한국 (S. Korean)
조선 (N. Korean)
|Sovereign states|| North Korea
|-||President of the ROK||Park Geun-hye|
|-||Supreme Leader of the DPRK||Kim Jong-un|
84,610 sq mi
|Currency||Won (₩) (N/S)|
|Time zone||KST (UTC+9)|
|ISO 3166 code||KR/KP|
Korea, called Hanguk (Korean: 한국; Hanja: 韓國) in South Korea and Chosŏn (Korean: 조선; Hanja: 朝鮮) in North Korea, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct sovereign states, North Korea (aka, DPRK or Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and South Korea (aka, ROK or Republic of Korea). Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast. It is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan (East Sea). The adoption of the Chinese writing system ("Hanja" in Korean) in the 2nd century BC and the introduction of Buddhism in the 4th century AD had profound effects on the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which was first united during the Silla (57 BC – AD 935) under the King Munmu. The united Silla fell to Goryeo in 935 at the end of the Later Three Kingdoms. Goryeo was a highly cultured state and created the Jikji in the 14th century. The invasions by the Mongolians in the 13th century, however, greatly weakened the nation, which was forced to become a tributary state. After the Mongol Empire's collapse, severe political strife followed. The Ming-allied Joseon emerged supreme in 1388.
The first 200 years of Joseon were marked by relative peace and saw the creation of the Korean Hangul alphabet by King Sejong the Great in the 14th century and the increasing influence of Confucianism. During the later part of the dynasty, however, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the "Hermit kingdom". By the late 19th century, the country became the object of the colonial designs by Japan. In 1910, Korea was annexed by Japan and remained a colony until the end of World War II in August 1945.
In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel, with the north under Soviet occupation and the south under U.S. occupation. These circumstances soon became the basis for the division of Korea by the two superpowers, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence. The two Cold War rivals then established governments centered around their own respective ideologies, leading to Korea's division into two political entities: North Korea and South Korea.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Wildlife
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture and arts
- 7 Education
- 8 Science and technology
- 9 Sport
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
"Korea" is the modern spelling of Corea, a name attested in English as early as 1614.4 It is an exonym derived from Cauli, Marco Polo's transcription5 of the Chinese 高麗 (simp. 高丽, MC Kawlej,6 mod. Gāolì). This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo or Koryŏ (고려; 918–1392), which ruled most of the peninsula during the time of his travels. (Scholars who discount the historicity of Polo's account instead derive it via Persian variations of the same Chinese name.7) Goryeo's name was an homage to the earlier Goguryeo or Koguryo (고구려; 37 BC – AD 668), the northernmost of the Samkuk (the Three Kingdoms of Korea), which was officially known by the shortened form Goryeo after the 5th-century reign of King Jangsu. The original name was a combination of the adjective go ("high, lofty") with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either Guru (구루, "walled city") or Gauri (가우리, "center"). With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling "Korea" appeared and gradually grew in popularity;4 its use in transcribing East Asian languages avoids the issues caused by the separate hard and soft Cs existing in English vocabulary derived from the Romance languages. The name Korea is now commonly used in English contexts by both North and South Korea.
In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk (한국, [haːnɡuk], lit. "country of the Han"). The name references the Samhan—Ma, Jin, and Byeon—who preceded the Three Kingdoms in the southern and central end of the peninsula during the 1st centuries BC and AD. Although written in Hanja as 韓, 幹, or 刊, this Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription (OC: *Gar, MC Han6 or Gan) of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning "big" or "great", particularly in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Manchuria and Central Asia.
In North Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Chosŏn (조선, Joseon, [tɕosʰʌn], lit. "[land of the] Morning Calm"). "Great Joseon" was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Gojoseon (고조선), who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108 BC by China's Han Empire. This go is the Hanja 古 and simply means "ancient" or "old"; it's a modern usage to distinguish the ancient Joseon from the later dynasty. Joseon itself is the modern Korean pronunciation of the Hanja 朝鮮 but it remains unclear whether this was a transcription of a native Korean name (OC *T[r]awser, MC Trjewsjen6) or a partial translation into Chinese of the Korean capital Asadal (아사달),8 whose meaning has been reconstructed as "Morning Land" or "Mountain".
Part of a series on the
|History of Korea|
|North and South States|
|Later Three Kingdoms|
|Unitary dynastic period|
|Division of Korea|
Prehistory and Gojoseon
The Korean Academy of North America discovered ancient hominid fossils originating from about 100,000 BC in the lava at a stone city site in Korea. Fluorescent and high-magnetic analyses indicate the volcanic fossils may be from as early as 300,000 BC.9 The best preserved Korean pottery goes back to the paleolithic times around 10,000 BC and the Neolithic period begins around 6000 BC.
Gojoseon's10 founding legend describes Dangun, a descendent of Heaven, as establishing the kingdom in 2333 BC11 The original capital may have been on the present-day Manchurian border,12 but was later moved to what is today Pyongyang in North Korea. In 108 BC, the Chinese Han Dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed the Four Commanderies of Han in the area of the northwestern Korean Peninsula and part of the Liaodong Peninsula,13 leaving many smaller kingdoms and confederacies in the southern and eastern parts of the peninsula. By 75 BC, three of those commanderies had fallen, but the Lelang Commandery remained as a center of cultural and economic exchange with successive Chinese dynasties until 313, when it fell to Goguryeo.
The Proto–Three Kingdoms period, sometimes called the Several States Period, is the earlier part of what is commonly called the Three Kingdoms Period, following the fall of Gojoseon but before Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla fully developed into kingdoms.
This time period saw numerous states spring up from the former territories of Gojoseon. Buyeo arose in today's North Korea and southern Manchuria, from about the 2nd century BC to 494. Its remnants were absorbed by Goguryeo in 494, and both Goguryeo and Baekje, two of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, considered themselves its successor. Okjeo and Dongye of northern Korea were eventually absorbed into the growing Goguryeo.
Located in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, Samhan refers to the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan. Mahan was the largest and consisted of 54 states. Byeonhan and Jinhan both consisted of twelve states, bringing a total of 78 states within the Samhan. These three confederacies eventually developed into Baekje, Silla, and Gaya.
The Three Kingdoms of Korea (Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje) dominated the peninsula and parts of Manchuria at beginning of the 1st century AD. They competed with each other both economically and militarily.
Goguryeo united Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye and other states in the former Gojoseon territory.14 Goguryeo was the most dominant power; it reached its zenith in the 5th century, when reign of the Gwanggaeto the Great and his son, Jangsu expanded territory into almost all of Manchuria and part of inner Mongolia, and took the Seoul region from Baekje. Gwanggaeto and Jangsu subdued Baekje and Silla during their times. After the 7th century, Goguryeo was constantly at war with the Sui and Tang dynasties of China.
Founded around modern day Seoul, the southwestern kingdom Baekje expanded far beyond Pyongyang during the peak of its powers in the 4th century. It had absorbed all of the Mahan states and subjugated most of the western Korean peninsula (including the modern provinces of Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and Jeolla, as well as part of Hwanghae and Gangwon) to a centralised government. Baekje acquired Chinese culture and technology through contacts with the Southern Dynasties during the expansion of its territory. Historic evidence suggests that Japanese culture, art, and language was strongly influenced by the kingdom of Baekje and Korea itself.1516171819202122232324
Although later records claim that Silla, in the southeast, was the oldest of the three kingdoms, it is now believed to have been the last kingdom to develop. By the 2nd century, Silla existed as a large state, occupying and influencing nearby city states. Silla began to gain power when it annexed the Gaya confederacy in AD 562. The Gaya confederacy was located between Baekje and Silla. The three kingdoms of Korea often warred with each other and Silla often faced pressure from Baekje and Goguryeo but at various times Silla also allied with Baekje and Goguryeo in order to gain dominance over the peninsula.
In 660, King Muyeol of Silla ordered his armies to attack Baekje. General Kim Yu-shin (Gim Yu-sin), aided by Tang forces, conquered Baekje. In 661, Silla and Tang moved on Goguryeo but were repelled. King Munmu, son of Muyeol and nephew of General Kim launched another campaign in 667 and Goguryeo fell in the following year.
North and South States period
In the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries, Silla's power gradually extended across the Korean Peninsula. Silla first annexed the adjacent Gaya confederacy. By the 660s, Silla formed an alliance with the Tang Dynasty of China to conquer Baekje and later Goguryeo. After repelling Chinese forces, Silla partially unified the peninsula, beginning a period often called Unified Silla.
In the north, former Goguryeo General Dae Joyeong led a group of Goguryeo refugees to the Jilin area in Manchuria and founded Balhae (698–926) as the successor to Goguryeo. At its height, Balhae's territory extended from northern Manchuria down to the northern provinces of modern-day Korea. Balhae was destroyed by the Khitans in 926.
The country Goryeo was founded in 918 and replaced Silla as the ruling dynasty of Korea. "Goryeo" is a short form of "Goguryeo" and the source of the English name "Korea". The dynasty lasted until 1392.
During this period laws were codified, and a civil service system was introduced. Buddhism flourished, and spread throughout the peninsula. The development of celadon industry flourished in 12th and 13th century. The publication of Tripitaka Koreana onto 80,000 wooden blocks and the invention of the world's first movable-metal-type printing press in 13th century attest to Goryeo's cultural achievements.
Their dynasty was threatened by Mongol invasions from the 1230s into the 1270s, but the dynastic line continued to survive until 1392 since they negotiated a treaty with the Mongols that kept its sovereign power.
In 1350s, King Gongmin was free at last to reform a Goryeo government. Gongmin had various problems that needed to be dealt with, which included the removal of pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officials, the question of land holding, and quelling the growing animosity between the Buddhists and Confucian scholars.
In 1392, the general Yi Seong-gye established the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910) with a largely bloodless coup. He named it the Joseon Dynasty in honor of the previous Joseon before (Gojoseon is the first Joseon. "Go", meaning "old", was added to distinguish between the two).
King Taejo moved the capital to Hanseong (formerly Hanyang; modern-day Seoul) and built the Gyeongbokgung palace. In 1394 he adopted Confucianism as the country's official religion, resulting in much loss of power and wealth by the Buddhists. The prevailing philosophy was Neo-Confucianism.
Joseon experienced advances in science and culture. King Sejong the Great (1418–50) promulgated hangul, the Korean alphabet. The period saw various other cultural and technological advances as well as the dominance of neo-Confucianism over the entire peninsula. Slaves, nobi, are estimated to have accounted for about one third of the population of Joseon Korea.25
Between 1592 and 1598, the Japanese invaded Korea. Toyotomi Hideyoshi tried to invade the Asian continent through Korea, but was completely defeated by a Righteous army, Admiral Yi Sun-sin and assistance from Ming China. This war also saw the rise of the career of Admiral Yi Sun-sin with the "turtle ship". Japanese warriors brought back to Japan as war trophies an estimated 100,000–200,000 noses cut from Korean victims.26 In the 1620s and 1630s Joseon suffered invasions by the Manchu.
However, during the last years of the Joseon Dynasty, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the name the "Hermit Kingdom", primarily for protection against Western imperialism before it was forced to open trade beginning an era leading into Japanese colonial rule.
Beginning in the 1871s, Japan began to force Korea out of the Manchu Qing Dynasty's traditional sphere of influence into its own. As a result of the Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), the Qing Dynasty had to give up such a position according to Article 1 of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which was concluded between China and Japan in 1895. That same year, Empress Myeongseong was assassinated by Japanese agents.27
In 1897, the Joseon dynasty proclaimed the Korean Empire (1897–1910), and King Gojong became Emperor Gojong. This brief period saw the partially successful modernisation of the military, economy, real property laws, education system, and various industries, influenced by the political encroachment into Korea of Russia, Japan, France, and the United States.
In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War pushed the Russians out of the fight for Korea. In Manchuria on October 26, 1909, An Jung-geun assassinated the former Resident-General of Korea, Itō Hirobumi for his role in trying to force Korea into occupation.
In 1910, an already militarily occupied Korea was a forced party to the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty. The treaty was signed by Lee Wan-Yong, who was given the General Power of Attorney by the Emperor. However, the Emperor is said to have not actually ratified the treaty according to Yi Tae-jin.28 There is a long dispute whether this treaty was legal or illegal due to its signing under duress, threat of force and bribes.
Korean resistance to the brutal Japanese occupation293031 was manifested in the nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919, during which 7,000 demonstrators were killed by Japanese police and military.32 The Korean liberation movement also spread to neighbouring Manchuria and Siberia.
Over five million Koreans were conscripted for labour beginning in 1939,33 and tens of thousands of men were forced into Japan's military.34 Nearly 400,000 Korean labourers died.35 Approximately 200,000 girls and women,36 mostly from China and Korea, were forced into sexual slavery for the Japanese military.37 In 1993, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono acknowledged the terrible injustices faced by these euphemistically named "comfort women".3839
During the Japanese Colonial rule, the Korean language was suppressed in an effort to eradicate Korean national identity. Koreans were forced to take Japanese surnames, known as Sōshi-kaimei.40 Traditional Korean culture suffered heavy losses, as numerous Korean cultural artifacts were destroyed41 or taken to Japan.42 To this day, valuable Korean artifacts can often be found in Japanese museums or among private collections.43 One investigation by the South Korean government identified 75,311 cultural assets that were taken from Korea, 34,369 in Japan and 17,803 in the United States. However, experts estimate that over 100,000 artifacts actually remain in Japan.4244 Japanese officials considered returning Korean cultural properties, but to date42 this has not occurred.44 Korea and Japan still dispute the ownership of the Liancourt Rocks, islets located east of the Korean Peninsula.45
There was a significant level of emigration to the overseas territories of the Empire of Japan during the Japanese colonial period, including Korea.46 By the end of World War II, there were over 850,000 Japanese settlers in Korea.47 After World War II, most of these overseas Japanese repatriated to Japan.
With the surrender of Japan in 1945 the United Nations developed plans for a trusteeship administration, the Soviet Union administering the peninsula north of the 38th parallel and the United States administering the south. The politics of the Cold War resulted in the 1948 establishment of two separate governments, North Korea and South Korea.
In June 1950 North Korea invaded the South, using Soviet tanks and weaponry. During the Korean War (1950–53) more than one million people died and the three years of fighting throughout the nation effectively destroyed most cities.48 The war ended in an Armistice Agreement at approximately the Military Demarcation Line.
Division of Korea
The aftermath of World War II left Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel, with the north under Soviet occupation and the south under US occupation supported by other allied states. Consequently, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, a Soviet-style socialist republic, was established in the north while the Republic of Korea, a Western-style regime, was established in the South. The Korean War broke out when Soviet-backed North Korea invaded South Korea, though neither side gained much territory as a result. The Korean Peninsula remains divided, the Korean Demilitarized Zone being the de facto border between the two states.
Since the 1960s, the South Korean economy has grown enormously and the economic structure was radically transformed. In 1957 South Korea had a lower per capita GDP than Ghana,49 and by 2008 it was 17 times as high as Ghana's.a
North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a single-party state, now centred around Kim Il-sung's Juche ideology, with a centrally planned industrial economy. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea, is a multi-party state with a capitalist market economy, alongside membership in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Group of Twenty. The two states have greatly diverged both culturally and economically since their partition, though they still share a common traditional culture and pre-Cold War history.
According to R.J. Rummel, forced labor, executions, and concentration camps were responsible for over one million deaths in North Korea from 1948 to 1987;51 others have estimated 400,000 deaths in concentration camps alone.52 Estimates based on the most recent North Korean census suggest that 240,000 to 420,000 people died as a result of the 1990s famine and that there were 600,000 to 850,000 unnatural deaths in North Korea from 1993 to 2008.53
Tensions continue to this day, but the political arena is a far more complicated one. Recently the U.S. has expressed concerns over North Korea's provocation of South Korea by carrying out shelling of the island of Yeonpyeong, which itself lies on a disputed sea border between the two countries.545556
Korea is located on the Korean Peninsula in North-East Asia. To the northwest, the Amnok River (Yalu River) separates Korea from China and to the northeast, the Duman River (Tumen River) separates Korea from China and Russia. The peninsula is surrounded by the Yellow Sea to the west, the East China Sea and Korea Strait to the south, and the Sea of Japan to the east.57 Notable islands include Jeju Island (Jejudo), Ulleung Island (Ulleungdo), and Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo).
The southern and western parts of the peninsula have well-developed plains, while the eastern and northern parts are mountainous. The highest mountain in Korea is Mount Paektu or Paektusan (2,744 m), through which runs the border with China. The southern extension of Mount Paektu is a highland called Gaema Heights. This highland was mainly raised during the Cenozoic orogeny and partly covered by volcanic matter. To the south of Gaema Gowon, successive high mountains are located along the eastern coast of the peninsula. This mountain range is named Baekdudaegan. Some significant mountains include Mount Sobaek or Sobaeksan (1,439 m), Mount Kumgang or Kumgangsan (1,638 m), Mount Seorak or Seoraksan (1,708 m), Mount Taebaek or Taebaeksan (1,567 m), and Mount Jiri or Jirisan (1,915 m). There are several lower, secondary mountain series whose direction is almost perpendicular to that of Baekdudaegan. They are developed along the tectonic line of Mesozoic orogeny and their directions are basically northwest.
Unlike most ancient mountains on the mainland, many important islands in Korea were formed by volcanic activity in the Cenozoic orogeny. Jeju Island, situated off the southern coast, is a large volcanic island whose main mountain Mount Halla or Hallasan (1950 m) is the highest in South Korea. Ulleung Island is a volcanic island in the Sea of Japan, whose composition is more felsic than Jeju-do. The volcanic islands tend to be younger, the more westward.
Because the mountainous region is mostly on the eastern part of the peninsula, the main rivers tend to flow westwards. Two exceptions are the southward-flowing Nakdong River (Nakdonggang) and Seomjin River (Seomjingang). Important rivers running westward include the Amnok River, the Chongchon River (Chongchongang), the Taedong River (Taedonggang), the Han River (Hangang), the Geum River (Geumgang), and the Yeongsan River (Yeongsangang). These rivers have vast flood plains and provide an ideal environment for wet-rice cultivation.
The southern and southwestern coastlines of Korea form a well-developed ria coastline, known as Dadohae-jin in Korean. Its convoluted coastline provides mild seas, and the resulting calm environment allows for safe navigation, fishing, and seaweed farming. In addition to the complex coastline, the western coast of the Korean Peninsula has an extremely high tidal amplitude (at Incheon, around the middle of the western coast. It can get as high as 9 m). Vast tidal flats have been developing on the south and west coastlines.
Animal life of Korea includes a considerable number of bird species and native freshwater fish. Native or endemic species of the Korean Peninsula include Korean hare, Korean water deer, Korean field mouse, Korean brown frog, Korean pine and Korean spruce. The Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) with its forest and natural wetlands is a unique biodiversity spot, which harbours eighty two endangered species.
There are also approximately 3,034 species of vascular plants.
The combined population of the Koreans is about 73 million (North Korea: 23 million, South Korea: 50 million). Korea is chiefly populated by a highly homogeneous ethnic group, the Koreans, who speak the Korean language.58 The number of foreigners living in Korea has also steadily increased since the late 20th century, particularly in South Korea, where more than 1 million foreigners reside.59 It was estimated in 2006 that only 26,700 of the old Chinese community now remain in South Korea.60 However, in recent years, immigration from mainland China has increased; 624,994 persons of Chinese nationality have immigrated to South Korea, including 443,566 of ethnic Korean descent.61 Small communities of ethnic Chinese and Japanese are also found in North Korea.62 The baekjeong were an “untouchable” outcaste group of Korea, often compared with the burakumin of Japan and the dalits of India.63
Korean is the official language of both North and South Korea, and (along with Mandarin) of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in Manchuria area of China. Worldwide, there are up to 80 million speakers of the Korean language. South Korea has around 50 million speakers while North Korea around 23 million. Other large groups of Korean speakers are found in China (around 1.8 million speakers), the United States (around 900,000 speakers), the former Soviet Union (around 350,000), Japan (around 700,000), Canada (100,000), Malaysia (70,000) and Australia (150,000). It is estimated that there are around 700,000 people scattered across the world who are able to speak Korean because of job requirements (for example, salespersons or businessmen with Korean contacts), marriages to Koreans or out of pure interest in the language.citation needed
The genealogical classification of Korean is debated. Some linguists place it in the Altaic language family; others consider it to be a language isolate. Korean is agglutinative in its morphology and SOV in its syntax. Like Japanese and Vietnamese, Korean has borrowed much vocabulary from the Chinese or created vocabulary on Chinese models.
Modern Korean is written almost exclusively in the script of the Korean alphabet (known as Hangul in South Korea and Chosungul in China and North Korea), which was invented in the 15th century. While Hangul may appear logographic, it is actually a phonemic alphabet organised into syllabic blocks. Each block consists of at least two of the 24 hangul letters (jamo): at least one each of the 14 consonants and 10 vowels. Historically, the alphabet had several additional letters (see obsolete jamo). For a phonological description of the letters, see Korean phonology. Hanja (Chinese characters) and Latin alphabets are sometimes included within Hangul texts, particularly in South Korea.
Culture and arts
In ancient Chinese texts, Korea is referred to as "Rivers and Mountains Embroidered on Silk" (금수강산, 錦繡江山) and "Eastern Nation of Decorum" (동방예의지국, 東方禮儀之國).64 Individuals are regarded as one year old when they are born, as Koreans reckon the pregnancy period as one year of life for infants, and age increments increase on New Year's Day rather than on the anniversary of birthdays. Thus, one born immediately before New Year's Day may only be a few days old in western reckoning, but two years old in Korea. Accordingly, a Korean person's stated age (at least among fellow Koreans) will be one or two years more than their age according to western reckoning. However, western reckoning is sometimes applied with regard to the concept of legal age; for example, the legal age for purchasing alcohol or cigarettes in the Republic of Korea is 19, which is measured according to western reckoning.
Korean literature written before the end of the Joseon Dynasty is called "Classical" or "Traditional." Literature, written in Chinese characters (hanja), was established at the same time as the Chinese script arrived on the peninsula. Korean scholars were writing poetry in the classical Korean style as early as the 2nd century BC, reflecting Korean thoughts and experiences of that time. Classical Korean literature has its roots in traditional folk beliefs and folk tales of the peninsula, strongly influenced by Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism.
Modern literature is often linked with the development of hangul, which helped spread literacy from the aristocracy to the common men and women. Hangul, however, only reached a dominant position in Korean literature in the second half of the 19th century, resulting in a major growth in Korean literature. Sinsoseol, for instance, are novels written in hangul.
The Korean War led to the development of literature centered on the wounds and chaos of war. Much of the post-war literature in South Korea deals with the daily lives of ordinary people, and their struggles with national pain. The collapse of the traditional Korean value system is another common theme of the time.
Korean music includes both folk and classical music. The country has produced internationally prominent composers. Young-ja Lee is one example. She was born in 1931 in Wonju and studied at the Conservatoire de Paris, and the Royal Conservatory of Brussels. She continued her education at the Manhattan School of Music. Lee endured hardships during the Japanese occupation and Korean War, but emerged to become one of the dominant forces in Korean music in the 20th century.65
Confucian tradition has dominated Korean thought, along with contributions by Buddhism, Taoism, and Korean Shamanism. Since the middle of the 20th century, however, Christianity has competed with Buddhism in South Korea, while religious practice has been suppressed in North Korea. Throughout Korean history and culture, regardless of separation; the influence of traditional beliefs of Korean Shamanism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism have remained an underlying religion of the Korean people as well as a vital aspect of their culture; all these traditions have coexisted peacefully for hundreds of years up to today despite strong Westernisation from Christian missionary conversions in the South666768 or the pressure from the Juche government in the North.6970
According to 2005 statistics compiled by the South Korean government, about 46% of citizens profess to follow no particular religion. Christians account for 29.2% of the population (of which are Protestants 18.3% and Catholics 10.9%) and Buddhists 22.8%.71
Korean cuisine is probably best known for kimchi, a side dish which uses a distinctive fermentation process of preserving vegetables, most commonly cabbage. Kimchi is said to relieve the pores on the skin, thereby reducing wrinkles and providing nutrients to the skin naturally. It is also healthy, as it provides necessary vitamins and nutrients. Gochujang (Korean traditional sauce made of red pepper) is also commonly used, often as pepper (chilli) paste, earning the cuisine a reputation for being spicy.
Bulgogi (roasted marinated meat, usually beef), galbi (marinated grilled short ribs), and samgyeopsal (pork belly) are popular meat entrees. Fish is also a popular commodity, as it is the traditional meat that Koreans eat. Meals are usually accompanied by a soup or stew, such as galbitang (stewed ribs) and doenjang jjigae (fermented bean paste soup). The center of the table is filled with a shared collection of sidedishes called banchan.
Instant noodles are also a very popular snack food. Koreans also enjoy food from pojangmachas (street vendors), where one can buy tteokbokki (rice cake and fish cake with a spicy gochujang sauce), fried squid and glazed sweet potato. Soondae, a sausage made of cellophane noodles and pork blood, is widely eaten. There is also an instant noodle called "Ramyun" which is spicy for non-Koreans.
Additionally, some other common snacks include "Choco Pie", shrimp crackers, "bbungtigi" (fried rice cracker), and "nureongji" (slightly burnt rice). Nureongji can be eaten as it is or boiled with water to make a soup. Nureongji can be eaten as a snack or a dessert.
The modern South Korean school system consists of six years in elementary school, three years in middle school, and three years in high school. Students are required to go to elementary and middle school, and do not have to pay for their education, except for a small fee called a "School Operation Support Fee" that differs from school to school. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, ranks South Korea's science education as the third best in the world and being significantly higher than the OECD average.73
South Korea ranks second on math and literature and first in problem solving. Although South Korean students often rank high on international comparative assessments, the education system is criticised for emphasising too much upon passive learning and memorization. The South Korean education system is rather notably strict and structured as compared to its counterparts in most Western societies. Also, the prevalence of non-school for-profit private institutes such as academies or cram-schools (Hagwon [학원]), which too emphasise on passive memorisation, as opposed to conceptual understanding, in students are criticised as a major social problem. citation needed
The North Korean education system consists primarily of universal and state funded schooling by the government. The national literacy rate for citizens 15 years of age and above is over 99 percent.7475 Children go through one year of kindergarten, four years of primary education, six years of secondary education, and then on to universities. The most prestigious university in the DPRK is Kim Il-sung University. Other notable universities include Kim Chaek University of Technology, which focuses on computer science, Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies, which trains working level diplomats and trade officials, and Kim Hyong Jik University, which trains teachers.
Outside the formal structure of schools and classrooms in the north is the extremely important "social education." This education includes not only extracurricular activities but also family life and the broadest range of human relationships within society. There is great sensitivity to the influence of the social environment on the growing child and its role in the development of his or her character. The ideal of social education is to provide a carefully controlled environment in which children are exposed only to pro-Juche and anti-south influences. According to a North Korean official interviewed in 1990, 'School education is not enough to turn the rising generation into men of knowledge, virtue, and physical fitness. After school, our children have many spare hours. So it's important to efficiently organise their afterschool education'.
Science and technology
The earliest known surviving Korean example of woodblock printing is the Mugujeonggwang Great Dharani Sutra.76 It is believed to have been printed in Korea in 750–51 AD which, if correct, would make it older than the Diamond Sutra. Goryeo silk was highly regarded by Westerners and Korean pottery made with blue-green celadon was of the highest quality and sought after by even Arabian merchants. Goryeo had a bustling economy with a capital that was frequented by merchants from all over the known world.
During the Joseon period the Geobukseon (Turtle Ship) was invented, which were covered by a wooden deck and iron with thorns,777879 as well as other weapons such as the bigyeokjincheolloe cannon (비격진천뢰, 飛擊震天雷) and the hwacha.
While association football remains one of the most popular sports in Korea, the martial art of taekwondo is still considered to be the national traditional sport. Baseball is also increasing in popularity.
Taekwondo is the national sport of Korea and one of the country's most famous sports. According to ancient Korean history, soldiers learned Taekwondo as a principal source of physical training. Farmers used it to protect themselves/their animals from wild animals and thieves. It combines combat techniques, self-defense, sport, exercise and in some cases meditation and philosophy. Taekwondo has become an official Olympic sport, starting as a demonstration event in 1988 and becoming an official medal event in 2000.
Hapkido is a Korean martial art similar to Jujutsu that employs joint locks, throws, kicks, punches and other striking attacks like attacks against pressure points. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, non-resisting movements and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage through footwork and body positioning to employ leverage, avoiding the pure use of strength against strength.
Ssireum is a form of wrestling that has been practiced in Korea for thousands of years, with evidence discovered from Korea's Three Kingdoms Period (57 BC to 688). Ssireum is the traditional national sport of Korea. During a match, opponents grip each other by sash belts wrapped around the waist and the thigh, attempting to throw their competitor to the sandy ground of the ring. The first opponent to touch the ground with any body part above the knee or to lose hold of their opponent loses the round.
Ssireum competitions are traditionally held twice a year, during the Tano Festival (the 5th day of the fifth lunar month) and Chuseok (the 15th day of the 8th lunar month). Competitions are also held throughout the year as a part of festivals and other events.
- Index of Korea-related articles
- Inter-Korean Summit
- Korean name
- List of people of Korean descent
- National Treasures of North Korea
- National Treasures of South Korea
- Korean natural farming
- Korea at Wikipedia books
- $26,341 GDP for Korea, $1513 for Ghana.50
- Castello-Cortes 1996, p. 413, North Korea.
- Castello-Cortes 1996, p. 498, South Korea.
- "거주인구 5000만명 돌파...세계 24위". KR: MT. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
- Oxford English Dictionary. "Korean, adj. and n." Accessed 20 Dec. 2013.
- Haw, Stephen. Marco Polo in China: A Venetian in the realm of Khubilai Khan, pp. 4–5. Routledge (Abingdon), 2012. Accessed 20 Dec 2013.
- Baxter, William & al. "Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction". 20 February 2011. Accessed 20 Dec 2013.
- Yunn, Seung-Yong (1996), "Muslims earlier contact with Korea", Religious culture of Korea, Elizabeth, NJ: Hollym International, p. 99.
- Li, Jie (2002-08-21). "Some Discoveries of Fossils and Relics of Prehistoric Civilizations From Around the World". Pureinsight. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- As explained above, the actual name of this country was Joseon. However, to distinguish it from the Joseon Dynasty established in the late 14th century, go- (meaning "old" or "ancient") is affixed before "Joseon".
- "Go-Choson". Korea. Asian info. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- Kim, Djun-Kil (2005), History of Korea, Histories of modern nations, Westport, CT: Greenwood, pp. 15–16.
- "Contested Domains". China Heritage Quarterly. 2011-04-21. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- "Koguryo". Korea. Asian info. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- Yayo, Metropolitan Museum of Art, "Metallurgy was also introduced from the Asian mainland during this time. Bronze and iron were used to make weapons, armor, tools, and ritual implements such as bells (dotaku)".
- Chon, Ho Chon, Kitora Tomb Originates in Koguryo Murals, "Choson Sinbo", PK (JP: Korea NP) (35).
- "Yayoi", eMuseum, MNSUdead link
- "Japanese history: Jomon, Yayoi, Kofun". Japan guide. 2002-06-09. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- "Asia Society: The Collection In Context". Asia society museum. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- Pottery - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. "The pottery of the Yayoi culture (c. 300 BC – AD c. 250), made by a Mongol people who came from Korea to Kyūshū, has been found throughout Japan. "
- "Kanji". Japan guide. 2010-11-25. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- Noma, Seiroku (2003). The Arts of Japan: Late Medieval to Modern. Kodansha International. ISBN 978-4-7700-2978-2. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- "Japanese Art and Its Korean Secret". Kenyon. 2003-04-06. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- "Japanese Royal Tomb Opened to Scholars for First Time". National geographic. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- "Slavery". Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- Kiernan, Ben (2007). Blood and soil : a world history of genocide and extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10098-3.
- "Murder of Empress Myeongseong", Japan rape, Kim soft, 2002.
- Yi, Tae-jin (2005), 서울대이태진교수의동경대생들에게들려준한국사 : 메이지일본의한국침략사, ISBN 89-7626-999-3.
- "4. Korea, 1910–1945", The Encyclopedia of World History, Bartleby, 2001dead link
- "Korea". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31.
- "Japan News and Japanese Business and Economy". Asia Times (online ed.). 2005-03-10. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- "March 1st Movement". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1919-03-01. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- "Statistics of Japanese Genocide And Mass Murder". Hawaii. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- 山脇 Yamawaki, 啓造 Keizo (1994), 近代日本と外国人労働者―1890年代後半と1920年代前半における中国人・朝鮮人労働者問題 Modern Japan and Foreign Laborers: Chinese and Korean Labourers in the late 1890s and early 1920s, et al, 明石書店 Akashi-shoten, ISBN 978-4-7503-0568-4.
- Gruhl, Werner (2007). Imperial Japan's World War Two: 1931–1945. Transaction Publishers. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-4128-0926-9.
- Yoshiaki, Yoshimi (2001) [岩波書店, 1995], Comfort Women. Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military During World War II, O’Brien, Suzanne transl, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-4-00-430384-8.
- "Japanese comfort women ruling overturned". CNN. March 29, 2001.dead link
- "Comfort Women". Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- Kono, Yohei (1993-08-04). "Statement by the Chief Cabinet Secretary on the result of the study on the issue of "comfort women"". MOFA. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- "Koreans in Japan: Past and Present". HAN. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- "Gyeongbok Palace". Seoul City. South Korea: Life in Korea. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- Itoi, Kay; Lee, BJ (2007-10-17). "Korea: A tussle over treasures — Who rightfully owns Korean artifacts looted by Japan?". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-06-06.
- "Who rightfully owns Korean artifacts looted by Japan?", Newsweek (MSNBC)dead link
- "日독도 영유권 교육강화 방침, 2005년에 이미 발표 :: 한국의 대표 진보언론 민중의소리". KR: Vop. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- "Japanese Periodicals in Colonial Korea". Columbia. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- "The Life Instability of Intermarried Japanese Women in Korea". USC. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- Lacina, Bethany; Gleditsch, Nils Petter (2005), "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths" (PDF), European Journal of Population 21: 145–66, doi:10.1007/s10680-005-6851-6.
- "Africa has to spend carefully", The Independent (leading article) (UK), 2006-07-13.
- World Economic Outlook Database, International Monetary Fund, October 2008, retrieved February 14, 2009dead link.
- Rummel, RJ (1997), "10. Statistics of North Korean Democide: Estimates, Calculations, and Sources", Statistics of Democide, Hawaii.
- Omestad, Thomas, "Gulag Nation", U.S. News & World Report, 23 June 2003.
- Spoorenberg, Thomas; Schwekendiek, Daniel, "Demographic Changes in North Korea: 1993–2008" (PDF), Population and Development Review (online ed.) (Wiley) 38 (1): 133–58, doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2012.00475.x.
- "In pictures: Korean shelling". News (UK: BBC). 2010-11-23.
- "Kim Jong Il meets Hyundai official". CNN (report). 2009-08-16.
- "Focus shifts to China as North Korea tensions escalate". Reuters. 2010-11-23.
- Korean Map, The People's Korea, 1998.
- "Korea's ethnic nationalism is a source of both pride and prejudice, according to Gi-Wook Shin". Aparc. Stanford. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- Glionna, John M. (2009-02-24), "Trying to teach South Korea about discrimination", The Los Angeles Times.
- Kim, Hyung-jin (2006-08-29). "No 'real' Chinatown in S. Korea, the result of xenophobic attitudes". Yonhap News. Retrieved 2006-12-08.
- "More Than 1 Million Foreigners Live in Korea". Chosun Ilbo. 2009-08-06. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
- "Korea, North". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- "Untouchables of Korea or: How to Discriminate the Illusive Paekjong?". University of Haifa, Department of Asian Studies
- "대한민국의 국호". Naver Encyclope].
- University of South Florida (2012), Celebrating women composers
- "Religion". About Korea. Korea. Archived from the original on July 31, 2008. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- "South Koreans". Japan to Mali. Every Culture. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- "Culture of South Korea". Every Culture. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- "Culture of North Korea". Every Culture. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- "North Korea: people". The World Factbook. US: CIA. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- "Korea, Republic of". International Religious Freedom Report. US: Department of State. 2008. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- "The Korea Times: Islam takes root and blooms". Islam awareness. 2002-11-22. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- "Data" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- Library of Congress country study, see p. 7 for Education and Literacy (Archived at WebCite)
- National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15-24) and elderly literacy rates (65+) Summary
- "Cultural Heritage, the source for Koreans' Strength and Dream". KR: Cha. Retrieved 2009-11-03.dead link
- Hawley, Samuel (2005). The Imjin War. Japan's Sixteenth-Century Invasion of Korea and Attempt to Conquer China. Seoul: The Royal Asiatic Society, Korea Branch. pp. 195f. ISBN 89-954424-2-5.
- Turnbull, Stephen (2002). Samurai Invasion. Japan’s Korean War 1592–98. London: Cassell & Co. p. 244. ISBN 0-304-35948-3.
- Roh, Young-koo (2004). "Yi Sun-shin, an Admiral Who Became a Myth" (PDF). The Review of Korean Studies (KR: AKS) 7 (3): 15–36.
- Castello-Cortes, Ian, ed. (1996), "North Korea", World Reference Atlas (2nd American ed.), New York: Dorling Kindersley, ISBN 0-7894-1085-0.
- Cumings, Bruce (1997), Korea's Place in the Sun, Norton, ISBN 0-393-31681-5
- Kim (1976), Women of Korea: A History from Ancient Times to 1945, et al., Ewha Women's University Press, ISBN 89-7300-116-7.
- "History", Korea, Asian Info.
- Top 500 list, CN: STJI, 2007
- "People", Facts, UMSL, 2005.
- Hussain, Tariq (2007-03-05), "The Korea Herald", The Korea Herald (Diamond dilemma).
- "Korea information", Korea Expat Community, WorknPlay.
- Mitchell, Richard H; Hicks, George (April 1997). "George Hicks. The Comfort Women: Japan's Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War". The American Historical Review (American Historical Association) 102 (2): 503. doi:10.2307/2170934. JSTOR 2170934. (Review of Hicks 1997).
- Chun, Tuk Chu. "Korea in the Pacific Community". Social Education 52 (March 1988), 182. EJ 368 177.
- Cumings, Bruce. The Two Koreas. New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1984.
- Focus On Asian Studies. Special Issue: "Korea: A Teacher's Guide". No. 1, Fall 1986.
- Shin, Gi-Wook (1999), Robinson, Michael, ed., Colonial modernity in Korea, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Asia Center, ISBN 0-674-14255-1.
- Hart, Dennis. From Tradition to Consumption: Construction of a Capitalist Culture in South Korea. Seoul: Jimoondang, 2003.
- Jager, Sheila Miyoshi (2013). Brothers at War - The Unending Conflict in Korea. London: Profile Books. ISBN 978-1-84668-067-0.
- Joe, W.J. & Choe, H.A. Traditional Korea: A Cultural History, Seoul: Hollym, 1997.
- Joungwon, A.K. Divided Korea: The Politics of Development, Harvard University Press, 1975.
- Lee Ki-baik. A New History of Korea. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1984.
- Lee Sang-sup. "The Arts and Literature of Korea". The Social Studies 79 (July–August 1988): 153–60. EJ 376 894.
- Tae-Jin, Y. "The Illegality of the Forced Treaties Leading to Japan's Annexation of the Great Han Empire", In the Korean National Commission for UNESCO, Vol. 36, No. 4, 1996.
- The Gloucestershire Regiment and The Battle of the Imjin River, Korean War, UK: Glosters.
- "How Does Korea Compare" (PDF), OECD Health Data (briefing note), Organisation For Economic Co-operation and Development, 2009.
|Look up Korea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- The Republic of Korea (official website)
- North Korea travel guide from Wikivoyage
- South Korea travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Korea at DMOZ
- Texts on Wikisource: