on farms.62 Manchus practiced slash-and-burn agriculture in the areas north of Shenyang.63 The Haixi Jurchens were "semi-agricultural, the Jianzhou Jurchens and Maolian (毛怜) Jurchens were sedentary, while hunting and fishing was the way of life of the "Wild Jurchens".64 Han Chinese society resembled that of the sedentary Jianzhou and Maolian, who were farmers.65 Hunting, archery on horseback, horsemanship, livestock raising, and sedentary agriculture were all practiced by the Jianzhou Jurchens as part of their culture.66
“建州毛怜则渤海大氏遗孽，乐住种，善缉纺，饮食服用，皆如华人，自长白山迤南，可拊而治也。" "The (people of) Chien-chou and Mao-lin [YLSL always reads Mao-lien] are the descendants of the family Ta of Po-hai. They love to be sedentary and sow, and they are skilled in spinning and weaving. As for food, clothing and utensils, they are the same as (those used by) the Chinese. (Those living) south of the Ch'ang-pai mountain are apt to be soothed and governed."
Although their Mohe ancestors did not respect dogs, the Jurchen began to respect dogs around the time of the Ming dynasty, and passed this tradition on to the Manchu. It was prohibited in Jurchen culture to use dog skin, and forbidden for Jurchens to harm, kill, or eat dogs. The Jurchens believed that the use of dog skin by Koreans was the "utmost evil".69
For political reasons, the Jurchen leader Nurhaci chose variously to emphasize either differences or similarities in lifestyles with other peoples like the Mongols.70 Nurhaci said to the Mongols that "The languages of the Chinese and Koreans are different, but their clothing and way of life is the same. It is the same with us Manchus (Jušen) and Mongols. Our languages are different, but our clothing and way of life is the same." Later Nurhaci indicated that the bond with the Mongols was not based in any real shared culture. It was for pragmatic reasons of "mutual opportunism", since Nurhaci said to the Mongols: "You Mongols raise livestock, eat meat and wear pelts. My people till the fields and live on grain. We two are not one country and we have different languages."71
A century after the chaos started in the Jurchen lands, Nurhaci, a chieftain of the Jianzhou Left Guard, began a campaign against the Ming in revenge for their manslaughter of his grandfather and father in 1583.72 He reunified the Jurchen tribes, established a military system called the "Eight Banners", which organized Jurchen soldiers into groups of "Bannermen", and ordered his scholar Erdeni and minister Gagai to create a new Jurchen script (later known as Manchu script) using the traditional Mongolian alphabet as a reference.73
In 1603, Nurhaci gained recognition as the Sure Kundulen Khan (Manchu: ᠰᡠᡵᡝ
ᡥᠠᠨ; Möllendorff: sure kundulen han, "wise and respected khan") from his Khalkha Mongol allies74 then in 1616 he publicly enthroned himself and issued a proclamation naming himself Genggiyen Khan (Manchu: ᡤᡝᠩᡤᡳᠶᡝᠨ
ᡥᠠᠨ; Möllendorff: genggiyen han, "bright khan") of the Later Jin dynasty (Manchu: ᠠᠮᠠᡤᠠ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ; Möllendorff: amaga aisin gurunnote 5, 後金). Nurhaci then launched his attack on the Ming dynasty74 and moved the capital to Mukden after his conquest of Liaodong.76 In 1635, his son and successor Hong Taiji changed the name of the Jurchen ethnic group (Manchu: ᠵᡠᡧᡝᠨ; Möllendorff: jušen) to the Manchu.77 A year later, Hong Taiji proclaimed himself the emperor of the Qing dynasty (Manchu: ᡩᠠᡳᠴᡳᠩ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ; Möllendorff: daicing gurunnote 6).79 Factors for the change of name of these people from Jurchen to Manchu include the fact that the term "Jurchen" had negative connotations associated with it, since the Jurchens had been in a servile position to the Ming dynasty for several hundred years and it also referred to people of the "dependent class".80 In 1644, the Ming capital of Beijing was sacked by a peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng, a former minor Ming official who became the leader of the peasant revolt, who then proclaimed the establishment of the Shun dynasty. The last Ming ruler, the Chongzhen Emperor, committed suicide when the city fell. When Li Zicheng moved against the Ming general Wu Sangui, the latter made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Manchurian army. After the Manchus defeated Li Zicheng, they moved the capital of their new empire to Beijing (Manchu: ᠪᡝᡤᡳᠩ; Möllendorff: beging81) in the same year.82
As a result of their conquest of China, almost all the Manchus followed the regent prince Dorgon and the Shunzhi Emperor to Beijing and mainly settled there.8384 Few of them were sent to other places such as Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet to serve as garrison troops.84 There were only 1524 Bannermen left in Manchuria at the time of the initial Manchu conquest.85 After s series of border conflicts began with the Russians, the Qing dynasty's emperors started to realize the strategic importance of Manchuria and gradually sent Manchus back to where they originally came from.83 However, during the rule of the Qing, Beijing was always the only focal point of the ruling Manchus in the political, economic and cultural spheres of this era of Chinese civilization. The Yongzheng Emperor noted: "Garrisons are the places of stationed works, Beijing is their homeland."86
While the Manchu ruling elite at the Qing imperial court in Beijing and posts of authority throughout China increasingly adopted Han culture, the Qing imperial government viewed the Manchu communities (as well as those of various tribal people) in Manchuria as a place where traditional Manchu virtues could be preserved, and as a vital reservoir of military manpower fully dedicated to the regime.87 The Qing emperors tried to protect the traditional way of life of the Manchus (as well as various other tribal peoples) in central and northern Manchuria by a variety of means, in particular, restricting the migration of Chinese colonists to the region. This ideal, however, had to be balanced with practical needs, such as maintaining the defense of northern China against the Russians and the Mongols, supplying government farms with a skilled work force, and conducting trade in the region's products, which resulted in a continuous trickle of Chinese (Han) convicts, workers, and merchants to the northeast.88
However, this policy of artificially isolating the Manchus of the northeast from the rest of China could not last forever. In the 1850s, large numbers of Manchu bannermen were sent to central China to fight the Taiping rebels. (For example, just the Heilongjiang province - which at the time included only the northern part of today's Heilongjiang - contributed 67,730 bannermen to the campaign, of which only 10-20% survived).89 Those few who returned were demoralized and often exposed to opium addiction.90 In 1860, in the aftermath of the loss of the "Outer Manchuria", and with the imperial and provincial governments in deep financial trouble, parts of Manchuria became officially open to Chinese settlement;91 within a few decades, the Manchus became a minority in most of Manchuria's districts.
The Qing were willing to be flexible regarding ethnic categories in the Eight Banners system. Some Han Chinese who had defected and assimilated to the Jurchens before 1618 had been let into the Manchu Banners instead of the separate Hanjun (Chinese or Han) Banners. Han Chinese defectors who fled from the Ming joined the Jurchens in Nurgan before 1618 were placed into Manchu Banners and regarded as Manchu, but the Ming residents of Liaodong who were incorporated into the Eight Banners after the conquest of Liaodong from the Ming from 1618-1643 were placed into the separate Chinese Banners (Chinese:Hanjun, Manchu: Nikan cooha or Ujen cooha).92 Geography, culture, language, occupation and lifestyle were the factors used by Nurhaci's Jianzhou Jurchen Khanate to classify people as Jurchen or Nikan, those who were considered Jurchen lived in a Jurchen lifestyle, used the Jurchen language and inhabited the eastern part were considered Jurchen, while those who were considered by Nurhaci as Nikan (Han Chinese) were the ones who used Chinese language, and inhabited villages and towns on the west.93 Ethnic identity was determined by culture, language, and attitude, not by ancestry (genealogy), and these identities could be changed and people transferred from different ethnic banners to another. Mongols were associated with the Mongolian language, nomadism and horse related activities, Manchus were associated with Manchu language and foremost being part of the Banners, and Han Chinese were associated with inhabiting Liaodong, the Chinese language, agriculture, commerce.94 Biological determinants and ancestry could be disregarded when determining betwee Manchu and Han, and culture used to differentiate instead, and occasionally identities were blurred and could be altered.95 The Qing creation of the separate Manchu, Mongol, and Han Banners was not an absolute division between ethnicities, but consisted of fluxing categories defined by the Qing.96
Manchu Banners had (non-bondservant) Han Chinese families inducted into them, like the family of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner member Chang Wen-hsing, the Governor of Kansu (Gansu) in 1647, who was of Han Chinese origin despite being in a Manchu Banner.97 The Manchu official Duanfang had Han Chinese ancestors originating from Zhejiang- towards the end of the Ming, they had defected to the Qing and moved to southern Manchuria from their original home in Zhejiang province, they changed their surname to Tohoro from Tao to make it sound Manchu and registered it in the Manchu Plain White Banner.9899100101 Since the Manchus were willing to accept assimilated strangers, Han Chinese who defected to the Jurchens or were captured by them had integrated well into Manchu society.102 These Han Chinese transfrontiersman from Liaodong embraced Manchu customs and changed their names into Manchu to the point where103 they identified as Manchu rather than Chinese and resembles Manchus in their speech, behavior, and looks.104 Nurhaci used culture to categorize people and allowed Han transfrontiersmen to identify as Manchu after assimilating, and ethnicity was regarded as flexible when Han Chinese and Mongol families were moved by Kangxi to Manchu Banners from their original Mongol and Chinese Banners (Hanjun, or Han Banners) .105 It is hard for historians to tell whether a Manchu was originally a Han transfrontiersman since they no longer used Chinese names or regarded themselves as Han Chinese, Frederic Wakeman suggested that is evidence that the Manchu Dahai's ancestors were Han Chinese transfrontiersman.106 The Jurchen headman of Turun-hoton and arch-enemy of Nurhaci, Nikan Wailan, was also suggested to be a Han transfrontiersman by Wakeman, since his name literally meant "Chinese official".107 The pre-1618 Han defectors and transfrontiersmen who had joined the Jurchen became part of the Later Jin elite and were extremely assimilated into Jurchen culture to the point where their Han ancestry was the only thing that differentiated them from Jurchens.108 Nurhaci differentiated between different groups of Han Chinese based on the date they became part of his Later Jin state. After the Jurchens conquered part of Liaodong, Han Chinese residents revolted against Jurchen rule in 1623. A furious Nurhaci then ordered that these Han Chinese in Liaodong be discriminated against and receive the death penalty for certain crimes while Jurchen should be let off. However, Nurhaci also ordered that Han Chinese who joined the Jurchens between 1603-1619 (the Tai Nikan) be treated equal to the Jurchen in these cases and not be discriminated against.106109110
From 1618-1629, the Han Chinese from eastern Liaodong who joined the Eight Banners were known as "tai nikan", the Han who defected to the Qing at Fushun were known as Fushan Nikan and were considered part of the tai nikan. The Tai Nikan were distinguished from the later Han Chinese who joined the banners between 1629-1643 and originated from western Liaodong, Shanxi, Shandong, and Zhili, and were known as "fu xi baitangga".111 Both groups were part of the Chinese Banners before the Qing crossed over Shanhai pass in 1644, and as such were both distinguished from Han who were incorporated into the Chinese Banners after 1644 when the Qing ruled China. The pre-1644 Chinese Bannermen were known as "old men" 旧人 .112 A mass transfer into the Manchu banners of every single Fushun Nikan, and specifically chosen tai nikan, Koreans, and Mongols was enacted by the Qianlong Emperor in 1740.113
The Han who classified in different ways had come under Manchu rule in three different eras, before 1618 the Han "transfrontiersmen" who threw in their lot with Nurhaci were effectively only Han Chinese by ancestry and blood since they practiced Jurchen culture and became part of Manchu companies (Niru) within Manchu Banners, while the from 1618-1622 the Han captured in Liaodong and Liaoxi became either bondservants to Manchu Banners or Han Bannermen, and then finally the Han who deserted the Ming during Hong Taiji's rule to join the Manchu, and these were first placed into separate all Han companies (Niru) attached to Manchu Banners, and then when in 1642 the Manchu Banners ejected all their Han companies they were placed into separate Chinese Banners (Hanjun, or Han Banners) since they were the mostly not assimilated to Jurchen culture.114
When the Qing Imperial family took consorts from among the Han bondservants, the close relatives of the consort such as their uncles, brothers, and fathers, were elevated into the Manchu Banners, and their Han surnames were Manchufied by adding a "giya" ᡤᡳᠶᠠ at the end. It was Qing policy to for every closely related in-law of the Emperor to get transferred into a Manchu Banner even if they were from another ethnicity.115 Empress Xiaoyichun was from a bondservant company (Baoyi) in the Chinese Banners (Hanjun) but her son the Jiaqing Emperor transferred her family to a Manchu Banner and changed their surname from Wei to the Manchucized Weigiya. The paternal grandmother of Puyi, Lady Lingiya and her family were also elevated to a Manchu Banner and their surname changed from Liu to Lingiya.
Dulimbai Gurun ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ is the Manchu name for China (中國, Zhōngguó; "Middle Kingdom").116117118 After conquering the Ming, the Qing dynasty identified their state as "China" (Zhongguo), and referred to it as "Dulimbai Gurun" in the Manchu tongue. The Qing equated the lands of the Qing state (including present day Manchuria, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Tibet and other areas as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages, defining China as a multi-ethnic state, rejecting the idea that China only meant Han areas, proclaiming that both Han and non-Han peoples were part of "China", using "China" to refer to the Qing dynasty's empire in official documents, international treaties, and foreign affairs, and the term "Chinese language" (Manchu: ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝDulimbai gurun i bithe) referred to the Chinese, Manchu, and Mongol languages, and the term "Chinese people" (中國人 Zhōngguó Rén ; Manchu: ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ
ᠨᡳᠶᠠᠯᠮᠠ Dulimbai gurun i niyalma) referred to all the Han, Manchu, and Mongol subjects of the Qing.119
When the Qing conquered Dzungaria in 1759, they proclaimed that the new land was absorbed into "China" (Dulimbai Gurun) in a Manchu language memorial.120121122 The Qing expounded in their ideology that they were bringing together the "outer" non-Han Chinese like the Inner Mongols, Eastern Mongols, Oirat Mongols, and Tibetans together with the "inner" Han Chinese, into "one family" united in the Qing state, showing that the diverse subjects of the Qing were all part of one family. The Qing used the phrase "Zhongwai yijia" 中外一家 or "neiwei yijia" 內外一家 ("interior and exterior as one family"), to convey this idea of "unification" of the different peoples of their empire.123 A Manchu language version of a treaty with the Russian Empire concerning criminal jurisdiction over bandits called people from the Qing empire as "people of the Central Kingdom (Dulimbai Gurun)".124125126127 In the Manchu official Tulisen's Manchu language account of his meeting with the Torguth leader Ayuka Khan, it was mentioned that while the Torghuts were unlike the Russians, the "people of the Central Kingdom" (dulimba-i gurun 中國, Zhongguo) were like the Torghut Mongols, and the "people of the Central Kingdom" referred to the Manchus.128
Many Manchu Bannermen in Beijing supported the Boxers in the Boxer Rebellion and shared their anti-foreign sentiment.129 The Manchu Bannermen were devastated by the fighting during the First Sino-Japanese War and the Boxer Rebellion, with massive casualties sustained during the wars and subsequently being driven into extreme suffering and hardship.130 Much of the fighting in the Boxer Rebellion against the foreigners in defense of Beijing and Manchuria was done by Manchu Banner armies which were destroyed while resisting the invasion, the German Minister Clemens von Ketteler was assassinated by a Manchu.131 Thousands of Manchus fled south from Aigun during the fighting in the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, their cattles and horses were then stolen by Russian Cossacks who then burned their villages and homes until only ashes were left.132 The clan system of the Manchus in Aigun was obliterated by the despoliation of the area at the hands of the Russian invaders.133
By the 19th century, most Manchus in the city garrisons no longer spoke Manchu, instead they spoke the Beijing dialect of Mandarin Chinese or Standard Chinese- which still marked them out as distinctive compared to their Han neighbors in southern China who spoke non-Mandarin dialects. The fact that they spoke Beijing dialect (but not Manchu) made recognizing Manchus relatively easy.134135 It was northern Standard Chinese which the Manchu Bannermen spoke instead of the local dialect which the Han people around the garrison spoke, so that Manchus in the garrisons at Jingzhou and Guangzhou both spoke Mandarin despite the fact that Cantonese was spoken at Guangzhou, and the Beijing dialect marked out the Manchu bannermen at the Xi'an garrison apart from other people.136137 Many Manchu Bannermen got jobs as Mandarin teachers, writing textbooks for learning Mandarin and instructing people in Mandarin.138 In Guangdong, the Manchu Mandarin teacher Sun Yizun advised that the Yinyun Chanwei and Kangxi Zidian, dictionaries issued by the Imperial government, were the correct guides to Mandarin pronunciation, rather than the pronounciation of the Beijing and Nanjing dialects.139 For teaching the Beijing dialect, Kyugaigo, the Japanese foreign language school, hired a Manchu in 1876.140
As the end of the Qing dynasty approached, Manchus were portrayed as outside colonizers by Chinese nationalists such as Sun Yat-Sen, even though the Republican revolution he brought about was supported by many reform-minded Manchu officials and military officers.141 This portrayal dissipated somewhat after the 1911 revolution as the new Republic of China now sought to include Manchus within its national identity.142 In order to blend in, some Manchus switched to speaking the local dialect instead of Standard Chinese.143144
By the early years of the Republic of China, very few areas of China still had traditional Manchu populations. Among the few regions where such comparatively traditional communities could be found, and the Manchu language was still widely spoken, were the Aigun (Manchu: ᠠᡳᡥᡡᠨ; Möllendorff: aihūn) District and the Qiqihar (Manchu: ᠴᡳᠴᡳᡤᠠᡵ; Möllendorff: cicigar) District of Heilongjiang Province.145
Until 1924, the government continued to pay stipends to Manchu bannermen; however, many cut their links with their banners and took on Han-style names in shame to avoid persecution.146 The official total of Manchu fell by more than half during this period, as they refused to admit to their ethnicity when asked by government officials or other outsiders.147 On the other hand, in warlord Zhang Zuolin's reign of Manchuria, a much better treatment than the situation of Manchus in mainland China was reported.148149 There were not any particular persecution towards Manchus.148 Even the mausoleums of Qing's emperors were still allowed to be managed by Manchu guardsmen like it was in the past.148 In this case, many Manchus joined Fengtian clique, such as Xi Qia who was a member of Qing's imperial clan.
As a follow-up action of Mukden Incident, Manchukuo, a puppet state in Manchuria, was created by Imperial Japan which was nominally ruled by the deposed Emperor Puyi in 1932. Although the nation's name was related to Manchus, it was actually a complete new country for all the ethnicities in Manchuria150151 which had a majority Han population and was opposed by many Manchus like other ethnicities who fought against Japan in World War II, too.55
In 1952, after the failure of both Manchukuo and the Nationalist Government (KMT), the newborn People's Republic of China officially recognized the Manchu as one of the ethnic minorities in 1952.152 In the 1953 census, 2.5 million people identified themselves as Manchu.153 The Communist government also attempted to improve the treatment of Manchu people; some Manchu people who had hidden their ancestry during the period of KMT rule thus became more comfortable to reveal their ancestry, such as the writer Lao She, who began to include Manchu characters in his fictional works in the 1950s.154 Between 1982 and 1990, the official count of Manchu people more than doubled from 4,299,159 to 9,821,180, making them China's fastest-growing ethnic minority.155 In fact, however, this growth was not due to natural increase, but instead people formerly registered as Han applying for official recognition as Manchu.156
Eight-Banner system is one of the most important ethnic identity of today's Manchu people.157 So nowadays, Manchus are more like an ethnic community which not only contains the descendants of Manchu bannermen, also has a large number of Manchu-assimilated Chinese and Mongol bannermen.158159160161 However, the ones who were mostly considered as Manchu bannermen under the Qing dynasty, such as Solon, Xibe and Nanai people, were separated as independent ethnic groups by the PRC government.162
Since the 1980s, the reform after Cultural Revolution, there has been a renaissance of Manchu culture and language among the government, scholars and social activities with remarkable achievements.163 It was also reported that the resurgence of interest also spread among Han Chinese.164
The actual etymology of the ethnic name "Manju" is debatable.165 According to the Qing dynasty's official historical record, the Researches on Manchu Origins, the ethnic name came from Mañjuśrī.166 The Qianlong Emperor also supported the point of view and even wrote several poems on the subject.167
Meng Sen, a famous scholar of the Qing, agreed, too. On the other hand, he thought the name "Manchu" was also related to Li Manzhu, the chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchen.168 It was just the most respectful appellation in the society of the Jianzhou Jurchens in Meng's mind.169
Another scholar, Chang Shan, thinks Manju is a compound word. "Man" was from the word "mangga" (ᠮᠠᠩᡤᠠ) which means strong and "ju" (ᠵᡠ) means arrow. So Manju actually means "intrepid arrow".170
There are other hypothesis, such as Fu Sinian's "etymology of Jianzhou"; Zhang Binglin's "etymology of Jianzhou"; Isamura Sanjiro's "etymology of Wuji and Mohe"; Sun Wenliang's "etymology of Manzhe"; "etymology of mangu(n) river" and so on.171172173
Most Manchu people now live in Mainland China with a population of 10,410,585,1 which is 9.28% of ethnic minorities and 0.77% of China's total population.1 Among the provincial regions, there are two provinces, Liaoning and Hebei, which have over 1,000,000 Manchu residents.1 Liaoning has 5,336,895 Manchu residents which is 51.26% of Manchu population and 12.20% provincial population; Hebei has 2,118,711 which is 20.35% of Manchu people and 70.80% of provincial ethnic minorites.1 Manchu is the largest ethnic minority in Liaoning, Hebei, Heilongjiang and Beijing; 2nd largest in Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Tianjin, Ningxia, Shaanxi and Shanxi and 3rd largest in Henan, Shandong and Anhui,.1
Manchu autonomous area in Liaoning.note 7
Manchu people can be found living outside mainland China. There are approximately 12,000 Manchus now in Taiwan. Most of them moved to Taiwan with the ROC government in 1949. One notable example was Puru, a famous painter, calligrapher and also the founder of the Manchu Association of Republic of China.2 There are also Manchus who settled in the United States and Japan, such as John Fugh, Garry Guan and Fukunaga Kosē.
The Manchu language is a Tungusic language and has many dialects. It has its own standard language called "Standard Manchu". It originates from the accent of Jianzhou Jurchens174 and was officially standardized by the Qianlong Emperor under his reign.175 During the Qing period, Manchus at court were required to speak Standard Manchu176 or face the emperor's reprimand.176 This applied equally to the palace presbyter of shamanic fete when performing sacrifice.176 Due to the regional difference, there are also many dialects. For example, Beijing dialect is one of the most commonly used ones. It was a mixed by several dialects since the Manchus who lived in Beijing were not only Jianzhou Jurchens, but also Haixi Jurchens and Yeren Jurchens. Over time, the mingling of their accents produced Beijing dialect (京语). Beijing dialect is very close to Standard Manchu.177 Mukden dialect, aka Mukden-South Manchurian dialect (盛京南满语) or Mukden-Girin dialect (盛京吉林语), is another popular used dialect which was originally spoken by the Manchus who lived in Liaoning and the western and southern areas of Jilin, having an accent very close to the Xibe language spoken by the Xibes living in Qapqal.178 There are also Ningguta dialect, Alcuka dialect, etc., of Manchu which have their own particular characteristics.179
Jurchens, ancestors of the Manchu, had created Jurchen script in the Jin dynasty. After Jin collapsed, Jurchen script was gradually lost. In the Ming period, 60%-70% of Jurchens used Mongolian script to write letters and 30%-40% of Jurchens used Chinese characters.61 This persisted until Nurhaci revolted against the Ming reign. Nurhaci considered it a major impediment that his people lacked a script of their own, so he commanded his scholars, Gagai and Eldeni, to create Manchu characters by reference to Mongolian scripts.180 They dutifully complied with the Khan's order and created Manchu script, which is called "script without dots and circles" (Manchu: ᡨᠣᠩᡴᡳ
ᡥᡝᡵᡤᡝᠨ; Möllendorff: tongki fuka akū hergen; 无圈点满文) or "old Manchu script" (老满文).181 Due to its hurried creation, the script has its defects. Some vowels and consonants were difficult to distinguish.182183 Shortly afterwards, their successor Dahai used dots and circles to distinguish vowels, aspirated and non-aspirated consonants and thus completed the script. His achievement is called "script with dots and circles" or "new Manchu script".184
After the 1800s, most Manchus had perfected Standard Chinese and the number who knew Manchu was dwindling.185 Although the Qing emperors emphasized the importance of Manchu language again and again, the tide could not be turned. After the Qing collapsed, the Manchu language lost its status as a national language and its use officially in education ended. Manchus today generally speak Standard Chinese. The remaining skilled native Manchu speakers number less than 100,186 most of whom are to be found in Sanjiazi (Manchu: ᡳᠯᠠᠨ
ᠪᠣᠣ; Möllendorff: ilan boo), Heilongjiang Province.187 Since the 1980s, there has been a resurgence of Manchu language among the government, scholars and social activities.188 In recent years, with the help of the governments in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang, many schools started to have Manchu classes.189190191 There are also Manchu volunteers in many places of China who freely teach Manchu in the desire to rescue of the language.192193194195 Thousands of non-Manchu speakers have learned the language through these measures.196197
The history of Manchu family names is quite long. Fundamentally, it succeeds the Jurchen family name of the Jin dynasty.198 However, after the Mongols extinguished the Jurchen empire, Manchus started to adopt Mongol culture, including their custom of using only their given name till the end of the Qing,199 a practice confounding non-Manchus, leading them to conclude, erroneously, that they simply don't have family names.200
A Manchu family name usually has two portions: the first is "Mukūn" (ᠮᡠᡴᡡᠨ) which literally means "branch name"; the second, "Hala" (ᡥᠠᠯᠠ), represents the name of a person's clan.201 According to the Book of the Eight Manchu Banners' Surname-Clans (八旗滿洲氏族通譜), there are 1,114 Manchu family names. Gūwalgiya, Niohuru, Šumulu, Tatara, Gioro, Nara are considered as "famous clans" (著姓) among Manchus.202
Manchus given names are distinctive. Generally, there are several forms, such as bearing suffixes "-ngga", "-ngge" or "-nggo", meaning "having the quality of";203 bearing the suffixes "-tai" or "-tu", meaning "having";204205 bearing the suffix, "-ju", "-boo";204 numerals note 8204205 or animal namesnote 9.203204
Nowadays, Manchus primarily use Chinese family and given names, but some still use a Manchu family name and Chinese given name,note 10 a Chinese family name and Manchu given namenote 11 or both Manchu family and given names.note 12
The Jurchen and their Manchu descendants originally practiced cremation as part of their culture. They adopted the practice of burial from the Han, but many Manchus continued to cremate their dead.206
The traditional hairstyle for Manchu men is shaving the front of their heads while growing the hair on the back of their heads into a single braid called a queue, which was known as "soncoho" in Manchu.
Manchu women wore their hair in a distinctive hairstyle called Liangbatou 兩把頭.
The early phase of Manchu clothing succeeded from Jurchen tradition. White was the dominating color.207 Due to the convenience of archery, robe is the most representative clothing of the Manchu people.208 On the robe, surcoat is usually wore. was a military uniform of Eight banners army.209 Since Kangxi period, surcoat got popular in third estate.210 Modern Chinese female suit Cheongsam and Tangzhuang are deverted from Manchu robe and surcoat208 which are commonly considered as "Chinese elements".211
Wearing hats is also a part of Manchu traditional culture.212 Conventionally, especially different from Han Chinese culture of "Starting to wear hats in 20 year-old" (二十始冠), Manchu people wear hats in all ages and seasons.212 Manchu hats has formal and casual ones. Formal hats also have two different styles, one is straw hat worn in spring and summer and another is warm hat worn in fall and winter.213 Casual hat is more known as "Mandarin hat" in English.
Manchus have many distinctive traditional accessories. Women traditionally wear 3 earrings in each ear,214 a tradition that is maintained by many older Manchu women.215 Males also traditionally wear piercings, but they tend to only have one earring in their youth and do not continue to wear it as adults.216 The Manchu people also have traditional jewelry which evokes their past as hunters. The fergetun (ᡶᡝᡵᡤᡝᡨᡠᠨ), a thumb ring traditionally made out of reindeer bone, was worn to protect the thumbs of archers. After the Manchu conquest of China in 1644, the fergetun gradually became simply a form of jewelry, with the most valuable ones made in jade and ivory.217 High platform shoes were worn by Manchu women.
Riding and archery (Manchu: ᠨᡳᠶᠠᠮᠨᡳᠶᠠᠨ; Möllendorff: niyamniyan) is significant to the Manchu. They were well-trained horsemen from their teenage218 years. Hong Taiji, the Qing Taizong emperor, said, "Riding and Archery is the most important martial art of our country".219220 Every generation of the Qing dynasty treasured Riding and Archery the most.221 Every spring and fall, from ordinary Manchus to aristocrats, all had to take a riding and archery test. Their test results could even affect their rank in the nobility.222 The Manchus of the early Qing had excellent shooting skills and their arrows were reputed to be capable of penetrating two people.223
From the middle period of Qing, archery became more a form of entertainment, in the form of games such as, hunting swans, shooting fabric or silk target. The most difficult is shooting a candle hanging in the air at night.224 Gambling was banned in the Qing reign but there was no limitation on Manchus engaging in shooting skill contests. It was common to see Manchus putting signs in front of their houses to invite challenges.224 After the Qianlong period, Manchus gradually neglected the practice of riding and archery, even though their rulers tried their best to encourage Manchus to continue their riding and archery traditions,223 but the tradition is still kept among some Manchus even nowadays.225
Manchu wrestling (Manchu: ᠪᡠᡴᡠ; Möllendorff: buku) 226 is also an important martial art of the Manchu people.227 Buku, meaning "wrestling" or "man of unusual strength" in Manchu, was originally from a Mongolian word, “bökh”.226 The history of Manchu wrestling can be traced back to Jurchen wrestling in the Jin dynasty which was originally from Khitan wrestling; it was very similar to Mongolian wrestling.228 In the Yuan Dynasty, d he Jurchens who lived in northeast China adopted Mongol culture including wrestling, bökh.229 In the latter Jin and early Qing period, rulers encouraged the populace, including aristocrats, to practise buku as a feature of military training.230 At the time, Mongol wrestlers were the most famous and powerful. By the Chongde period, Manchus had developed their own well-trained wrestlers231 and, a century later, in the Qianlong period, they surpassed Mongol wreslers.232 The Qing court established the "Shan Pu Battalion" and chose 200 fine wrestlers divided into three levels. Manchu wrestling moves can be found in today's Chinese wrestling, Shuai jiao, which is its most important part.233 Among many branches, Beijing wrestling adopted most Manchu wrestling moves.234
As a result of their hunting ancestry, Manchus are traditionally interested in falconry.235 Gyrfalcon (Manchu: ᡧᠣᠩᡴᠣᡵᠣ; Möllendorff: šongkoro) is the most highly valued discipline in the Manchu falconry social circle.236 In the Qing period, giving a gyrfalcon to the royal court in tribute could be met with a considerable reward.236 There were professional falconers in Ningguta area (today's Heilongjiang province and the northern part of Jilin province). It was a big base of falconry.235 Beijing's Manchus also like falconry. Compared to the falconry of Manchuria, it is more like an entertainment.221 Imperial Household Department of Beijing had professional falconers, too. They provided outstanding falcons to the emperor when he went to hunt every fall.221 Even today, Manchu traditional falconry is well practised in some regions.237
Ice skating (Manchu: ᠨᡳᠰᡠᠮᡝ
ᡝᡶᡳᠨ; Möllendorff: nisume efime efin) is another Manchu pastime. Emperor Qianlong called it “national custom”.238 It is one of the most important winter events of the Qing royal household,239 performed by "Eight Banner Ice Skating Battalion" (八旗冰鞋营)239 which was a special force trained to do battle on icy terrain.239 The battalion consisted of 1600 soldiers. In the Jiaqing period, it was reduced to 500 soldiers and transferred to the Jing Jie Battalion (精捷营) originally, literally meaning "chosen agile battalion".239
In the 1930s-1940s, there was a famous Manchu skater in Beijing whose name was Wu Tongxuan, from the Uya clan and one of the royal household skaters in Empress Dowager Cixi's reign.240 He frequently appeared in many of Beijing's skating rinks.240 Nowadays, there are still Manchu figure skaters; world champions Zhao Hongbo and Tong Jian are the pre-eminent examples.
The Tale of the Nisan Shaman (Manchu: ᠨᡳᡧᠠᠨ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ; Möllendorff: nišan saman i bithe; 尼山萨满传) is the most important literature of Manchus.241 It primarily tells the process of how Nisan Shaman helps a young hunter revive.242 The story spreads not long among Manchus, but also in Xibe, Nanai, Daur, Oroqen, Evenk and other Tungusic peoples.241 It basically has four versions: the handwriting version from Qiqihar; two different handwriting versions from Aigun; the one which was written by a Manchu writer Dekdengge in Vladivostok (Manchu: ᡥᠠᡳᡧᡝᠨᠸᡝᡳ; Möllendorff: haišenwei243). The pilot of four versions are similar, but the version of Haišenwei has the most complete content.244 It is already translated in Russian, Chinese, English and other languages.241
Octagonal drum is a type of Manchu folk art that was very popular among bannermen, especially in Beijing.245 It is said that octagonal drum originated with the snare drum of the Eight-banner military and the melody was made by the banner soldiers who were on the way back home from victory in the battle of Jinchuan.245 The drum is composed of wood surrounded by bells. The drumhead is made by wyrmhide with tassels at the bottom.245 The colors of the tassels are yellow, white, red, and blue, which represent the four colors of Eight Banners.246 When artists perform, they use their fingers to hit the drumhead and shake the drum to ring the bells.245 Traditionally, octagonal drum is performed by three people. One is the harpist; one is the clown who is responsible for harlequinade; and the third is the singer.245
"Zidishu" is the main libretto of octagonal drum and can be traced back to a type of traditional folk music called "Manchu Rhythm".247 Although Zidishu was not created by Chinese people, it still contains many themes from Chinese stories,248 such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Dream of the Red Chamber, Romance of the West Chamber, Legend of the White Snake and Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio.248 Additionally, there are many works that depict the lives of Bannermen. Aisin Gioro Yigeng, who was pen named "Helü" and wrote the sigh of old imperial bodyguard, is the representative author.249 Zidishu involves two acts of singing, which are called dongcheng and xicheng.250
After the fall of the Qing dynasty, the influence of the octagonal drum gradually reduced. However, the Chinese monochord250 and crosstalk251 which derived from octagonal are still popular in Chinese society. Many famous Chinese monochord performers and crosstalkers were the artists of octagonal drum. Such as De shoushan and Zhang Sanlu.252
Ulabun (ᡠᠯᠠᠪᡠᠨ) is a Manchu storytelling entertainment which is performed in Manchu language.253 Different from octagonal drum, ulabun is popular among the Manchu people who lives in Manchuria. It has two main categories. One is popular folk literature such as the Tale of the Nisan Shaman; Another classification is from folk music which is informative and has independent pilot, complete structure.253 Song Xidong aka. Akšan (ᠠᡴᡧᠠᠨ) is a famous artist in performing ulabun.254
The religions of the Manchus are diverse. Originally, Manchus, and their predecessors, were principally Shamanists. After the conquest of China in the 17th century, Manchus came into contact with Chinese culture. They were markedly influenced by Chinese folk religion and retained only some Shamanic customs. Buddhism and Christianity also had their impacts. Manchus are today mostly irreligious.3
Shamanism has a long history in Manchu civilization and influenced them tremendously over thousands of years. John Keay states in A History Of China, shaman is the single loan-word from Manchurian into the English language. After the conquest of China in the 17th century, although Manchus widely adopted Chinese folk religion, Shamanic traditions can still be found in the aspects of soul worship, totem worship, belief in nightmares and apotheosis of philanthropists.255 Since the Qing rulers considered religion as a method of controlling other powers such as Mongolians and Tibetans,256 there was no privilege for Shamanism, their native religion. Apart from the Shamanic shrines in the Qing palace, no temples erected for worship of Manchu gods could be found in Beijing.256 Thus, the story of competition between Shamanists and Lamaists was oft heard in Manchuria but the Manchu emperor helped Lamaists to persecute Shamanists which led to their considerable frustration and dissatisfaction.256
Jurchens, the predecessors of the Manchus, were influenced by the Buddhism of Balhae, Goryeo, Liao and Song in the 10-13th centuries,257 so it was not something new to the rising Manchus in the 16-17th centuries. Qing emperors were always entitled "Buddha". They were regarded as Mañjuśrī in Tibetan Buddhism169 and had high attainments.257 However, Buddhism was used by rulers to control Mongolians and Tibetans; it was of little relevance to ordinary Manchus in the Qing dynasty.256
Manchus were affected by Chinese folk religions for most of the Qing period.256 Save for ancestor worship, the gods they consecrated were virtually identical to those of the Han Chinese.256 Guan Yu worship is a typical example. He was considered as the God Protector of the Nation and was sincerely worshipped by Manchus. They called him "Lord Guan" (关老爷). Uttering his name was taboo.256 In addition, Manchus worshipped Cai Shen and The Kitchen god just as the Han Chinese did. The worship of Mongolian and Tibetan gods has also been reported.256
There were Manchu Christians in the Qing dynasty. In Yongzheng and Qianlong's era, Depei, the Hošo Jiyan Prince, was a Catholic whose baptismal name was "Joseph". His wife was also baptised and named “Maria”.258 At the same time, the sons of Doro Beile Sunu were devout Catholics, too.258259 In the Jiaqing period, Tong Hengšan and Tong Lan were Catholic Manchu Bannermen.258 These Manchu Christians were proselytized and persecuted by Qing emperors but they steadfastly refused to convert.258 There were Manchu Christians in modern times, too, such as Ying Lianzhi, Lao She and Philip Fugh.
Manchus have many traditional holidays. Some are derived from Chinese culture, such as "Spring Festival"260 and Duanwu Festival.261 Some are of Manchu origin. For instance, Banjin Inenggi (ᠪᠠᠨᠵᡳᠨ
ᡳᠨᡝᠩᡤᡳ), on the 13th day of the tenth month of the lunar calendar, is the anniversary of the name creation of Manchu.165 This day in 1635, Qing Taizong Emperor, Hong Taiji, changed the ethnic name from Jurchen to Manchu.77262 Food Extermination Day (绝粮日), on every 26th day of the 8th month of the lunar calendar, is another example which was inspired by a story that once Nurhaci and his troops were in a battle with enemies and almost running out of food. The villagers who lived near the battlefield heard the emergency and came to help. There was no tableware on the battlefield. They had to use perilla leaves to wrap the rice. Afterwards, they won the battle. So later generations could remember this hardship, Nurhaci made this day the "Food Extermination Day". Traditionally on this day, Manchu people eat perilla or cabbage wraps with rice, scrambled eggs, beef or pork.263
- Also known as Man,4 Bannermen,56 Banner people,7 Tartars,8 red tasseled Mongols (红缨蒙古),9 the Mongols of wearing red tassels (戴红缨的蒙古人)10 and the Tartars of wearing red tassels (戴红缨达子)10
- Fengcheng and Beizhen are cities but treated as Manchu autonomous counties.14
- e.g. Möngke Temür, Qing's emperors' ancestor
- Cungšan was considered as Nurhaci's direct ancestor by some viewpoints,57 but disagreements also exist.59
- Aka. Manchu State (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ; Möllendorff: manju gurun)75
- The meaning of "daicing" is debatable. It has been reported that the word was imported from Mongolian means "fighting country"78
- Autonomous counties are shown in bright green. Counties with autonomous townships are in dark green, with the number of Manchu townshipin each county shown in red (or yellow). So are another 2 pictures
- e.g. Nadanju (70 in Manchu), Susai (5 in Manchu), Liošici(67, a Mandarin homophone) and Bašinu(85, a Mandarin homophone)204
- e.g. Dorgon (badger) and Arsalan (lion)203
- e.g. Aisin Gioro Qixiang, a famous Chinese calligrapher.
- e.g. Ying Batu, Ying Bayan, the sons of a famous Manchu director, Ying Da.
- e.g. Aisin-Gioro Ulhicun, a famous scholar of Khitan and Manchu linguistic studies.
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- China News: A High School Opens Manchu Class in Liaoning (simplified Chinese)
- Sina Education: Manchu Class Comes Into A Middle School Class of Jilin For the First Time (simplified Chinese)
- China Nationality Newspaper: the Rescue of Manchu Language (simplified Chinese)
- iFeng: Jin Biao's 10-Year Dream of Manchu Language (traditional Chinese)
- Shenyang Daily: Young Man Teaches Manchu For Free To Rescue the Language (simplified Chinese)
- Beijing Evening News: the Worry of Manchu language (simplified Chinese)
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- Liu 2008, p. 92
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- Xinhua: How Did Chinese Emperors Award Athletes? (simplified Chinese)
- China News：Qianlong Emperor made Ice Skating a National Custom (simplified Chinese)
- Manchu Old Man Skaters in Beijing (simplified Chinese)
- Dekdengge, Zhang & Guang 2007, p. 03
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