0.15% of global population
0.77% of China's population
|Regions with significant populations|
|People's Republic of China||10,410,5851|
|Republic of China (Taiwan)||12,0002|
|almost all Mandarin Chinese, very few Manchu|
|Mostly non-religious. Manchu shamanism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion; Christian minority.3|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Evenks, Nanai, Oroqen, Udege, Xibe
and other Tungusic peoples
The Manchu note 1 (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ; Möllendorff: manju; simplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú; Wade–Giles: Man3-tsu2) are a Chinese ethnic minority and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.11 They are sometimes called "red-tasseled Manchus", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats.1213
Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in that country.1 They can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. They also form the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region. Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing have over 100,000 Manchu residents. About half of the population live in Liaoning province and one-fifth in Hebei province. There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhennote 2 and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.15
- 1 History
- 2 Etymology of the ethnic name
- 3 Population
- 4 Culture
- 4.1 Language and alphabet
- 4.2 Names and naming practices
- 4.3 Burial customs
- 4.4 Traditional hairstyle
- 4.5 Traditional garments
- 4.6 Traditional activities
- 4.7 Literature
- 4.8 Folk art
- 4.9 Religion
- 4.10 Traditional holidays
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
The Manchus are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China161718 but as early as the semi-mythological chronicles of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors there is mention of the Sushen,19202122 a Tungusic people from the northern Manchurian region of northeast Asia, who paid bows and arrows as tribute to Shun23 and later to Zhou.24 The Sushen used flint headed wooden arrows, farmed, hunted, and fished, and lived in caves and trees.25 The cognates Sushen or Jichen (稷真) again appear in the Shan Hai Jing and Book of Wei during the dynastic era referring to Tungusic Mohe tribes of the far northeast.26 The Mohe enjoyed eating pork, practiced pig farming extensively, and were mainly sedentary,27 and also used both pig and dog skins for coats. They were predominantly farmers and grew soybean, wheat, millet, and rice, in addition to engaging in hunting.28
Following the fall of Balhae, the Jurchens became vassals of the Liao dynasty. The Koreans had been beaten into submission to the Jurchens by the Jurchen leader Wu-ya-shu,29 who secured the Jurchen-Korean border.30 In the year 1114, Wanyan Aguda united the Jurchen tribes and established the Jin dynasty.31 His brother and successor, Wanyan Wuqimai defeated the Liao dynasty. After the fall of the Liao dynasty, the Jurchens went to war with the Northern Song, and captured most of northern China in the Jin–Song wars.32 During the Jin dynasty, the first Jurchen script came into use in the 1120s. It was mainly derived from Khitan script.31 The Jurchens extorted gifts and rewards from the Korean Kingdom Goryeo by militarily threatening them.33
The Jurchens were sedentary,3435 settled farmers with advanced agriculture. They farmed grain and millet as their cereal crops, grew flax, and raised oxen, pigs, sheep, and horses.36 Their farming way of life was very different from the pastoral nomadism of the Mongols and the Khitan on the steppes.3738 "At the most", the Jurchen could only be described as "semi-nomadic" while the majority of them were sedentary.33
In 1206, the Mongols who were vassals to the Jurchens rose in Mongolia. Their leader, Genghis Khan, led Mongol troops to fight against the Jurchens. The Jin dynasty could not withstand the attack and was finally defeated by Ögedei Khan in 1234.39 Under the Mongols' control, the Jurchens were mainly divided into two groups and treated differently: the ones who were born and raised in North China and fluent in Chinese were considered to be Chinese (Han); but the people who were born and raised in the Jurchen homeland (Manchuria) without Chinese-speaking abilities were treated as Mongols politically.40 From that time, the Jurchens of North China increasingly merged with the Han Chinese while those living in their homeland started to be Mongolized.41 They adopted Mongolian customs, names,note 3 and the Mongolian language. As time went on, fewer and fewer Jurchens could recognize their own script.
The Mongol domination of China was replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368. In 1387, the Ming defeated the Nahacu's Mongol resisting forces who settled in the Haixi area42 and began to summon the Jurchen tribes to pay tribute.43 At the time, some Jurchen clans were vassals to the Joseon dynasty of Korea such as Odoli and Huligai.44 Their elites served in the Korean royal bodyguard.45 The Joseon Koreans tried to deal with the military threat posed by the Jurchen by using both forceful means and incentives, and by launching military attacks. At the same time they tried to appease them with titles and degrees, traded with them, and sought to acculturate them by having Korean women marry Jurchens and integrating them into Korean culture. Despite these measures, fighting continued between the Jurchen and the Koreans.4647 Their relationship was discontinued by Ming, because Ming was planning to make Jurchens a means of protecting the border. Korea had to allow this as it was in Ming's tribute system.45 In 1403, Ahacu, chieftain of Huligai, paid tribute to the Yongle Emperor of Ming. Soon after that, Möngke Temür, chieftain of the Odoli clan of the Jianzhou Jurchens, defected from paying tribute to Korea, becoming a tributary to China instead. Yi Seong-gye, the Taejo of Joseon, asked Ming to send Möngke Temür back but he refused.48 The Ming Yongle Emperor was determined to wrest the Jurchens out of Korean influence and have China dominate them instead.49 Korea tried to persuade Möngke Temür to reject the Ming overtures, but was unsuccessful since Möngke Temür submitted to the Ming.50515253 Since then, more and more Jurchen tribes presented tribute to Ming in succession.43 They were divided into 384 guards by Ming,45 and the Jurchen became vassals to the Ming.54 The Ming dynasty name for the Jurchen land was Nurgan. The Jurchens became part of the Ming dynasty's Nurgan Regional Military Commission under the Yongle Emperor, with Ming forces erecting the Yongning Temple Stele in 1413 at the headquarters of Nurgan. The stele was inscribed in Chinese, Jurchen, Mongolian, and Tibetan.
In 1449, Mongol taishi Esen assaulted the Ming dynasty and captured Zhengtong Emperor in Tumu. Some Jurchen guards in Jianzhou and Haixi cooperated with Esen's action,55 but more were attacked by the Mongol invasion. Many Jurchen chieftains lost their hereditary certificates granted by the Ming.56 They had to present tribute as secretariats (中书舍人) with less reward from the Ming court than in the time when they were heads of guards – an unpopular development.57 Subsequently, more and more Jurchens recognised Ming's declining power due to Esen's invasion. Zhengtong Emperor's capture directly caused Jurchen guards to go out of control.58 Tribal leaders, such as Cungšannote 4 and Wang Gao, brazenly plundered Ming territory. At about this time, the Jurchen script was officially abandoned.60 More Jurchens adopted Mongolian as their writing language and fewer used Chinese.61
The Manchu way of life (economy) was described as agricultural, farming crops and raising animals on farms.62 Manchus practiced Slash-and-burn agriculture in the areas north of Shenyang.63 The Haixi Jurchens were "semi-agricultural, the Jianzhou Jurchens and Maolian (毛怜) Jurchens were sedentary, while hunting and fishing was the way of life of the "Wild Jurchens".64 Han Chinese society resembled that of the sedentary Jianzhou and Maolian, who were farmers.65 Hunting, archery on horseback, horsemanship, livestock raising, and sedentary agriculture were all practiced by the Jianzhou Jurchens as part of their culture.66 In spite of the fact that the Manchus practiced archery on horse back and equestrianism, the Manchu's immediate progenitors practiced sedentary agriculture.67 Although the Manchus also partook in hunting, they were sedentary.68
Although their Mohe ancestors did not respect dogs, the Jurchen began to respect dogs around the time of the Ming dynasty, and passed this tradition on to the Manchu. It was prohibited in Jurchen culture to use dog skin, and forbidden for Jurchens to harm, kill, or eat dogs. The Jurchens believed that the use of dog skin by Koreans was the "utmost evil".71
For political reasons, the Jurchen leader Nurhaci chose variously to emphasize either differences or similarities in lifestyles with other peoples like the Mongols.72 Nurhaci said to the Mongols that "The languages of the Chinese and Koreans are different, but their clothing and way of life is the same. It is the same with us Manchus (Jušen) and Mongols. Our languages are different, but our clothing and way of life is the same." Later Nurhaci indicated that the bond with the Mongols was not based in any real shared culture. It was for pragmatic reasons of "mutual opportunism", since Nurhaci said to the Mongols: "You Mongols raise livestock, eat meat and wear pelts. My people till the fields and live on grain. We two are not one country and we have different languages."73
A century after the chaos started in the Jurchen lands, Nurhaci, a chieftain of the Jianzhou Left Guard, began a campaign against the Ming in revenge for their manslaughter of his grandfather and father in 1583.74 He reunified the Jurchen tribes, established a military system called the "Eight Banners", which organized Jurchen soldiers into groups of "Bannermen", and ordered his scholar Erdeni and minister Gagai to create a new Jurchen script (later known as Manchu script) using the traditional Mongolian alphabet as a reference.75
In 1603, Nurhaci gained recognition as the Sure Kundulen Khan (Manchu: ᠰᡠᡵᡝ
ᡥᠠᠨ; Möllendorff: sure kundulen han, "wise and respected khan") from his Khalkha Mongol allies76 then in 1616 he publicly enthroned himself and issued a proclamation naming himself Genggiyen Khan (Manchu: ᡤᡝᠩᡤᡳᠶᡝᠨ
ᡥᠠᠨ; Möllendorff: genggiyen han, "bright khan") of the Later Jin dynasty (Manchu: ᠠᠮᠠᡤᠠ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ; Möllendorff: amaga aisin gurunnote 5, 後金). Nurhaci then launched his attack on the Ming dynasty76 and moved the capital to Mukden after his conquest of Liaodong.78 In 1635, his son and successor Hong Taiji changed the name of the Jurchen ethnic group (Manchu: ᠵᡠᡧᡝᠨ; Möllendorff: jušen) to the Manchu.79 A year later, Hong Taiji proclaimed himself the emperor of the Qing dynasty (Manchu: ᡩᠠᡳᠴᡳᠩ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ; Möllendorff: daicing gurunnote 6).81 Factors for the change of name of these people from Jurchen to Manchu include the fact that the term "Jurchen" had negative connotations associated with it, since the Jurchens had been in a servile position to the Ming dynasty for several hundred years and it also referred to people of the "dependent class".8283 In 1644, the Ming capital of Beijing was sacked by a peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng, a former minor Ming official who became the leader of the peasant revolt, who then proclaimed the establishment of the Shun dynasty. The last Ming ruler, the Chongzhen Emperor, committed suicide when the city fell. When Li Zicheng moved against the Ming general Wu Sangui, the latter made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Manchurian army. After the Manchus defeated Li Zicheng, they moved the capital of their new empire to Beijing (Manchu: ᠪᡝᡤᡳᠩ; Möllendorff: beging84) in the same year.85
The Qing differentiated between Han Bannermen and ordinary Han civilians. Han Bannermen were made out of Han Chinese who defected to the Qing up to 1644 and joined the Eight Banners, giving them social and legal privileges in addition to being acculturated to Manchu culture. So many Han defected to the Qing and swelled up the ranks of the Eight Banners that ethnic Manchus became a minority within the Banners, making up only 16% in 1648, with Han Bannermen dominating at 75% and Mongol Bannermen making up the rest.868788 It was this multi-ethnic, majority Han force in which Manchus were a minority, which conquered China for the Qing.89
A mass marriage of Han Chinese officers and officials to Manchu women numbering 1,000 couples was arranged by Prince Yoto and Hongtaiji in 1632 to promote harmony between the two ethnic groups.90 To promote ethnic harmony, a 1648 decree from the Manchu Shunzhi Emperor allowed Han Chinese civilian men to marry Manchu women from the Banners with the permission of the Board of Revenue if they were registered daughters of officials or commoners or the permission of their banner company captain if they were unregistered commoners, it was only later in the dynasty that these policies allowing intermarriage were done away with.9192
As a result of their conquest of China, almost all the Manchus followed the regent prince Dorgon and the Shunzhi Emperor to Beijing and mainly settled there.9394 Few of them were sent to other places such as Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet to serve as garrison troops.94 There were only 1524 Bannermen left in Manchuria at the time of the initial Manchu conquest.95 After a series of border conflicts began with the Russians, the Qing dynasty's emperors started to realize the strategic importance of Manchuria and gradually sent Manchus back to where they originally came from.93 However, during the rule of the Qing, Beijing was always the only focal point of the ruling Manchus in the political, economic and cultural spheres of this era of Chinese civilization. The Yongzheng Emperor noted: "Garrisons are the places of stationed works, Beijing is their homeland."96
While the Manchu ruling elite at the Qing imperial court in Beijing and posts of authority throughout China increasingly adopted Han culture, the Qing imperial government viewed the Manchu communities (as well as those of various tribal people) in Manchuria as a place where traditional Manchu virtues could be preserved, and as a vital reservoir of military manpower fully dedicated to the regime.97 The Qing emperors tried to protect the traditional way of life of the Manchus (as well as various other tribal peoples) in central and northern Manchuria by a variety of means, in particular, restricting the migration of Han settlers to the region. This ideal, however, had to be balanced with practical needs, such as maintaining the defense of northern China against the Russians and the Mongols, supplying government farms with a skilled work force, and conducting trade in the region's products, which resulted in a continuous trickle of Han convicts, workers, and merchants to the northeast.98
However, this policy of artificially isolating the Manchus of the northeast from the rest of China could not last forever. In the 1850s, large numbers of Manchu bannermen were sent to central China to fight the Taiping rebels. (For example, just the Heilongjiang province - which at the time included only the northern part of today's Heilongjiang - contributed 67,730 bannermen to the campaign, of which only 10-20% survived).99 Those few who returned were demoralized and often exposed to opium addiction.100 In 1860, in the aftermath of the loss of the "Outer Manchuria", and with the imperial and provincial governments in deep financial trouble, parts of Manchuria became officially open to Chinese settlement;101 within a few decades, the Manchus became a minority in most of Manchuria's districts.
Dulimbai Gurun ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ is the Manchu name for China (中國, Zhōngguó; "Middle Kingdom").102103104 After conquering the Ming, the Qing dynasty identified their state as "China" (Zhongguo), and referred to it as "Dulimbai Gurun" in the Manchu tongue. The Qing equated the lands of the Qing state (including present day Manchuria, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Tibet and other areas as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages), defining China as a multi-ethnic state, rejecting the idea that China only meant Han areas, proclaiming that both Han and non-Han peoples were part of "China", using "China" to refer to the Qing dynasty's empire in official documents, international treaties, and foreign affairs, and the term "Chinese language" (Manchu: ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝDulimbai gurun i bithe) referred to the Chinese, Manchu, and Mongol languages, and the term "Chinese people" (中國人 Zhōngguó Rén ; Manchu: ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ
ᠨᡳᠶᠠᠯᠮᠠ Dulimbai gurun i niyalma) referred to all the Han, Manchu, and Mongol subjects of the Qing.105
When the Qing conquered Dzungaria in 1759, they proclaimed that the new land was absorbed into "China" (Dulimbai Gurun) in a Manchu language memorial.106107108 The Qing expounded in their ideology that they were bringing together the "outer" non-Han Chinese like the Inner Mongols, Eastern Mongols, Oirat Mongols, and Tibetans together with the "inner" Han Chinese, into "one family" united in the Qing state, showing that the diverse subjects of the Qing were all part of one family. The Qing used the phrase "Zhongwai yijia" 中外一家 or "neiwei yijia" 內外一家 ("interior and exterior as one family"), to convey this idea of "unification" of the different peoples of their empire.109 A Manchu language version of a treaty with the Russian Empire concerning criminal jurisdiction over bandits called people from the Qing empire as "people of the Central Kingdom (Dulimbai Gurun)".110111112113 In the Manchu official Tulisen's Manchu language account of his meeting with the Torghut leader Ayuka Khan, it was mentioned that while the Torghuts were unlike the Russians, the "people of the Central Kingdom" (dulimba-i gurun 中國, Zhongguo) were like the Torghuts, and the "people of the Central Kingdom" referred to the Manchus.114
It was possible for Han Bannermen and Han bondservants (booi) to become Manchu by being transferred into the upper three Manchu Banners and having their surname "Manchufied" with the addition of a "giya" (佳) as a suffix. The process was called 抬旗 in Chinese. It typically occurred in cases of intermarriage with the Qing Aisin Gioro Imperial family, and the close relatives (fathers and brothers) of the concubine or Empress would get promoted from the Han Banner to the Manchu Banner and become Manchu.
Many Manchu Bannermen in Beijing supported the Boxers in the Boxer Rebellion and shared their anti-foreign sentiment.115 The Manchu Bannermen were devastated by the fighting during the First Sino-Japanese War and the Boxer Rebellion, with massive casualties sustained during the wars and subsequently being driven into extreme suffering and hardship.116 Much of the fighting in the Boxer Rebellion against the foreigners in defense of Beijing and Manchuria was done by Manchu Banner armies which were destroyed while resisting the invasion, the German Minister Clemens von Ketteler was assassinated by a Manchu.117 Thousands of Manchus fled south from Aigun during the fighting in the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, their cattle and horses were then stolen by Russian Cossacks who then burned their villages and homes until only ashes were left.118 The clan system of the Manchus in Aigun was obliterated by the despoliation of the area at the hands of the Russian invaders.119
By the 19th century, most Manchus in the city garrisons no longer spoke Manchu, instead they spoke the Beijing dialect of Mandarin Chinese or Standard Chinese- which still marked them out as distinctive compared to their Han neighbors in southern China who spoke non-Mandarin dialects. The fact that they spoke Beijing dialect (but not Manchu) made recognizing Manchus relatively easy.120121 It was northern Standard Chinese which the Manchu Bannermen spoke instead of the local dialect which the Han people around the garrison spoke, so that Manchus in the garrisons at Jingzhou and Guangzhou both spoke Mandarin despite the fact that Cantonese was spoken at Guangzhou, and the Beijing dialect marked out the Manchu bannermen at the Xi'an garrison apart from other people.122123 Many Manchu Bannermen got jobs as Mandarin teachers, writing textbooks for learning Mandarin and instructing people in Mandarin.124 In Guangdong, the Manchu Mandarin teacher Sun Yizun advised that the Yinyun Chanwei and Kangxi Zidian, dictionaries issued by the Imperial government, were the correct guides to Mandarin pronunciation, rather than the pronunciation of the Beijing and Nanjing dialects.125 For teaching the Beijing dialect, Kyugaigo, the Japanese foreign language school, hired a Manchu in 1876.126
As the end of the Qing dynasty approached, Manchus were portrayed as outside colonizers by Chinese nationalists such as Sun Yat-Sen, even though the Republican revolution he brought about was supported by many reform-minded Manchu officials and military officers.127 This portrayal dissipated somewhat after the 1911 revolution as the new Republic of China now sought to include Manchus within its national identity.128 In order to blend in, some Manchus switched to speaking the local dialect instead of Standard Chinese.129130
By the early years of the Republic of China, very few areas of China still had traditional Manchu populations. Among the few regions where such comparatively traditional communities could be found, and the Manchu language was still widely spoken, were the Aigun (Manchu: ᠠᡳᡥᡡᠨ; Möllendorff: aihūn) District and the Qiqihar (Manchu: ᠴᡳᠴᡳᡤᠠᡵ; Möllendorff: cicigar) District of Heilongjiang Province.131
Until 1924, the government continued to pay stipends to Manchu bannermen; however, many cut their links with their banners and took on Han-style names in shame to avoid persecution.132 The official total of Manchu fell by more than half during this period, as they refused to admit to their ethnicity when asked by government officials or other outsiders.133 On the other hand, in warlord Zhang Zuolin's reign of Manchuria, a much better treatment than the situation of Manchus in mainland China was reported.134135 There were not any particular persecution towards Manchus.134 Even the mausoleums of Qing's emperors were still allowed to be managed by Manchu guardsmen like it was in the past.134 In this case, many Manchus joined Fengtian clique, such as Xi Qia who was a member of Qing's imperial clan.
As a follow-up action of Mukden Incident, Manchukuo, a puppet state in Manchuria, was created by Imperial Japan which was nominally ruled by the deposed Emperor Puyi in 1932. Although the nation's name was related to Manchus, it was actually a complete new country for all the ethnicities in Manchuria136137 which had a majority Han population and was opposed by many Manchus like other ethnicities who fought against Japan in World War II, too.55 The Japanese Ueda Kyōsuke labelled all 30 million people in Manchuria as "Manchus", including Han Chinese, despite the fact that most of them were not ethnic Manchu, and the Japanese written "Great Manchukuo" built upon Ueda's argument to claim that all 30 million "Manchus" in Manchukuo had the right to independence to justify splitting Manchukuo from China.138 In 1942 the Japanese written "Ten Year History of the Construction of Manchukuo" attempted to emphasize the right of ethnic Japanese to the land of Manchukuo while attempting to delegitimize the Manchu's claim to Manchukuo as their native land, noting that most Manchus moved out during the Qing period and only returned later.139
In 1952, after the failure of both Manchukuo and the Nationalist Government (KMT), the newborn People's Republic of China officially recognized the Manchu as one of the ethnic minorities in 1952.140 In the 1953 census, 2.5 million people identified themselves as Manchu.141 The Communist government also attempted to improve the treatment of Manchu people; some Manchu people who had hidden their ancestry during the period of KMT rule thus became more comfortable to reveal their ancestry, such as the writer Lao She, who began to include Manchu characters in his fictional works in the 1950s.142 Between 1982 and 1990, the official count of Manchu people more than doubled from 4,299,159 to 9,821,180, making them China's fastest-growing ethnic minority.143 In fact, however, this growth was not due to natural increase, but instead people formerly registered as Han applying for official recognition as Manchu.144
Eight-Banner system is one of the most important ethnic identity of today's Manchu people.145 So nowadays, Manchus are more like an ethnic community which not only contains the descendants of Manchu bannermen, also has a large number of Manchu-assimilated Chinese and Mongol bannermen.146147148149 However, five ethnic groups which were considered as Manchu bannermen under the Qing dynasty (the Solon, Xibe, Daur, Evenki, Oroqen, and Hezhe) were registered as independent ethnic groups by the PRC government.150
Since the 1980s, the reform after Cultural Revolution, there has been a renaissance of Manchu culture and language among the government, scholars and social activities with remarkable achievements.151 It was also reported that the resurgence of interest also spread among Han Chinese.152
The actual etymology of the ethnic name "Manju" is debatable.153 According to the Qing dynasty's official historical record, the Researches on Manchu Origins, the ethnic name came from Mañjuśrī.154 The Qianlong Emperor also supported the point of view and even wrote several poems on the subject.155
Meng Sen, a famous scholar of the Qing, agreed, too. On the other hand, he thought the name "Manchu" was also related to Li Manzhu, the chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchen.156 It was just the most respectful appellation in the society of the Jianzhou Jurchens in Meng's mind.157
Another scholar, Chang Shan, thinks Manju is a compound word. "Man" was from the word "mangga" (ᠮᠠᠩᡤᠠ) which means strong and "ju" (ᠵᡠ) means arrow. So Manju actually means "intrepid arrow".158
There are other hypothesis, such as Fu Sinian's "etymology of Jianzhou"; Zhang Binglin's "etymology of Jianzhou"; Isamura Sanjiro's "etymology of Wuji and Mohe"; Sun Wenliang's "etymology of Manzhe"; "etymology of mangu(n) river" and so on.159160161
Most Manchu people now live in Mainland China with a population of 10,410,585,1 which is 9.28% of ethnic minorities and 0.77% of China's total population.1 Among the provincial regions, there are two provinces, Liaoning and Hebei, which have over 1,000,000 Manchu residents.1 Liaoning has 5,336,895 Manchu residents which is 51.26% of Manchu population and 12.20% provincial population; Hebei has 2,118,711 which is 20.35% of Manchu people and 70.80% of provincial ethnic minorites.1 Manchu is the largest ethnic minority in Liaoning, Hebei, Heilongjiang and Beijing; 2nd largest in Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Tianjin, Ningxia, Shaanxi and Shanxi and 3rd largest in Henan, Shandong and Anhui,.1
Manchu autonomous area in Liaoning.note 7
Manchu people can be found living outside mainland China. There are approximately 12,000 Manchus now in Taiwan. Most of them moved to Taiwan with the ROC government in 1949. One notable example was Puru, a famous painter, calligrapher and also the founder of the Manchu Association of Republic of China.2 There are also Manchus who settled in the United States and Japan, such as John Fugh, Garry Guan and Fukunaga Kosē.
||This article needs attention from an expert on the subject. (January 2015)|
The Manchu language is a Tungusic language and has many dialects. Its standard form is called "Standard Manchu". It originates from the accent of Jianzhou Jurchens162 and was officially standardized during Qianlong Emperor's reign.163 During the Qing period, Manchus at court were required to speak Standard Manchu164 or face the emperor's reprimand.164 This applied equally to the palace presbyter for shamanic rites when performing sacrifice.164
"Beijing dialect" is one of the most commonly used. It was a mix of several dialects, since the Manchus who lived in Beijing were not only Jianzhou Jurchens, but also Haixi Jurchens and Yeren Jurchens. clarify the mingling of their accents produced Beijing dialect clarify. Beijing dialect is very close to Standard Manchu.165 Mukden dialectclarify, is another popular dialect that was originally spoken by Manchus who lived in Liaoning and the western and southern areas of Jilin, having an accent very close to the Xibe language spoken by the Xibes living in Qapqal.166 Other dialects include Ningguta and Alcuka.167
Jurchens, ancestors of the Manchu, had created Jurchen script in the Jin dynasty. After Jin collapsed, Jurchen script was gradually lost. In the Ming period, 60%-70% of Jurchens used Mongolian script to write letters and 30%-40% of Jurchens used Chinese characters.61 This persisted until Nurhaci revolted against the Ming reign. Nurhaci considered it a major impediment that his people lacked a script of their own, so he commanded his scholars, Gagai and Eldeni, to create Manchu characters by reference to Mongolian scripts.168 They dutifully complied with the Khan's order and created Manchu script, which is called "script without dots and circles" (Manchu: ᡨᠣᠩᡴᡳ
ᡥᡝᡵᡤᡝᠨ; Möllendorff: tongki fuka akū hergen; 无圈点满文) or "old Manchu script" (老满文).169 Due to its hurried creation, the script has its defects. Some vowels and consonants were difficult to distinguish.170171 Shortly afterwards, their successor Dahai used dots and circles to distinguish vowels, aspirated and non-aspirated consonants and thus completed the script. His achievement is called "script with dots and circles" or "new Manchu script".172
After the 1800s, most Manchus had perfected Standard Chinese and the number who knew Manchu was dwindling.173 Although the Qing emperors emphasized the importance of Manchu language again and again, the tide could not be turned. After the Qing collapsed, the Manchu language lost its status as a national language and its use officially in education ended. Manchus today generally speak Standard Chinese. The remaining skilled native Manchu speakers number less than 100,174 most of whom are to be found in Sanjiazi (Manchu: ᡳᠯᠠᠨ
ᠪᠣᠣ; Möllendorff: ilan boo), Heilongjiang Province.175 Since the 1980s, there has been a resurgence of Manchu language among the government, scholars and social activities.176 In recent years, with the help of the governments in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang, many schools started to have Manchu classes.177178179 There are also Manchu volunteers in many places of China who freely teach Manchu in the desire to rescue of the language.180181182183 Thousands of non-Manchu speakers have learned the language through these measures.184185
The history of Manchu family names is quite long. Fundamentally, it succeeds the Jurchen family name of the Jin dynasty.186 However, after the Mongols extinguished the Jurchen empire, Manchus started to adopt Mongol culture, including their custom of using only their given name till the end of the Qing,187 a practice confounding non-Manchus, leading them to conclude, erroneously, that they simply don't have family names.188
A Manchu family name usually has two portions: the first is "Mukūn" (ᠮᡠᡴᡡᠨ) which literally means "branch name"; the second, "Hala" (ᡥᠠᠯᠠ), represents the name of a person's clan.189 According to the Book of the Eight Manchu Banners' Surname-Clans (八旗滿洲氏族通譜), there are 1,114 Manchu family names. Gūwalgiya, Niohuru, Šumulu, Tatara, Gioro, Nara are considered as "famous clans" (著姓) among Manchus.190
Manchus given names are distinctive. Generally, there are several forms, such as bearing suffixes "-ngga", "-ngge" or "-nggo", meaning "having the quality of";191 bearing the suffixes "-tai" or "-tu", meaning "having";192193 bearing the suffix, "-ju", "-boo";192 numerals note 8192193 or animal namesnote 9.191192
Nowadays, Manchus primarily use Chinese family and given names, but some still use a Manchu family name and Chinese given name,note 10 a Chinese family name and Manchu given namenote 11 or both Manchu family and given names.note 12
The Jurchen and their Manchu descendants originally practiced cremation as part of their culture. They adopted the practice of burial from the Han, but many Manchus continued to cremate their dead.194
The traditional hairstyle for Manchu men is shaving the front of their heads while growing the hair on the back of their heads into a single braid called a queue, which was known as "soncoho" in Manchu.
Manchu women wore their hair in a distinctive hairstyle called Liangbatou 兩把頭.
The early phase of Manchu clothing succeeded from Jurchen tradition. White was the dominating color.195 To facilitate convenience during archery, the robe is the most common article of clothing for the Manchu people.196 Over the robe, a surcoat is usually worn, derived from the military uniform of Eight banners army.197 During the Kangxi period, the surcoat gained popularity among commoners.198 The modern Chinese suits, the Cheongsam and Tangzhuang, are derived from the Manchu robe and surcoat196 which are commonly considered as "Chinese elements".199
Wearing hats is also a part of Manchu traditional culture,200 and Manchu people wear hats in all ages and seasons in contrast to the Han Chinese culture of "Starting to wear hats at 20 year-old" (二十始冠), .200 Manchu hats are either formal or casual, formal hats being made in two different styles, straw for spring and summer, and fur for fall and winter.201 Casual hats are more commonly known as "Mandarin hats" in English.
Manchus have many distinctive traditional accessories. Women traditionally wear three earrings on each ear,202 a tradition that is maintained by many older Manchu women.203 Males also traditionally wear piercings, but they tend to only have one earring in their youth and do not continue to wear it as adults.204 The Manchu people also have traditional jewelry which evokes their past as hunters. The fergetun (ᡶᡝᡵᡤᡝᡨᡠᠨ), a thumb ring traditionally made out of reindeer bone, was worn to protect the thumbs of archers. After the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644, the fergetun gradually became simply a form of jewelry, with the most valuable ones made in jade and ivory.205 High-heeled shoes were worn by Manchu women.
Riding and archery (Manchu: ᠨᡳᠶᠠᠮᠨᡳᠶᠠᠨ; Möllendorff: niyamniyan) is significant to the Manchu. They were well-trained horsemen from their teenage206 years. Hong Taiji, the Qing Taizong emperor, said, "Riding and Archery is the most important martial art of our country".207208 Every generation of the Qing dynasty treasured Riding and Archery the most.209 Every spring and fall, from ordinary Manchus to aristocrats, all had to take a riding and archery test. Their test results could even affect their rank in the nobility.210 The Manchus of the early Qing had excellent shooting skills and their arrows were reputed to be capable of penetrating two people.211
From the middle period of Qing, archery became more a form of entertainment, in the form of games such as, hunting swans, shooting fabric or silk target. The most difficult is shooting a candle hanging in the air at night.212 Gambling was banned in the Qing reign but there was no limitation on Manchus engaging in shooting skill contests. It was common to see Manchus putting signs in front of their houses to invite challenges.212 After the Qianlong period, Manchus gradually neglected the practice of riding and archery, even though their rulers tried their best to encourage Manchus to continue their riding and archery traditions,211 but the tradition is still kept among some Manchus even nowadays.213
Manchu wrestling (Manchu: ᠪᡠᡴᡠ; Möllendorff: buku) 214 is also an important martial art of the Manchu people.215 Buku, meaning "wrestling" or "man of unusual strength" in Manchu, was originally from a Mongolian word, “bökh”.214 The history of Manchu wrestling can be traced back to Jurchen wrestling in the Jin dynasty which was originally from Khitan wrestling; it was very similar to Mongolian wrestling.216 In the Yuan Dynasty, the Jurchens who lived in northeast China adopted Mongol culture including wrestling, bökh.217 In the latter Jin and early Qing period, rulers encouraged the populace, including aristocrats, to practise buku as a feature of military training.218 At the time, Mongol wrestlers were the most famous and powerful. By the Chongde period, Manchus had developed their own well-trained wrestlers219 and, a century later, in the Qianlong period, they surpassed Mongol wreslers.220 The Qing court established the "Shan Pu Battalion" and chose 200 fine wrestlers divided into three levels. Manchu wrestling moves can be found in today's Chinese wrestling, Shuai jiao, which is its most important part.221 Among many branches, Beijing wrestling adopted most Manchu wrestling moves.222
As a result of their hunting ancestry, Manchus are traditionally interested in falconry.223 Gyrfalcon (Manchu: ᡧᠣᠩᡴᠣᡵᠣ; Möllendorff: šongkoro) is the most highly valued discipline in the Manchu falconry social circle.224 In the Qing period, giving a gyrfalcon to the royal court in tribute could be met with a considerable reward.224 There were professional falconers in Ningguta area (today's Heilongjiang province and the northern part of Jilin province). It was a big base of falconry.223 Beijing's Manchus also like falconry. Compared to the falconry of Manchuria, it is more like an entertainment.209 Imperial Household Department of Beijing had professional falconers, too. They provided outstanding falcons to the emperor when he went to hunt every fall.209 Even today, Manchu traditional falconry is well practised in some regions.225
Ice skating (Manchu: ᠨᡳᠰᡠᠮᡝ
ᡝᡶᡳᠨ; Möllendorff: nisume efime efin) is another Manchu pastime. Emperor Qianlong called it “national custom”.226 It is one of the most important winter events of the Qing royal household,227 performed by "Eight Banner Ice Skating Battalion" (八旗冰鞋营)227 which was a special force trained to do battle on icy terrain.227 The battalion consisted of 1600 soldiers. In the Jiaqing period, it was reduced to 500 soldiers and transferred to the Jing Jie Battalion (精捷营) originally, literally meaning "chosen agile battalion".227
In the 1930s-1940s, there was a famous Manchu skater in Beijing whose name was Wu Tongxuan, from the Uya clan and one of the royal household skaters in Empress Dowager Cixi's reign.228 He frequently appeared in many of Beijing's skating rinks.228 Nowadays, there are still Manchu figure skaters; world champions Zhao Hongbo and Tong Jian are the pre-eminent examples.
The Tale of the Nisan Shaman (Manchu: ᠨᡳᡧᠠᠨ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ; Möllendorff: nišan saman i bithe; 尼山萨满传) is the most important literature of Manchus.229 It primarily tells the process of how Nisan Shaman helps a young hunter revive.230 The story spreads not long among Manchus, but also in Xibe, Nanai, Daur, Oroqen, Evenk and other Tungusic peoples.229 It basically has four versions: the handwriting version from Qiqihar; two different handwriting versions from Aigun; the one which was written by a Manchu writer Dekdengge in Vladivostok (Manchu: ᡥᠠᡳᡧᡝᠨᠸᡝᡳ; Möllendorff: haišenwei231). The pilot of four versions are similar, but the version of Haišenwei has the most complete content.232 It is already translated in Russian, Chinese, English and other languages.229
Octagonal drum is a type of Manchu folk art that was very popular among bannermen, especially in Beijing.233 It is said that octagonal drum originated with the snare drum of the Eight-banner military and the melody was made by the banner soldiers who were on the way back home from victory in the battle of Jinchuan.233 The drum is composed of wood surrounded by bells. The drumhead is made by wyrmhide with tassels at the bottom.233 The colors of the tassels are yellow, white, red, and blue, which represent the four colors of Eight Banners.234 When artists perform, they use their fingers to hit the drumhead and shake the drum to ring the bells.233 Traditionally, octagonal drum is performed by three people. One is the harpist; one is the clown who is responsible for harlequinade; and the third is the singer.233
"Zidishu" is the main libretto of octagonal drum and can be traced back to a type of traditional folk music called "Manchu Rhythm".235 Although Zidishu was not created by Chinese people, it still contains many themes from Chinese stories,236 such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Dream of the Red Chamber, Romance of the West Chamber, Legend of the White Snake and Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio.236 Additionally, there are many works that depict the lives of Bannermen. Aisin Gioro Yigeng, who was pen named "Helü" and wrote the sigh of old imperial bodyguard, is the representative author.237 Zidishu involves two acts of singing, which are called dongcheng and xicheng.238
After the fall of the Qing dynasty, the influence of the octagonal drum gradually reduced. However, the Chinese monochord238 and crosstalk239 which derived from octagonal are still popular in Chinese society and the new generations. Many famous Chinese monochord performers and crosstalkers were the artists of octagonal drum. Such as De shoushan and Zhang Sanlu.240
Ulabun (ᡠᠯᠠᠪᡠᠨ) is a Manchu storytelling entertainment which is performed in Manchu language.241 Different from octagonal drum, ulabun is popular among the Manchu people living in Manchuria. It has two main categories; one is popular folk literature such as the Tale of the Nisan Shaman, the other is from folk music with an informative and independent plot, and complete structure.241 Song Xidong aka. Akšan (ᠠᡴᡧᠠᠨ) is a famous artist in performing ulabun.242
The religions of the Manchus are diverse. Originally, Manchus, and their predecessors, were principally Shamanists. After the conquest of China in the 17th century, Manchus came into contact with Chinese culture. They were markedly influenced by Chinese folk religion and retained only some Shamanic customs. Buddhism and Christianity also had their impacts. Manchus are today mostly irreligious.3
Shamanism has a long history in Manchu civilization and influenced them tremendously over thousands of years. John Keay states in A History Of China, shaman is the single loan-word from Manchurian into the English language. After the conquest of China in the 17th century, although Manchus widely adopted Chinese folk religion, Shamanic traditions can still be found in the aspects of soul worship, totem worship, belief in nightmares and apotheosis of philanthropists.243 Since the Qing rulers considered religion as a method of controlling other powers such as Mongolians and Tibetans,244 there was no privilege for Shamanism, their native religion. Apart from the Shamanic shrines in the Qing palace, no temples erected for worship of Manchu gods could be found in Beijing.244 Thus, the story of competition between Shamanists and Lamaists was oft heard in Manchuria but the Manchu emperor helped Lamaists to persecute Shamanists which led to their considerable frustration and dissatisfaction.244
Jurchens, the predecessors of the Manchus, were influenced by the Buddhism of Balhae, Goryeo, Liao and Song in the 10-13th centuries,245 so it was not something new to the rising Manchus in the 16-17th centuries. Qing emperors were always entitled "Buddha". They were regarded as Mañjuśrī in Tibetan Buddhism157 and had high attainments.245 However, Buddhism was used by rulers to control Mongolians and Tibetans; it was of little relevance to ordinary Manchus in the Qing dynasty.244
Manchus were affected by Chinese folk religions for most of the Qing period.244 Save for ancestor worship, the gods they consecrated were virtually identical to those of the Han Chinese.244 Guan Yu worship is a typical example. He was considered as the God Protector of the Nation and was sincerely worshipped by Manchus. They called him "Lord Guan" (关老爷). Uttering his name was taboo.244 In addition, Manchus worshipped Cai Shen and The Kitchen god just as the Han Chinese did. The worship of Mongolian and Tibetan gods has also been reported.244
There were Manchu Christians in the Qing dynasty. In Yongzheng and Qianlong's era, Depei, the Hošo Jiyan Prince, was a Catholic whose baptismal name was "Joseph". His wife was also baptised and named “Maria”.246 At the same time, the sons of Doro Beile Sunu were devout Catholics, too.246247 In the Jiaqing period, Tong Hengšan and Tong Lan were Catholic Manchu Bannermen.246 These Manchu Christians were proselytized and persecuted by Qing emperors but they steadfastly refused to convert.246 There were Manchu Christians in modern times, too, such as Ying Lianzhi, Lao She and Philip Fugh.
Manchus have many traditional holidays. Some are derived from Chinese culture, such as "Spring Festival"248 and Duanwu Festival.249 Some are of Manchu origin. For instance, Banjin Inenggi (ᠪᠠᠨᠵᡳᠨ
ᡳᠨᡝᠩᡤᡳ), on the 13th day of the tenth month of the lunar calendar, is the anniversary of the name creation of Manchu.153 This day in 1635, Qing Taizong Emperor, Hong Taiji, changed the ethnic name from Jurchen to Manchu.79250 Food Extermination Day (绝粮日), on every 26th day of the 8th month of the lunar calendar, is another example which was inspired by a story that once Nurhaci and his troops were in a battle with enemies and almost running out of food. The villagers who lived near the battlefield heard the emergency and came to help. There was no tableware on the battlefield. They had to use perilla leaves to wrap the rice. Afterwards, they won the battle. So later generations could remember this hardship, Nurhaci made this day the "Food Extermination Day". Traditionally on this day, Manchu people eat perilla or cabbage wraps with rice, scrambled eggs, beef or pork.251
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manchu people.|
- Also known as Man,4 Bannermen,56 Banner people,7 Tartars,8 red-tasseled Mongols (红缨蒙古),9 the Mongols of wearing red tassels (戴红缨的蒙古人)10 and the Tartars of wearing red tassels (戴红缨达子)10
- Fengcheng and Beizhen are cities but treated as Manchu autonomous counties.14
- e.g. Möngke Temür, Qing's emperors' ancestor
- Cungšan was considered as Nurhaci's direct ancestor by some viewpoints,57 but disagreements also exist.59
- Aka. Manchu State (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ; Möllendorff: manju gurun)77
- The meaning of "daicing" is debatable. It has been reported that the word was imported from Mongolian means "fighting country"80
- Autonomous counties are shown in bright green. Counties with autonomous townships are in dark green, with the number of Manchu townshipin each county shown in red (or yellow). So are another 2 pictures
- e.g. Nadanju (70 in Manchu), Susai (5 in Manchu), Liošici(67, a Mandarin homophone) and Bašinu(85, a Mandarin homophone)192
- e.g. Dorgon (badger) and Arsalan (lion)191
- e.g. Aisin Gioro Qixiang, a famous Chinese calligrapher.
- e.g. Ying Batu, Ying Bayan, the sons of a famous Manchu director, Ying Da.
- e.g. Aisin-Gioro Ulhicun, a famous scholar of Khitan and Manchu linguistic studies.
- 中国2010年人口普查资料 上中下 (the Data of 2010 China Population Census). China Statistics Press. 2012. ISBN 9787503765070.
- Manchusoc：The Origins of Manchu People in Taiwan (traditional Chinese)
- the Gospel Need of Manchu People (simplified Chinese)
- "Manchu". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Elliott 2001, pp. 13–15
- lear. "词语“旗人”的解释 汉典 zdic.net". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Elliott 2001, p. 15
- Elliott 2001, p. 98
- Various authors 2008, p. 258 (Shizu period)
- Uyun Bilig: The Files of Chahar and Ligdan Khan in Ming Dynasty (simplified Chinese)
- Merriam-Webster, Inc 2003, p. 754
- Zheng 2009, p. 79
- Vollmer 2002, p. 76
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History 2009, p. 207
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History 2009, pp. 206–207
- Li & Guan 2003, p. 2
- Tong 2009, p. 5
- Huang, P.: "New Light on the Origins of the Manchu", Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, vol. 50, no.1 (1990): 239-82. Retrieved from JSTOR database July 18, 2006.
- Agui 1988, p. 1
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History 2009, p. 7
- Li & Guan 2003, p. 1
- Association for Asian Studies 1987, p. 767
- Anonymous 1879, p. 151
- Meng 2006, pp. 7, 9
- Huang 1990 p. 246.
- "逸周書". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Gorelova 2002, pp. 13-4.
- Gorelova 2002, p. 14.
- "China Under Jurchen Rule". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States ...". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Toqto'a 1975, pp. 19–46
- Toqto'a 1975, pp. 47–67
- Breuker 2010, p. 221.
- Williamson 2011.
- Sinor 1996, p. 416.
- Twitchett, Franke, Fairbank 1994, p. 217.
- de Rachewiltz 1993, p. 112.
- Zheng 2009, pp. 18
- Zheng 2009, pp. 39
- Jin 2006, p. 107
- Peterson 2006, p. 11
- Meng 2006, p. 21
- Meng 2006, pp. 97, 120
- Peterson 2006, p. 15
- Seth 2006, p. 138.
- Seth 2010, p. 144.
- Meng 2006, p. 120
- Zhang 2008, p. 29.
- Goodrich 1976, p. 1066.
- Peterson 2002, p. 13.
- Twitchett & Mote 1998, pp. 286-287.
- Zhang 2008, p. 30.
- Di Cosmo 2007, p. 3.
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History 2009, p. 185
- Meng 2006, p. 19
- Meng 2006, p. 130
- Meng 2006, pp. 19, 21
- Peterson 2006, p. 28
- Jin 2006, p. 120
- Fuge 1984, p. 152
- Wurm 1996, p. 828.
- Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 504.
- Mote, Twitchett & Fairbank 1988, p. 266.
- Twitchett & Mote 1998, p. 258.
- Rawski 1996, p. 834.
- Rawski 1998, p. 43.
- Allsen 2011, p. 215.
- 萧国亮 (2007-01-24). "明代汉族与女真族的马市贸易". 艺术中国(ARTX.cn). p. 1. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- Serruys 1955, p. 22.
- Aisin Gioro & Jin, p. 18.
- Perdue 2009, p. 127.
- Peterson 2002, p. 31.
- Zhao 1998, p. 2
- Yan 2006, pp. 71, 88, 116, 137
- Elliott 2001, p. 56
- Various authors 2008, p. 283 (Manchu Veritable Records)
- Yan 2006, p. 282
- Various authors 2008, pp. 330–331 (Taizong period)
- A Tentative Discussion about Its Origin and Meaning of Daicing as a Name of a State (simplified Chinese)
- Du 1997, p. 15
- Elliott 2001, p. 70.
- Elliot 2006, p. 38.
- Hu 1994, p. 113
- Du 1997, pp. 19–20
- Naquin 1987, p. 141.
- Fairbank, Goldman 2006, p. 2006.
- "Summing up Naquin/Rawski". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- eds. Watson, Ebrey 1991, p. 175.
- ed. Walthall 2008, p. 148.
- Wang 2004, pp. 215-216 & 219-221.
- "Servants of the Dynasty". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Zhang & Zhang 2005, p. 134
- Liu, Zhao & Zhao 1997, p. 1 (Preface)
- Zhang & Zhang 2005, p. 18
- Ortai 1985, p. 1326
- Lee 1970, pp. 182–184
- Lee 1970, pp. 20–23,78–90,112–115
- Lee 1970, p. 117
- Lee 1970, pp. 124–125
- Lee 1970, p. 103,sq
- Hauer 2007, p. 117.
- Dvořák 1895, p. 80.
- Wu 1995, p. 102.
- Zhao 2006, pp. 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14.
- Dunnell 2004, p. 77.
- Dunnell 2004, p. 83.
- Elliott 2001, p. 503.
- Dunnell 2004, pp. 76-77.
- Cassel 2011, p. 205.
- Cassel 2012, p. 205.
- Cassel 2011, p. 44.
- Cassel 2012, p. 44.
- Perdue 2009, p. 218.
- Crossley 1990, p. 174.
- Rhoads 2011, p. 80.
- Rhoads 2000, p. 72.
- Shirokogorov 1924, p. 4.
- Chang 1956, p. 110.
- Rhoads 2011, p. 204.
- Rhoads 2000, p. 204.
- Rhoads 2011, p. 42.
- Rhoads 2000, p. 42.
- Kaske 2008, p. 69.
- Kaske 2008, p. 51.
- Kaske 2008, p. 70.
- Rhoads 2000, p. 265
- Rhoads 2000, p. 275
- Rhoads 2011, p. 270.
- Rhoads 2000, p. 270.
- Shirokogorov 1924, pp. i,3–4
- Rhoads 2000, p. 270
- Rhoads 2000, pp. 270, 283
- Jin 2009, p. 157
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History 2009, p. 153
- Puyi 2007, pp. 223–224
- Jin 2009, p. 160
- Tamanoi 2000, p. 253.
- Tamanoi 2000, p. 255.
- Rhoads 2000, p. 277
- Rhoads 2000, p. 276
- Rhoads 2000, p. 280
- Rhoads 2000, p. 282
- Rhoads 2000, p. 283
- Elliott 2001, p. 43
- Du 2008, p. 46
- Li 2006, p. 121
- Zhang 2008, pp. 230, 233, 248
- Jin 2009, p. 5 (Preface)
- Rhoads 2000, p. 295
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History 2009, pp. 209, 215, 218–228
- "Eras Journal - Tighe, J: Review of "The Manchus", Pamela Kyle Crossley". Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Yan 2008, p. 49
- Agui 1988, p. 2
- Meng 2006, p. 6
- Meng 2006, pp. 4–5
- Meng 2006, p. 5
- 《族称Manju词源探析》，长山，刊载于《满语研究》2009年第01期 (Changshan (2009), The Research of Ethnic Name "Manju"'s Origin, Manchu Language Research, the 1st edition)
- 《满洲名称之种种推测》，冯家升，《东方杂志》30卷第17号 (Feng, Jiasheng, Many Kinds of Conjecture of the Name "Manju", Dongfang Magazine, Vol.30, NO.17)
- 《满洲名称考述》，滕绍箴，《民族研究》1996年04月，70-77页 (Teng, Shaojian (1996), Textual Research of the Name "Manju", Ethnic Research, P70-77)
- Norman 2003, p. 484.
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 246
- Tong 2009, p. 40
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 247
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 248
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 319
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 264
- Jiang 1980, p. 4
- Liu, Zhao & Zhao 1997, p. 3 (Preface)
- Ortai 1985, pp. 5324–5327
- Tong 2009, pp. 11–17
- Dahai & First Historical Archives of China 1990, pp. 1196–1197
- Tong 2009, p. 33
- "全国现有满族人口1000多万 会说满语者已不足百人". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "满语“活化石”――“伊兰孛”--文化--人民网". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History 2009, p. 218
- Liaoning News: 29 Manchu Teachers of Huanren, Benxi Are Now On Duty (simplified Chinese)
- chinanews. "辽宁一高中开设满语课 满族文化传承引关注". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "满语课首次进入吉林一中学课堂(图)". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "中国民族报电子版". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- iFeng: Jin Biao's 10-Year Dream of Manchu Language (traditional Chinese)
- Shenyang Daily: Young Man Teaches Manchu For Free To Rescue the Language (simplified Chinese)
- Beijing Evening News: the Worry of Manchu language (simplified Chinese)
- "别让满语文成天书 满语文抢救需靠大众力量[组图]_辽宁_文化". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Beijing Evening News: 1980s Generation's Rescue Plan of Manchu Language (simplified Chinese)
- Jin 2009, p. 109
- Jin 2009, p. 107
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 969
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 973
- Hungjeo 2002, pp. 31, 100, 115, 167, 181, 280
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 979
- Elliott 2001, p. 243
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 978
- Elliott 2001, p. 264.
- Yang 1988, pp. 64, 183
- Wang 1985, p. 17
- Wang 1985, p. 30
- Wang 1985, p. 31
- "中国奢侈品走出国门 旗袍唐装最受老外青睐(图)". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Wang 1985, p. 27
- Wang 1985, p. 28
- Zeng 2010, pp. 106–107
- Liaoning People's PCC: The Origin of Banner Robe and Manchu Culture of Hairstyle (simplified Chinese)
- Jin 2009, p. 20
- Xinhua: Small Fergetun with A High Price (simplified Chinese)
- Yi 1978, p. 44
- Jiang 1980, p. 46
- Various authors 2008, p. 446 (Taizong period)
- Liu 2008, p. 92
- Liu 2008, p. 93
- Liu 2008, p. 94
- Liu 2008, p. 95
- Manchu Archery in Heritage Day (simplified Chinese)
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 118
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 142
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 120
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 119
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 121
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 123
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 137
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 153
- "摔跤历史挺悠久不同流派有讲究-青岛报纸电子版". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Liu 2008, p. 106
- Liu 2008, p. 107
- "新华网吉林频道". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Xinhua: How Did Chinese Emperors Award Athletes? (simplified Chinese)
- chinanews. "“冰嬉”被乾隆定为“国俗” 清军有八旗冰鞋营(5)——中新网". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "李敖记起的北京滑冰老人吴雅氏". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Dekdengge, Zhang & Guang 2007, p. 03
- Dekdengge, Zhang & Guang 2007, p. preface
- Dekdengge, Zhang & Guang 2007, p. 1
- Dekdengge, Zhang & Guang 2007, p. 07
- Jin 2009, p. 147
- Liu 2008, p. 124
- Liu 2008, p. 112
- Jin 2009, p. 148
- Liu 2008, p. 116
- Jin 2009, p. 149
- "郭德纲 德云社 有话好好说 2011.12.04". YouTube. 4 December 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Liu 2008, p. 113
- "[富育光]满族传统说部艺术——“乌勒本”研考 ·中国民族文学网". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "滿語瀕危 歌者唱作傳承". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Jin 2009, pp. 98–106
- Jin 2009, p. 95
- The Relation of Manchu Emperors and Buddhism (simplified Chinese)
- Liu 2008, p. 184
- National Qing History Compilatory Committee: Sunu Research (simplified Chinese)
- Manchu Spring Festival
- Manchu Duanwu Festival
- the Origin of Banjin Inenggi (simplified Chinese)
- The Day of Running Out of Food (simplified Chinese)
- An, Shuangcheng (1993). 满汉大词典 (A Comprehensive Dictionary of Manchu-Chinese). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. ISBN 9787805273785.
- Agui (1988). 满洲源流考 (Researches on Manchu Origins). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. ISBN 9787805270609.
- Aisin Gioro, Yingsheng (2004). 满语杂识 (Divers Knowledges of Manchu language). Wenyuan Publishing House. ISBN 7-80060-008-4.
- Anonymous (1879). 竹书纪年校正, 光绪五年刻本 (Zhu Shu Ji Nian, 1879 Edition).
- Dahai; First Historical Archives of China (1990). 满文老档 译著(Old Manchu Archive, Translated Version). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 9787101005875.
- Du, Jiaji (2008). 八旗与清朝政治论稿 (Eight Banner and Qing Dynasty's Political Paper Drafts). Renmin Publishing House. ISBN 9787010067537.
- Du, Jiaji (1997). 清朝简史 (Brief History of Qing Dynasty). Fujian People's Publishing House. ISBN 9787211027163.
- Fuge (1984). 听雨丛谈 (Miscellaneous Discussions Whilst Listening To The Rain). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 978-7-101-01698-7.
- Gao, Hehong (2011). 满族说部传承研究 (The Research of Manchu Ulabun). China Social Sciences Pres. ISBN 9787500497127.
- Hu, Zengyi (1994). 新满汉大词典 (A Comprehensive Manchu-Chinese Dictionary). Xinjiang People's Publishing House. ISBN 9787228024049.
- Hungjeo (2002). 八旗满洲氏族通谱 (Eight Manchu Banners' Surname-Clans' Book). Liaohai Publishing House. ISBN 9787806691892.
- Jiang, Liangqi (1980). 东华录 (Donghua Record). Zhonghua Book Compary.
- Jin, Qicong (2009). 金启孮谈北京的满族 (Jin Qicong Talks About Beijing Manchus). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 7101068561.
- Jin, Qicong; Kaihe (2006). 中国摔跤史 (the Wrestling History of China). Inner Mongolia People's Publishing House. ISBN 7204088093.
- Jooliyan (1980). 啸亭杂录 (Xiaoting Various Records). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 9787101017519.
- Li, Lin (2006). 满族宗谱研究 (Research of Manchu Genealogy). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. ISBN 9787807221715.
- Li, Yanguang; Guan, Jie (2009). 满族通史 (General History of Manchus). National Publishing House. ISBN 9787805271965.
- Liu, Jingxian; Zhao, Aping; Zhao, Jinchun (1997). 满语研究通论 (General Theory of Manchu Language Research). Heilongjiang Korean Nationalty Publishing House. ISBN 9787538907650.
- Liu, Xiaomeng (2008). 清代八旗子弟 (the Bannermen in Qing Dynasty). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. ISBN 978-7-80722-563-8.
- Meng, Sen (2006). 满洲开国史讲义 (the Lectrue Note of Early Manchu History). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 7101050301.
- National Census Bureau of Chinese State Concil (2012). 中国2010年人口普查资料（上中下） (the Data of 2010 China Population Census). China Statistics Press. ISBN 9787503765070.
- Ortai (1985). 八旗通志初集 (Comprehensive History of the Eight Banners, First Edition). Northeast Normal University Press.
- Puyi (2007). 我的前半生 全本 (First Half of My Life, Full Edition). Qunzhong Publishing House. ISBN 9787501435579.
- Song, Lian (1976). 元史 (History of Yuan). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 9787101003260.
- Tong, Yonggong (2009). 满语文与满文档案研究 (the Research of Manchu language and files). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. ISBN 7805070431.
- Toqto'a (1975). 金史 (History of Jin). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 9787101003253.
- Wang, Yunying (1985). 清代满族服饰 (Manchu Traditional Clothes of Qing Dynasty). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House.
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History (2009). 满族简史 (Brief History of Manchus). National Publishing House. ISBN 9787105087259.
- Yan, Chongnian (2006). 努尔哈赤传 (the Biography of Nurhaci). Beijing Publishing House. ISBN 9787200016598.
- Yan, Chongnian (2008). 明亡清兴六十年 彩图珍藏版 (60 Years History of the Perishing Ming and Rising Qing, Valuable Colored Picture Edition). Zhonghua Book Compary. ISBN 9787101059472.
- Yang, Xichun (1988). 满族风俗考 (The Research of Manchu Tradition). Heilongjiang People's Publishing House. ISBN 9787207005984.
- Yi, Min-hwan (1978). 清初史料丛刊第八、九种：栅中日录校释、建州见闻录校释 (The Collection of Early Qing's Historical Sources, Vol.8 & 9: Records in the Fence; Witness Records of Jianzhou). History Department of Liaoning University.
- Zeng, Hui (2010). 满族服饰文化研究 (The Research of Manchu Clothing Culture). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. ISBN 9787807229711.
- Zhao, Erxun (2009). 清史稿 (Draft History of Qing). Zhonghua Book Compary. ISBN 9787101007503.
- 八旗十论 (Ten Papers of Eight Banners). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. 2008. ISBN 9787807226093.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Danhui (2005). 清代东北边疆的满族 (The Manchus of Manchurian Frontier Region in Qing Dynasty). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. ISBN 9787806448656.
- Zhang, Tingyu (1974). 明史 (History of Ming). Zhonghua Book Compary. ISBN 9787101003277.
- Zheng, Tianting (2010). 探微集 (Collection of Minor Research). Zhonghua Book Compary. ISBN 9787101069853.
- Zheng, Tianting (2009). 郑天挺元史讲义 (Zheng Tianting's Lectrue Note of Yuan Dynasty History). Zhonghua Book Compary. ISBN 9787101070132.
- Aisin Gioro, Ulhicun; Jin, Shi. "Manchuria from the Fall of the Yuan to the rise of the Manchu State (1368-1636)" (PDF). Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee (1976). Goodrich, Luther Carrington, ed. Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644, Volume 2 (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 023103833X. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Association for Asian Studies (1987). The Journal of Asian Studies, Volume 46. Cambridge University Press.
- Chang, Yin-t'ang; University of Washington. Far Eastern and Russian Institute (1956). A Regional handbook on Northeast China. Volume 61 of Human Relations Area Files: Subcontractor's monograph, HRAF. The Institute. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Crossley, Pamela Kyle (1990). Orphan Warriors: Three Manchu Generations and the End of the Qing World (illustrated, reprint ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691008779. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Crossley, Pamela Kyle (2002). A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23424-3.
- Crossley, Pamela Kyle; Siu, Helen F.; Sutton, Donald S., eds. (2006). Empire at the Margins: Culture, Ethnicity, and Frontier in Early Modern China. Volume 28 of Studies on China (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 0520230159. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Crossley, Pamela Kyle (2010). Kagan, Kimberly, ed. The Imperial Moment. Paul Bushkovitch, Nicholas Canny, Pamela Kyle Crossley, Arthur Eckstein, Frank Ninkovich, Loren J. Samons. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674054091. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Crossley, Pamela Kyle (2002). The Manchus (The People of Asia Series). Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-23591-4.
- Breuker, Remco E. (2010). Establishing a Pluralist Society in Medieval Korea, 918-1170: History, Ideology and Identity in the Koryŏ Dynasty. Volume 1 of Brill's Korean Studies Library. BRILL. ISBN 9004183256. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Cassel, Par Kristoffer (2011). Grounds of Judgment: Extraterritoriality and Imperial Power in Nineteenth-Century China and Japan. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199792127. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- de Rachewiltz, Igor, ed. (1993). In the Service of the Khan: Eminent Personalities of the Early Mongol-Yüan Period (1200-1300). Volume 121 of Asiatische Forschungen. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 3447033398. ISSN 0571-320X. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Di Cosmo, Nicola (2007). The Diary of a Manchu Soldier in Seventeenth-Century China: "My Service in the Army", by Dzengseo. Volume 3 of Routledge Studies in the Early History of Asia (annotated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 113578955X. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Dunnell, Ruth W.; Elliott, Mark C.; Foret, Philippe; Millward, James A (2004). New Qing Imperial History: The Making of Inner Asian Empire at Qing Chengde. Routledge. ISBN 1134362226. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Dvořák, Rudolf (1895). Chinas religionen ... Volume 12; Volume 15 of Darstellungen aus dem Gebiete der nichtchristlichen Religionsgeschichte (illustrated ed.). Aschendorff (Druck und Verlag der Aschendorffschen Buchhandlung). ISBN 0199792054. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Elliott, Mark C. (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4684-2.
- Gorelova, Liliya M., ed. (2002). Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 8 Uralic & Central Asian Studies, Manchu Grammar. Volume Seven Manchu Grammar. Brill Academic Pub. ISBN 9004123075. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- Hammond, Kenneth James; Stapleton, Kristin Eileen, eds. (2008). The Human Tradition in Modern China. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 074255466X. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Hauer, Erich (2007). Corff, Oliver, ed. Handwörterbuch der Mandschusprache. Volume 12; Volume 15 of Darstellungen aus dem Gebiete der nichtchristlichen Religionsgeschichte (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 3447055286. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Kaske, Elisabeth (2008). The Politics of Language in Chinese Education: 1895 - 1919. Volume 82 of Sinica Leidensia (illustrated ed.). BRILL. ISBN 9004163670. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Lee, Robert H. G. (1970). The Manchurian Frontier in Chʼing History. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-54775-9.
- Merriam-Webster, Inc (2003). Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 978-0-87779-807-1.
- Mote, Frederick W.; Twitchett, Denis; Fairbank, John K., eds. (1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644 (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521243327. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Naquin, Susan (2000). Peking: Temples and City Life, 1400-1900. University of California Press. ISBN 0520923456. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Norman, Jerry (Jul–Sep 2003). "The Manchus and Their Language (Presidential Address)". Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 123 (No. 3): 483–491. doi:10.2307/3217747. JSTOR 3217747.
- "New Light on The Origins of The Manchuslast=Huang". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies (Harvard-Yenching Institute) 50 (No. 1): 239–282. Jun 1990. doi:10.2307/2719229. JSTOR 2719229.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Perdue, Peter C (2009). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia (reprint ed.). Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674042026. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Peterson, Willard J. (2002). the Cambridge History of China, the Ch'ing dynasty to 1800. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24334-3.
- Rawski, Evelyn S. (Nov 1996). "Presidential Address: Reenvisioning the Qing: The Significance of the Qing Period in Chinese History". The Journal of Asian Studies (Association for Asian Studies) 55 (No. 4): 829–850. doi:10.2307/2646525. JSTOR 2646525.
- Reardon-Anderson, James (Oct 2000). "Land Use and Society in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia during the Qing Dynasty". Environmental History (Forest History Society and American Society for Environmental History) 5 (No. 4): 503–530. JSTOR 3985584.
- Rhoads, Edward J. M. (2000). Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98040-0.
- Rhoads, Edward J. M. (2011). Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0295804122. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Serruys, Henry (1955). Sino-J̌ürčed relations during the Yung-Lo period, 1403-1424. Volume 4 of Göttinger asiatische Forschungen. O. Harrassowitz. ISBN 0742540057. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Seth, Michael J. (2006). A Concise History of Korea: From the Neolithic Period Through the Nineteenth Century. Volume 2 of Tunguso Sibirica (illustrated, annotated ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0742540057. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Seth, Michael J. (2010). A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present. Volume 2 of Tunguso Sibirica. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 0742567176. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Shirokogorov, Sergeĭ Mikhaĭlovich (1924). Social Organization of the Manchus: A study of the Manchu Clan Organization. Volume 3 of Publications (Royal Asiatic Society. North China Branch). Royal Asiatic Society.
- Sinor, Denis, ed. (1990). The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Volume 1 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521243041. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Spence, Jonathan D.; Wills, Jr., John E., eds. (1979). From Ming to Ch'ing: Conquest, Region, and Continuity in Seventeenth-century China (illustrated, revised ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 0300026722. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Spence, Jonathan D. (1988). Tsʻao Yin and the Kʻang-hsi Emperor: Bondservant and Master. Volume 85 of Yale historical publications: Miscellany (illustrated, reprint ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 0300042779. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- Tamanoi, Mariko Asano (May 2000). "Knowledge, Power, and Racial Classification: The "Japanese" in "Manchuria"". The Journal of Asian Studies (Association for Asian Studies) 59 (No. 2): 248–276. doi:10.2307/2658656. JSTOR 2658656.
- Taveirne, Patrick (2004). Han-Mongol Encounters and Missionary Endeavors: A History of Scheut in Ordos (Hetao) 1874-1911. Volume 15 of Louvain Chinese studies (illustrated ed.). Leuven University Press. ISBN 9058673650. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Tillman, Hoyt Cleveland; West, Stephen H., eds. (1995). China Under Jurchen Rule: Essays on Chin Intellectual and Cultural History (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. ISBN 0791422739. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Twitchett, Denis C.; Franke, Herbert; Fairbank, John King, eds. (1994). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, 710-1368 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521243319. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Twitchett, Denis C.; Mote, Frederick W., eds. (1998). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 8, The Ming Dynasty, Part 2; Parts 1368-1644. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521243335. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Vajda, E. J. "Manchu (Jurchen)". Pandora Web Space (Western Washington University). Professor Edward Vajda. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- Vollmer, John E. (2002). Ruling from the Dragon Throne: Costume of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Asian Art Series. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 1-58008-307-2.
- Williamson, Mitch (May 19, 2011). "JURCHEN JIN DYNASTY". Weapons and Warfare. Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- Watson, Rubie Sharon; Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, eds. (1991). Marriage and Inequality in Chinese Society. Volume 12 of Studies on China. Joint Committee on Chinese Studies (U.S.) (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 0520071247. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- WAKEMAN JR., FREDERIC (1986). GREAT ENTERPRISE. University of California Press. ISBN 0520048040. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Wu, Shuhui (1995). Die Eroberung von Qinghai unter Berücksichtigung von Tibet und Khams 1717 - 1727: anhand der Throneingaben des Grossfeldherrn Nian Gengyao. Volume 2 of Tunguso Sibirica (reprint ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 3447037563. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Wurm, Stephen Adolphe; Mühlhäusler, Peter; Tyron, Darrell T., eds. (1996). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, Volume 1. International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3110134179. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Zhang, Feng (March 2008). "Traditional East Asian Structure from the Perspective of Sino-Korean Relations". International Relations Department The London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- Zhao, Gang (January 2006). "Reinventing China Imperial Qing Ideology and the Rise of Modern Chinese National Identity in the Early Twentieth Century" (PDF) 32 (Number 1). Sage Publications. doi:10.1177/0097700405282349. JSTOR 20062627. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014.
- Chʻing Shih Wen Tʻi, Volume 10, Issues 1-2. Contributory Society for Qing Studies (U.S.), Project Muse. Society for Qing Studies. 1989. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- Dekdengge; Zhang, Huake; Guang, Dingyuan (2007). ᠨᡳᡧᠠᠨ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ (Full Edition of Tale of the Nisan Shaman). Yingyu Cultural Publishing House. ISBN 9789868212428.
- Crossley, Pamela Kyle (1991). Orphan Warriors: Three Manchu Generations and the End of the Qing World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00877-9.
- Rawski, Evelyn S. (2001). The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22837-5.
- Shao, Dan (2011). Remote Homeland, Recovered Borderland: Manchus, Manchoukuo, and Manchuria, 1907-1985. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0824834456.
|Look up Manchu in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|