Lama (martial art)

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Lama (martial art)

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獅子吼
Lion's Roar
Pinyin: Shīzi Hǒu
Yale Cantonese: Si1 ji2 Hau3
喇嘛派
Lama Pai
Pinyin: Lǎma Pài
Yale Cantonese: La1 ma4 Paai1
Literally "Lama style"
白鶴派
Tibetan White Crane
Pinyin: Bái Hè Pài
Yale Cantonese: Baak6 Hok6 Paai1
Literally "white crane style"
俠家
Hop Gar
Pinyin: Xiá Jiā
Yale Cantonese: Haap6 Ga1
Literally "knight family"
This article is about the closely related Lama Pai, Hop Gar, and Tibetan White Crane styles of martial arts. For the Fujianese style of White Crane, see Fujian White Crane (martial art).

While today the martial arts known as Lama Pai, Tibetan White Crane, and Hop Gar exist as relatively distinct lineages and/or organizations, all originated with a single figure known as Sing Lung who arrived in Guangdong Province during the Qing Dynasty and taught a martial art then known as "Lion's Roar" (獅子吼). This article will attempt to explain the history of the tradition as a whole, the current differences between the lineages and organizations, and also their common traits.

Tibetan or Chinese martial art?

There has been a debate among martial art historians for some time as to whether or not Lion's Roar and its offspring, are in fact "Tibetan" martial arts. This argument is based primarily on two logical observations. First and foremost, the martial arts that exist in what is modern Tibet in most respects do not resemble the school as preserved in Chinacitation needed. Some of the long swinging motions are present but in general Tibetan martial arts are much closer to Indian traditionscitation needed. While some of this apparent disparity is due to Chinese influences in the last hundred years, it is indeed a valid point.

The second consideration, directly related to the first, is the fact that they in many ways resemble systems that are associated with northern China. The long range swinging motions (but not those small circle techniques which are very much a specialization of the "Tibetan" tradition) of Lama Pai can be found in systems such as Pek Gwa Myuhn. Many of the kicking techniques also resemble northern systems.

Fortunately, this debate can be put to rest quite quickly if one examines more closely the history of Lion's Roar. Ah Dat-Ta, the founder of Lion's Roar, is described as both ethnically Chinese (i.e. Han) and as living in what is now the province of Qinghai, situated in north western China, next to modern day Tibet. There is also reason to believe Sing Lung, the Buddhist monk who brought Lion's Roar to Guangdong, was raised and trained in Qinghai.1 To understand the significance of this one has to know a little about the history of the region.

Qinghai has only recently been considered "Chinese"citation needed. For many generations, the province has been inhabited by Tibetans, Mongolians, Manchurians and a wide variety of minorities. Thus, Lion's Roar represented the vast tradition of Western Chinese martial arts. It represented the martial arts practiced in Tibet but also the martial arts practiced in Qinghai, Outer Mongolia, inner Mongolia, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Xinjiang provinces. It represented the martial arts of Tibetans, Mongolians, Manchurians, Ethnic Han Chinese and a wide variety of minorities.

The origin of Lion's Roar martial art

The original Lion's Roar system is attributed to a monk named Ah Dat-Ta (阿達陀), also sometimes known as the "Dai Dat Lama". Ah Dat-Ta was born in 1426 and was a member of a nomadic tribe that traveled throughout Tibet and Qinghai. He was an active young man who practiced horsemanship, wrestling (Shuai-Jiao) and a special type of joint-locking (seizing and controlling skill). After being ordained as a monk in Tibet, he also learned a martial art that was apparently Indian in origin.23

For several years Ah Dat-Ta retreated to the mountains to live in seclusion, studying Buddhist texts and practicing meditation. He also hoped to improve his martial art skill. One day Ah Dat-Ta's meditation was disturbed by a loud sound. He left the cave he had been meditating in to investigate and found an ape trying to capture a crane. He was astonished. Despite the ape's great size and strength, the crane eluded the great swings and pecked at soft, vital points. Ah Dat-Ta was inspired to create a new martial art.

Ah Dat-Ta created a system that mimicked the deft evasion and vital point striking of the white crane and the ape's powerful swings and grabbing techniques. It was based upon the number eight, an important number in Chinese cosmology and numerology. The fundamental fighting theory was known as the "eight character true essence". The "eight character true essence" can be roughly translated as "strike the place that has a pulse, never a place that has no pulse, and stretch the arms out while keeping the body away."345

The system consisted of 8 fist strikes, 8 palm strikes, 8 elbow strikes, 8 finger strikes, 8 kicking techniques, 8 seizing (clawing) techniques, 8 stances and 8 stepping patterns.3

Based on a line found in the sutra known as "The Lantern Passing Record", this new system was called Lion's Roar (獅子吼). According to this sutra, upon the birth of the Buddha, he stood up, pointed the finger of one hand to the sky, the finger of the other hand to the earth and roared like a lion to announce he had arrived. Lion's Roar was considered the Tibetan Lamas' special gift, directly from Buddha."245

Oral history maintains that, in the late Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), Lion's Roar spread to Northern China and incorporated the techniques of the martial arts there, explaining its Northern Chinese characteristics.

Sing Lung

Depending upon the lineage, the figure known as Sing Lung is rendered in Chinese characters as either "Sage Dragon" (聖龍) or "Star Dragon" (星龍). From a Buddhist point of view, the "Sage Dragon" (聖龍) makes more logical sense and the use of the character for "star" (星) can easily be explained by the long established tradition of "white characters" in Chinese society, i.e. the use of a simpler character with the same phonetic sound.6 Sing Lung also has an alias as Gam Ngau "Golden Hook" Leih Wu-Ji (Li Hu Ji) (金钩李胡子).4

A number of legends regarding Sing Lung's exploits exist. Sing Lung first arrived in China at O-Mei Shan in Szechuan province. During his time there he became quite famous for his skill. Upon arrival on the Pearl River, Sing Lung was challenged by a pirate known as Cheung Po-Jai. Cheung was famous for robbing corrupt Qing Dynasty officials. After having defeated Cheung, Sing Lung accepted him as a student.45

For a time, Sing Lung also taught Leung Kwan, known as "Tit Kiu Sam" (鐵橋三) or "Iron Bridge #3". "Tit Kiu Sam" is best known for his influences on the Southern Shaolin Hung Ga system and was also involved in revolutionary activities7

Late in his life Sing Lung arrived in Guangdong Province, Southern China at the Ching Yun Jih "Blessed Cloud Monastery" (庆云寺) near the "Ding Wu" Mountain in 1865.248

Ching Yun Jih "Blessed Cloud Monastery" (庆云寺)

It was during this period of time that Sing Lung taught Chan Yam (陳蔭), Chou Heung-Yuen (周香遠), and Chu Chi-Yu (朱子堯). Chan Yam and Chou Heung-Yuen both died relatively young and apparently had few, if any, students worth noting. Chu Chi-Yu accepted only a few disciples and generally kept what he had learned concealed from the general public. Among his students were Chu Cheung, Lei Seung-Dong, and Chiu Dihk. These students continued to guard what they had learned very closely and only accept a few disciples. Chu Chi-Yu apparently also taught Nhg Siu-Chung for a period of time.

The two most important students from this time period are known as Wong Yan-Lam and Wong Lam-Hoi.29 Again, depending upon the tradition, the story has somewhat different variations. Among those lines descended from Wong Yan-Lam, it is said that originally Wong Lam-Hoi was Wong Yan-Lam's student. In those lines descended from Wong Lam-Hoi (principally Pak Hok Pai / Tibetan White Crane) he is described as a relative equal.

From Lo Wai Keung's book "Yau Jih Baat Gihk Kuen":

清代末叶,游方僧人金钩禅师,从四州省至广东肇庆鼎湖山庆云寺,将此拳传王隱林为了纪年其师,以金钩禅师有“大侠李胡子”之称,遂将他传留拳技命名侠拳. 王隱林当初技成下山,曾远赴陕西省一带,隱身镖局,广结四方英豪,为的是恢复大明江山,但始终未能如愿.晚年本落叶归根计,便返回广东. 其後在广州设馆教拳术,兼悬壶济也. 王隱林祖师武技高强,独树一帜於岭南,因而声名远播,成为广东武坛“拾虎"之一.8

Wong Yan-Lam

Wong Yan Lam

Wong Yan Lam was the son of a Shaolin Kung-Fu master known as Wong Ping. Wong Ping was something of a local legend, known as "the bronze foot", and was fond of demonstrating his kung-fu in public. Because of this he came to the attention of Sing Lung. One day Sing Lung came down from the mountain and had an opportunity to observe Wong Ping's kung-fu. He was impressed by Wong Ping's skill and tried to tell him so but because Sing Lung's Chinese was not very good there was a misunderstanding. Wong Ping attacked Sing Luhng with a powerful leg sweep but the Tibetan monk utilized a technique known as "GAM GONG HONG LUHNG". He leapt up into the air and landed on the leg, breaking Wong Ping's knee.8

When the misunderstanding was corrected Sing Lung offered to heal the leg using special Tibetan medical techniques and the two became friends. Wong Ping was so impressed by Sing Lung that he asked the old monk to teach his son. Wong Yan-Lam studied for many years and achieved considerable skill under the direction of Sing Lung. In addition to Lama Pai, Wong Yan Lam also learned the Lo Han Myuhn (Boddhisattva division) and Gam Gong Myuhn (Diamond division) internal methods and the Tibetan medical techniques.6

Upon the death of his teacher, Wong Yan-Lam left Guangdong and worked for many years as an armed escort in Shan Xi province. During this period Wong Yan-Lam met and exchanged techniques with a great number of martial artists. Wong Yan-Lam also became involved in the revolutionary movement pledged to overthrow the Manchurians. Because of the numerous goods deeds attributed to him during his lifetime, Wong Yan-Lam earned the nickname of "Haap" (Knight or Hero).24810

After many years, Wong Yan-Lam grew homesick and decided to return to Guangdong. He also decided that he finally wanted to accept students and teach Lama Pai. Upon arriving in Guangdong, he erected a large wooden stage and announced that he would accept any challenger to prove the effectiveness of Lama Pai. For the next 18 days, 150 of the area's best fighters were punched, kicked, thrown or strangled into submission.2811 According to David Chin, "Either the challenger was maimed or killed. Wong never let one challenger leave his school without injury. He was a master of using the technique of cruelty."11

It was an unprecedented display of fighting ability and as a result Wong Yan-Lam was subsequently ranked number one among the Ten Tigers of Guangdong and considered the best fighter in southern China.10

One of his fellow Tigers was Wong Kei-Ying, father of the famous Wong Fei-Hung. Father and son, both masters of Hung Kuen, exchanged knowledge with other martial artists, including Wong Yan-Lam. According to Lama Pai oral history, Wong Fei-Hung learned from Wong Yan-Lam the long arm techniques found in the Tiger Crane Paired Form Fist and the Five Element techniques found in the Five Animal Five Element Fist in return for the Five Animal techniques found in the Small Five Animal Fist of Yan-Lam and his descendants. By contrast, "village" styles of Hung Kuen do not show signs of influence from Lama Pai/Hop Gar/Tibetan White Crane and are more characteristic of Southern Chinese martial arts.

Wong Lam-Hoi

After the death of Sing Lung, Wong Lam-Hoi remained in Guangdong. As a teacher, Wong Lam-Hoi's abilities were well respected by all and many students flocked to his school to learn his methods. In fact,Wong Lam-Hoi was already well established by the time Wong Yan-Lam returned to Guangdong. Wong Lam-Hoi accepted many disciples during his years in Guangdong including Nhg Siu-Chan, Nhg Shi-Kai, Nhg Keng-Wen, Lei Shing-Kon, Dong Di-Wen, Nhg Gam-Tin, Cheng Tit-Wu, Leung Chi-Hoi, Lo Chiu-Kit, Chung Chan-Yung and Dang Ho. Despite this, he is still primarily known for his senior student, Nhg Siu-Chung. Nhg Siu-Chung founded the White Crane style (Pak Hok Pai) which stressed the "flying crane hands" and "continuous kicking" of the Lama Pai curriculum.6 Nhg Siu-Chung was an extremely skilled fighter and is often remembered for defeating Wong Siu-Jou, the foremost member of the northern five tigers group.

Hop Gar or White Crane (Pak Hok Pai)?

The Lion's Roar system, now most often referred to as Lama Pai (the system of Lamas), suffered because it was a foreign methodcitation needed. The Republic period was a time of extreme nationalism and few instructors wanted to claim to be teaching a foreign system, especially one the Qing royal guard had practiced. For this reason, Wong Yan-Lam's number one disciple, Wong Hon-Wing, adopted the name Hop Gar / Haap Ga (Knight Family Style) based upon his teacher's nickname and the recommendation of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen. However, most of Wong Lam-Hoi's students did not accept this new name. They simply refused to give more credit to their Si-Baahk (elder uncle) than to their own teacher. In response, Nhg Siu-Chung established the White Crane style (Pak Hok Pai).

Hop Gar

Wong Hon-Wing was for a very long time considered Master Wong Yan-Lam's number one student and was his sole official representative. It was Wong Hon-Wing who began using the name Haap Ga Kyuhn based upon his teacher's nickname and the recommendation of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen. As Wong Yan-Lam grew older, he also gave Wong Hon-Wing more and more responsibility for running the schools. Eventually, Wong Yan-Lam announced that he had retired and returned to his native village.8

In the period immediately following, Wong Hon-Wing opened several more schools exclusively under his own name and developed quite a reputation among the southern martial arts community. Haap Ga Kyuhn became generally associated with Wong Hon-Wing's own version of the style. However, Wong Yan-Lam's retirement was short lived and soon other students, many of them former students of Wong Hon-Wing, were accepted as disciples. There are numerous stories concerning the reasons for this shift and Wong Hon-Wing's subsequent loss of position. In Hong Kong, it is said there was a dispute over the royalties Wong Han-Wing was supposed to pay his teacher. In Malaysia, it is said that many of Wong Hon-Wing's students had complained to Wong Yan-Lam that their teacher was not passing on his skills. In San Francisco, more than a few teachers from several traditions hold that the old teacher had simply refused to step aside and let his student make a name for himself. There is probably some truth to all these stories. What is important to realize is that for whatever reason other students were accepted by Wong Yan-Lam and taught the advanced skills.6

Nhg Yim-Ming (also known in the United States as Harry Ng) also used the Haap Ga name adopted by Wong Hon-Wong and spread the art by teaching it to the Air Force. However, in 1950 Nhg Yim-Ming visited his family in San Francisco and decided to stay. There he taught a number of students including Chin Dai-Wei (David Chin), Jack Hoey and Tony Galvin.11 Of all the later disciples of Wong Yan-Lam, Nhg Yim-Ming is the most respected and his skills were beyond question. In fact, Nhg Yim-Ming's skills may very well have surpassed those of Wong Hon-Wing.

Lei Ying-Chuen was originally one of Wong Hon-Wing's most senior disciples and helped him administer many of his schools. It was for this very reason that he had direct access to Wong Yan-Lam. Lei Ying-Chuen was the first disciple of Wong Hon-Wing to be accepted as a disciple by Wong Yan-Lam and he opened his own school, using the Haap Ga name, in Si-Gwan, Guangdong almost immediately upon his acceptance. While Lei Ying-Chuen's skills were not in question, many are critical of his fickleness and lack of loyalty.

Wong Lun (AKA Wong Geng Choh) studied Hung Kune with his father for 5 years and then followed a student of Tit Kiu Sam for a further 6 years.12 He then met Wong Yan Lum and became his disciple. Wong Lun's student Deng Gum To popularized the Hop Gar system throughout southern China and wrote several books.

Tibetan White Crane

The name "Tibetan White Crane" is associated with the lineage passed down from Wong Lam-Hoi through Ng Siu-Chung, whose training with Wong Lam-Hoi was later supplemented by training with Chu Chi-Yiu, another of Sing Lung's students. Nhg Siu-Chung sought to make the system more accessible to the general public. The White Crane style attempted to standardize the practice of basics and both modified and created hand sets to make them logical and systematic.

However, soon after Nhg Siu-Chung's death the style split into several branches and no longer remains unified. The Hong Kong White Crane Athletic Association attempted to standardize the teaching of White Crane but each disciple had already begun developing their own methods. Some disciples were content to remain within the Hong Kong White Crane Athletic Association while others, most notably Chan Hak-Fu, were not. Chan Hak- Fu decided to establish his own organization, the International White Crane Federation, in Australia in 1972. Chan Hak-Fu's White Crane is considered significantly different from the White Crane of his classmates.

Things were further complicated in 1977 when Ngai Yuk Tong and several members of the Hong Kong White Crane Athletic Association decided to change the hand sets, making them "more economical" and removing repeated movements.

Lama Pai

The name "Lama Pai" is primarily associated with the lineage passed down from Wong Yan-Lam through Choi Yit-Gung and Jyu Chyuhn, two of his later students.

At the age of eleven years, Choi Yit-Gung arranged an introduction to Wong Yan-Lam. By this time, Wong Yan-Lam was close to ninety years old and had lost his eyesight so Choi Yit-Gung, who was from a wealthy family, took him into his own home and had his servants take care of him. Choi Yit-Gung devoted himself for approximately eight years and became a very well known fighter in southern China. Unlike Nhg Yim-Ming, Lei Ying-Chuen and Wong Lun, Choi Yit-Gung continued to use the Lama Pai name.8

In the later years of his life, Choi Yit-Gung moved to Hong Kong and taught quite a number of individuals who helped popularize the Lama Pai style. Among these Hong Kong disciples were Chan Kuen-Nhg, Gung Yut-Gae, and Lo Wai-Keung.48 Today, a number students of Gung Yit-Gae teach in the Tibetan Lama Pai Association of Vancouver, Canada. Lo Wai-Keung operated a large school in Hong Kong. Lo Wai-Keung has also written the only two books on Lama Pai (one has been translated into English).

The second lineage includes all of Jyu Chyuhn's students. Jyu Chyuhn (朱亦傳) (1892-1980) was born in the Toi-San district of Guangdong province and began his training in martial arts at an early age. He studied a wide variety of martial arts including the Choi Lei Faht (Choy Lay Fut) style under the direction of Master Chan Goon-Bahk, the son of the style's founder, Chan Heung.2 Jyu Chyuhn first learned Lama Pai under the direction of Wong Lam-Hoi (黄林開) and then sought out Wong Yan-Lam (王隐林) when he returned to Guangdong. Eventually, Jyu Chyuhn learned the entire Lama Pai system. However, Jyu Chyuhn became interested in Buddhism later in life and, inspired by the stories his teachers told him about their youth, retired near the Clear Cloud Monastery (清 云 寺) in Guangdong Province in southern China.

Notable students under Jyu Chuyhn were:13

  1. Gong Kwan-San
  2. Lei Lun-San
  3. Leu Yuk-San
  4. Lei Sek-San
  5. Lei Chiu-San
  6. Jyu Wu-San
  7. Jyu Wan-San
  8. Lei Git-San
  9. Jyu Ching San
  10. Lei Wai-San
  11. Lei Fei-San
  12. Chan Tai-San

Chinese lineages and beyond

Depending upon the lineage/tradition, Sing Lung is described as the 36th, 18th or 14th generation inheritor of the Lion's Roar system.6 There is a 350-year gap between Ah Dat-Ta and Sing Lung and a troubling lack of information regarding this long period. However, we have very definite and established lineages once Sing Lung began teaching in Guangdong province, Southern China. This is a brief summary of some of the prominent and still active lineages.

Pak Hok Pai

Wong Lam Hoi / Chu Chi Yui - Nhg Siu-Chung - Kwong Bon Fu / Luk Chi Fu /

Pak Hok Pai

Wong Lam Hoi / Chu Chi Yui - Nhg Siu-Chung - Chan Hak Fu (Australia)14

Pak Hok Pai

Wong Lam Hoi / Chu Chi Yui - Nhg Siu-Chung - Kwong Pon Fu / Vincent Chow (Vancouver, Canada)

Pak Hok Pai

Wong Lam Hoi / Chu Chi Yui - Nhg Siu-Chung - Au Wing Nim - Cheung Kwok Wah

Hop Gar

Wong Yan Lam - Ng Yim Ming - Ku Chi Wai / David Chin / Jack Hoey / Tony Galvin / Charlie Chan (Grandson) / Chris Heintzman(USA)

Hop Gar

Wong Yan Lam - Wong Lun (AKA Wong Geng Choh) - Deng Gum To - Deng Jan Gong - David Rogers (UK)

Hop Gar

Wong Yan Lam - Wong Lun (AKA Wong Geng Choh) - Deng Gum To - Melissa Fung Chan (New Zealand) - David Chan

Hop Gar

Wong Yan Lam - Wong Hop Liu 黄侠侣 - Chan Tat Fu 陳達夫 - Lau Jak Chu 劉澤柱 - Liu Ying Wah 廖應華 - Steve Richards (Liverpool UK) The Liverpool Pai has developed independently since 1973. Chan Tat Fu also discipled to Kong Lai Chuen 江黎庄 (from Wong Yan Lum). Wong Hop Liu 黄侠侣 was originally a disciple of Wong Hon Wing 黃漢榮

Lama Pai

Wong Yan Lam - Choi Yit Gung - Lo Wai Keung (Hong Kong)

Lama Pai

Wong Yan Lam - Jyu Chyuhn - Chan Tai San (USA)

Lama Pai

Wong Yan Lam - Jyu Chyuhn - Lei Fei San (Guangdong, China)

Lama Pai

Wong Yan Lam - Choi Yit Gung - Gung Yut Gae - Tony Jay (Vancouver, Canada)

Lost lineages and hybrids

While lost lineages and stories of mysterious monks are fairly common in Chinese martial arts traditions, they are a particular feature of Lion's Roar. For example, Chan Tai San studied with Ma Yi Po, whose Lama Pai came from Manchuria but about which nothing else is known.2 Au Wing Ning (區永年) is known for being a student Tibetan White Crane (Pak Hok Pai) founder Nhg Siu-Chung but also studied Lama Pai with two monks known as Tit Sim See and Ching Wai.15 Chan Tat Fu 陳達夫 of Hong Kong was a disciple in Tibetan White Crane and Lama Pai under Au Wing Ning(區永年). He combined this learning with that of his two Hop-Gar Si-Fu's to create Tibetan 'Hap-Gar' (one Family) Lion's Roar Pai 西藏合家獅子吼譜. It is this branch which seeded the Liverpool UK Hop-Gar (Si-Ji-Hao Pai). Then there is the case of Chan Dau, founder of "Do Pai", who studied Hop Gar with an unnamed monk in an unnamed monastery in Toi-San district, Guangdong.16 "Do Pai" is a reportedly a combination of Hung Kuen, Choi Lee Fut, and Hop Gar.

Lion's Roar (Tibetan martial art) theory

Lama Pai, Hop Gar and Tibetan White Crane all share these common theories.

The Eight Character True Essence: “Strike the place that has a pulse, never a place that has no pulse, and stretch the arms out while keeping the body away".8

Chan (ruthlessness): Chan represents the mental state that must be achieved. When attacked, there is no room for ambivalence or hesitation. The student must commit themselves to being totally ruthless. All strikes must be executed full force, and all blocking motions must destroy the opponent's limbs.

Sim (dodge, evade, avoid): Sim represents the preferred defensive method. It is considered superior to evade all attacks whilst simultaneously striking exposed vital points. This is achieved through footwork, body positioning, and jumping.

Chyuhn (to pierce, penetrate): Chyuhn represents the primary offensive goal, for all strikes to pierce and destroy vital points. It also refers to vital point striking.

Jit (to stop, intercept): Jit represents the second line of defense. Attacks that cannot be evaded must be intercepted and the attacking limb destroyed.

References

  1. ^ Hop Gar Kung Fu by David Chin published by Unique Publications
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "A Tradition Whose Time has Come" by Dave Cater Inside Kung Fu Magazine (September 1993) p.56
  3. ^ a b c "The Lion's Roar" by David Ross KungFu Wushu Winter 1995
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Lo Wai Keung "Intelligent Swordplay of the Lamaist School" Hong Kong
  5. ^ a b c "Intelligent Sword Play" by Lo Wai Kueng reference
  6. ^ a b c d e David A Ross, disciple of Chan Tai San and graduate of George Washington University with masters degree in East Asian studies
  7. ^ Hung Gar Kuen web site
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lo Wai Keung "Yau Jih Baat Gihk Kuen" (in Chinese language) Hong Kong
  9. ^ "Tibet's Mysterious Martial Arts" Inside King Fu Magazine 1989
  10. ^ a b "Is Traditional Practical?" by David Ross KungFu Wushu Oct/Nov 1996
  11. ^ a b c Keeping Secrets: Grandmaster David Chin's Legacy of Hop Gar Rebels by Gene Ching Kungfu Wushu Magazine
  12. ^ http://www.risingcrane.co.uk/pages/about/history.phtml Rising Crane UK
  13. ^ Interview with Jyu Maan Yueng (Jyu Chyuhn's 4th son) conducted by Michael Parrella in Toi San district, Guangdong province in 2006
  14. ^ "Pak Hok Kung Fu - Sydney Australia". Pakhok.com.au. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  15. ^ "Professor Cheuk Tong Tse" Real Kung Fu Magazine (Hong Kong)
  16. ^ Hong Luck Kung Fu Club Toronto, Canada

Resources

External links