India claims the entire erstwhile princely state of Jammu and Kashmir based on an instrument of accession signed in 1947. Pakistan claims Jammu and Kashmir based on its majority Muslim population, whereas China claims the Shaksam Valley and Aksai Chin.
|Pakistan China||India Central Reserve Police Force|| Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front
|Commanders and leaders|
|General Raheel Sharif|| General Dalbir Singh Suhag
| Amanullah Khan
The Kashmir conflict (Hindi: कश्मीर विवाद — Kaśmīr Vivād, Urdu: مسئلۂ کشمیر — Masʾala-ē Kašmīr), is a major territorial dispute between the Government of India, Kashmiri insurgent groups and the Government of Pakistan over control of the Kashmir region. Although an interstate dispute over Kashmir has existed between India and Pakistan since the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947,2 there is also an internal conflict between Kashmiri insurgents—some in favour of Kashmiri accession to Pakistan and others seeking complete independence for the area.3
India and Pakistan have fought at least three wars over Kashmir, including the Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1947, 1965 and 1999. Furthermore, since 1984 the two countries have also been involved in several skirmishes over control of the Siachen Glacier. India claims the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir and as of 2010[update], administers approximately 43% of the region, including most of Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh, and the Siachen Glacier. India's claims are contested by Pakistan, which controls approximately 37% of Kashmir, namely Azad Kashmir and the northern areas of Gilgit Baltistan.45
The roots of the conflict between the Kashmiri insurgents and the Indian Government are tied to a dispute over local autonomy.6 Democratic development was limited in Kashmir until the late 1970s and by 1988 many of the democratic reforms provided by the Indian Government had been reversed. Non-violent channels for expressing discontent were thereafter limited and caused a dramatic increase in support for insurgents advocating violent secession from India.6 In 1987, a disputed state election7 created a catalyst for the insurgency when it resulted in some of the state's legislative assembly members forming armed insurgent groups.8910 In July 1988 a series of demonstrations, strikes and attacks on the Indian Government began the Kashmir Insurgency.
Although thousands of people have died as a result of the turmoil in Jammu and Kashmir,11 the conflict has become less deadly in recent years.1213 Protest movements created to voice Kashmir's disputes and grievances with the Indian government, specifically the Indian Military, have been active in Indian Administered Kashmir since 1989.1213 Elections held in 2008 were generally regarded as fair by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and had a high voter turnout in spite of calls by militants for a boycott. The election resulted in the creation of the pro-India Jammu & Kashmir National Conference, which then formed a government in the state.1415 According to Voice of America, many analysts have interpreted the high voter turnout in this election as a sign that the people of Kashmir endorsed Indian rule in the state.16 However Sajjad Lone, a prominent separatist leader in Kashmir, claims that "the high turnout should not be taken as a sign that Kashmiris no longer want independence.16 In 2009 and 2010 unrest erupted once more.
- 1 Timeline
- 2 Reasons behind the dispute
- 3 Human rights abuse
- 4 Map issues
- 5 Recent developments
- 6 Kashmir as a danger zone
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
According to folk etymology, the name "Kashmir" means "desiccated land" (from the Sanskrit: Ka = water and shimira = desiccate). The mid-12th century Rajatarangini, a history of Kashmir written by Kalhana, records that the valley of Kashmir was formerly a lake. Hindu mythology relates that the lake was drained by the saptarishi or sage, Kashyapa, son of Marichi, in turn the son of Brahma, who cut a gap in the hills at Baramulla (Varaha-mula). Once Kashmir had been drained, Kashyapa invited Brahmans to settle there. This remains the local tradition, and the physical geography of the territory suggests that it may have some basis in fact. Kashyapa is connected with the draining of the lake in traditional histories, with the chief town or collection of dwellings in the valley called Kashyapa-pura, which has been identified as Kaspapyros in Hecataeus (Apud Stephanus of Byzantium) and the Kaspatyros of Herodotus (3.102, 4.44).17 Kashmir is also believed to be the country indicated by Ptolemy's Kaspeiria.18
However, an earlier and well known recorded reference can be found in the writings of Hsien Tsang, a 6th Century Chinese Buddhist who referred to a state called 'Kash-mi-lo' that had existed in the 1st century.citation needed
The Pashtun Durrani Empire ruled Kashmir in the 18th century until its 1819 conquest by the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh. Following the First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846), Kashmir was ceded under the Treaty of Lahore to the East India Company, who sold it shortly afterwards through the Treaty of Amritsar to Gulab Singh, Raja of Jammu, who thereafter received the title Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. From then until the 1947 Partition of India, Kashmir was ruled by the Hindu Maharajas of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu, although the majority of the population were Muslim, except in the Jammu and Ladakh region. However, India which has a population five times larger than Pakistan has almost the same population of Muslims.19
British rule in India ended in 1947 with the creation of a new state: the Dominion of Pakistan alongside the Union of India, the successor state to British India, while British suzerainty over the 562 Indian princely states ended. According to the Indian Independence Act 1947, "the suzerainty of His Majesty over the Indian States lapses, and with it, all treaties and agreements in force at the date of the passing of this Act between His Majesty and the rulers of Indian States".20 States were thereafter left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of the princely states, had a predominantly Muslim population ruled by the Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh. Following partition, Pakistan had expected the annexation of Kashmir to its terrirory.
Hari Singh, the maharaja of Kashmir, initially believed that by delaying his decision he could maintain the independence of Kashmir, but, caught up in a train of events that included a revolution among his Muslim subjects along the western borders of the state and the intervention of Pashtun tribesmen, he signed an instrument of accession on 25 October 194721 to the Indian union. This was the signal for intervention both by Pakistan, which considered the state to be a natural extension of Pakistan, and by India, which intended to confirm the act of accession.22
After rumours that the Maharaja supported the annexation of Kashmir by India, militant Muslims from western Kashmir22 and Pakistani tribesmen made rapid advances into the Baramulla sector. Maharaja of Kashmir Hari Singh asked the government of India to intervene. However, India and Pakistan had signed a non-intervention agreement. Although tribal fighters from Pakistan had entered Jammu and Kashmir, there was no solid legal evidence to unequivocally prove that Pakistan was officially involved.citation needed It would have been illegal for India to unilaterally intervene in an open, official capacity unless Jammu and Kashmir officially joined the Union of India, at which point it would be possible to send in its forces and occupy the remaining parts.
By the time Pakistani tribesmen reached the outskirts of Srinagar, the Maharaja desperately needed military assistance. Before the tribesmen's arrived, India argued that the Maharaja must complete negotiations to cede Jammu and Kashmir to India in exchange for military aid. The subsequent cession agreement was signed by the Maharaja and Lord Mountbatten of Burma. In Jammu and Kashmir, National Conference volunteers worked with the Indian Army to drive out the Pakistanis.23
The resulting First Kashmir War lasted until 1948, when India sought resolution of the issue at the UN Security Council. Sheikh Abdullah was not in favour of India seeking UN intervention because he was sure the Indian Army could free the entire state from invaders.23 Following the set-up of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP), the UN Security Council passed Resolution 47 on 21 April 1948. The measure imposed an immediate cease-fire and called on the Government of Pakistan 'to secure the withdrawal from the state of Jammu and Kashmir of tribesmen and Pakistani nationals not normally resident therein who have entered the state for the purpose of fighting.' It also asked Government of India to reduce its forces to minimum strength, after which the circumstances for holding a plebiscite should be put into effect 'on the question of Accession of the state to India or Pakistan.'24 However, both India and Pakistan failed to arrive at a truce agreement due to differences over interpretation of the procedure for and the extent of demilitarisation. One sticking point was whether the Azad Kashmiri army was to be disbanded during the truce stage or at the plebiscite stage.25
In November 1948, although both the Indian and Pakistani governments agreed to hold the plebiscite, the failure of Pakistan to withdraw its troops from Kashmir was a violation of the agreed conditions for holding it and the process stalled.26 Furthermore, the Indian Government distanced itself from its previous commitment to hold a plebiscite.26 India then proposed that Pakistan withdraw all its troops first, calling it a precondition for a plebiscite. Pakistan rejected the proposal on the grounds that the Kashmiris would be unable to vote freely in the presence of the Indian army and in the light of the friendship between Sheikh Abdullah and Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. However, Pakistan proposed simultaneous withdrawal of all troops followed by a plebiscite under international aegis, which India rejected.27 As a result Pakistani forces did not unilaterally withdraw.28 Over the next few years, the UN Security Council passed four new resolutions, revising the terms of Resolution 47 to include a synchronous withdrawal of both Indian and Pakistani troops from the region on the recommendations of General Andrew McNaughton. To this end, UN arbitrators put forward 11 different proposals for the demilitarisation of the region. All of these were accepted by Pakistan, but rejected by the Indian government.29 The resolutions were passed by the United Nations Security Council under Chapter VI of the United Nations Charter30 and as such are considered non-binding with no mandatory enforceability, as opposed to resolutions passed under Chapter VII.31
In 1962, troops from the People's Republic of China and India clashed in territory claimed by both. China won a swift victory in the war, resulting in Chinese annexation of the region they call Aksai Chin and which has continued since then. Another smaller area, the Trans-Karakoram, was demarcated as the Line of Control (LOC) between China and Pakistan, although some of the territory on the Chinese side is claimed by India to be part of Kashmir. The line that separates India from China in this region is known as the "Line of Actual Control".32
In 1965 and 1971, heavy fighting again broke out between India and Pakistan. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 resulted in the defeat of Pakistan and the Pakistani military's surrender in East Pakistan, leading to the creation of Bangladesh. The Simla Agreement, signed in 1972 between India and Pakistan, allowed both countries to settle all issues by peaceful means through mutual discussion within the framework of the UN Charter.
|“||In the years since 1990, the Kashmiri Muslims and the Indian government have conspired to abolish the complexities of Kashmiri civilization. The world it inhabited has vanished: the state government and the political class, the rule of law, almost all the Hindu inhabitants of the valley, alcohol, cinemas, cricket matches, picnics by moonlight in the saffron fields, schools, universities, an independent press, tourists and banks. In this reduction of civilian reality, the sights of Kashmir are redefined: not the lakes and Mogul gardens, or the storied triumphs of Kashmiri agriculture, handicrafts and cookery, but two entities that confront each other without intermediary: the mosque and the army camp.||”|
In 1989, a widespread popular and armed insurgency3435 started in Kashmir. After the 1987 state legislative assembly election, some of the results were disputed. This resulted in the formation of militant wings and marked the beginning of the Mujahadeen insurgency, which continues to this day.36 India contends that the insurgency was largely started by Afghan mujahadeen who entered the Kashmir valley following the end of the Soviet-Afghan War.37 Yasin Malik, a leader of one faction of the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front, was one of the Kashmiris to organise militancy in Kashmir, along with Ashfaq Majid Wani and Farooq Ahmad Dar (alias Bitta Karatay). Since 1995, Malik has renounced the use of violence and calls for strictly peaceful methods to resolve the dispute. Malik developed differences with one of the senior leaders, Farooq Siddiqui (alias Farooq Papa), for shunning demands for an independent Kashmir and trying to cut a deal with the Indian Prime Minister. This resulted in a spilt in which Bitta Karatay, Salim Nanhaji, and other senior comrades joined Farooq Papa.3839 Pakistan claims these insurgents are Jammu and Kashmir citizens, and are rising up against the Indian army as part of an independence movement. Amnesty International has accused security forces in Indian-controlled Kashmir of exploiting the Public Safety Act that enables them to "hold prisoners without trial". The group argues that the law, which allows security forces to detain individuals for up to two years without presenting charges violates prisoners' human rights.4041 In 2011, the state humans right commission said it had evidence that 2,156 bodies had been buried in 40 graves over the last 20 years.41 The authorities deny such accusations. The security forces say the unidentified dead are militants who may have originally come from outside India. They also say that many of the missing people have crossed into Pakistan-administered Kashmir to engage in militancy.41 However, according to the state human rights commission, among the identified bodies 574 were those of "disappeared locals", and according to Amnesty International's annual human rights report (2012) it was sufficient for "belying the security forces' claim that they were militants".42
India claims these insurgents are Islamic terrorist groups from Pakistan-administered Kashmir and Afghanistan, fighting to make Jammu and Kashmir a part of Pakistan.4143 They claim Pakistan supplies munitions to the terrorists and trains them in Pakistan. India states that the terrorists have killed many citizens in Kashmir and committed human rights violations whilst denying that their own armed forces are responsible for human rights abuses. On a visit to Pakistan in 2006, current Chief Minister of Kashmir Omar Abdullah remarked that foreign militants were engaged in reckless killings and mayhem in the name of religion.44 The Indian government has said militancy is now on the decline.when?13
The Pakistani government calls these insurgents "Kashmiri freedom fighters", and claims that it provides them only moral and diplomatic support, although India45 believes they are Pakistan-supported terrorists from Pakistan Administered Kashmir. In October 2008, President Asif Ali Zardari of Pakistan called the Kashmir separatists "terrorists" in an interview with The Wall Street Journal.46 These comments sparked outrage amongst many Kashmiris, some of whom defied a curfew imposed by the Indian army to burn him in effigy.47
In 2008, pro-separatist leader Mirwaiz Umar Farooq told the Washington Post that there has been a "purely indigenous, purely Kashmiri"12 peaceful protest movement alongside the insurgency in Indian-administered Kashmir since 1989. The movement was created for the same reason as the insurgency and began after the disputed election of 1987. According to the United Nations, the Kashmiris have grievances with the Indian government, specifically the Indian Military, which has committed human rights violations, .121348
In a 'Letter to American People' written by Osama bin Laden in 2002, he stated that one of the reasons he was fighting America was because of its support for India on the Kashmir issue.4950 While on a trip to Delhi in 2002, US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld suggested that Al-Qaeda was active in Kashmir, though he did not have any hard evidence.5152 An investigation by a Christian Science Monitor reporter in 2002 claimed to have unearthed evidence that Al-Qaeda and its affiliates were prospering in Pakistan-administered Kashmir with tacit approval of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence agency (ISI).53 In 2002, a team comprising Special Air Service and Delta Force personnel was sent into Indian-administered Kashmir to hunt for Osama bin Laden after reports that he was being sheltered by the Kashmiri militant group Harkat-ul-Mujahideen.54 US officials believed that Al-Qaeda was helping organise a campaign of terror in Kashmir to provoke conflict between India and Pakistan. Their strategy was to force Pakistan to move its troops to the border with India, thereby relieving pressure on Al-Qaeda elements hiding in northwestern Pakistan. US intelligence analysts say Al-Qaeda and Taliban operatives in Pakistan-administered Kashmir are helping terrorists trained in Afghanistan to infiltrate Indian-administered Kashmir.55 Fazlur Rehman Khalil, the leader of the Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, signed al-Qaeda's 1998 declaration of holy war, which called on Muslims to attack all Americans and their allies.56 In 2006 Al-Qaeda claim they have established a wing in Kashmir, which worried the Indian government.57 Indian Army Lieutenant General H.S. Panag, GOC-in-C Northern Command, told reporters that the army has ruled out the presence of Al-Qaeda in Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir. He said that there no evidence to verify media reports of an Al-Qaeda presence in the state. He ruled out Al-Qaeda ties with the militant groups in Kashmir including Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed. However, he stated that they had information about Al Qaeda's strong ties with Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed operations in Pakistan.58 While on a visit to Pakistan in January 2010, US Defense secretary Robert Gates stated that Al-Qaeda was seeking to destabilise the region and planning to provoke a nuclear war between India and Pakistan.59
In June 2011, a US Drone strike killed Ilyas Kashmiri, chief of Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami, a Kashmiri militant group associated with Al-Qaeda.6061 Kashmiri was described by Bruce Riedel as a 'prominent' Al-Qaeda member,62 while others described him as the head of military operations for Al-Qaeda.63 Waziristan had by then become the new battlefield for Kashmiri militants fighting NATO in support of Al-Qaeda.64 Ilyas Kashmiri was charged by the US in a plot against Jyllands-Posten, the Danish newspaper at the center of the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy.65 In April 2012, Farman Ali Shinwari a former member of Kashmiri separatist groups Harkat-ul-Mujahideen and Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami, was appointed chief of al-Qaeda in Pakistan.66
In mid-1999, insurgents and Pakistani soldiers from Pakistani Kashmir infiltrated Jammu and Kashmir. During the winter season, Indian forces regularly move down to lower altitudes, as severe climatic conditions makes it almost impossible for them to guard the high peaks near the Line of Control. The insurgents took advantage of this and occupied vacant mountain peaks in the Kargil range overlooking the highway in Indian Kashmir that connects Srinagar and Leh. By blocking the highway, they could cut off the only link between the Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. This resulted in a large-scale conflict between the Indian and Pakistani armies.
Fears of the Kargil War turning into a nuclear war provoked the then-United States President Bill Clinton to pressure Pakistan to retreat. The Pakistan Army withdrew their remaining troops from the area, ending the conflict. India reclaimed control of the peaks, which they now patrol and monitor all year long.
The Kashmir Conflict arose from the Partition of British India in 1947 into modern India and Pakistan. Both countries subsequently made claims to Kashmir, based on the history and religious affiliations of the Kashmiri people. The princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, which lies strategically in the north-west of the subcontinent bordering Afghanistan and China, was formerly ruled by Maharaja Hari Singh under the paramountcy of British India. In geographical and legal terms, the Maharaja could have joined either of the two new countries. Although urged by the Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten of Burma, to determine the future of his state before the transfer of power took place, Singh demurred. In October 1947, incursions by Pakistan took place leading to a war, as a result of which the state of Jammu and Kashmir remains divided between India and Pakistan.
|Administered by||Area||Population||% Muslim||% Hindu||% Buddhist||% Other|
|India||Kashmir valley||~4 million||95%||4%||–||–|
|Pakistan||Northern Areas||~1 million||99%||–||–||–|
|Azad Kashmir||~2.6 million||100%||–||–||–|
Two-thirds of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, comprising Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, and the sparsely populated Buddhist area of Ladakh are controlled by India while one-third is administered by Pakistan. The latter includes a narrow strip of land called Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas, comprising the Gilgit Agency, Baltistan, and the former kingdoms of Hunza and Nagar. Attempts to resolve the dispute through political discussions have been unsuccessful. In September 1965, war again broke out between Pakistan and India. The United Nations called for another cease-fire, and peace was restored following the Tashkent Declaration in 1966, by which both nations returned to their original positions along the demarcated line. After the 1971 war and the creation of independent Bangladesh under the terms of the 1972 Simla Agreement between Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of India and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan, it was agreed that neither country would seek to alter the cease-fire line in Kashmir, which was renamed as the Line of Control, "unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations".
Numerous violations of the Line of Control have occurred, including incursions by insurgents and Pakistani armed forces at Kargil leading to the Kargil war. There have also been sporadic clashes on the Siachen Glacier, where the Line of Control is not demarcated and both countries maintain forces at altitudes rising to 20,000 ft (6,100 m), with the Indian forces serving at higher altitudes.
India has officially stated that it believes that Kashmir to be an integral part of India, though the then Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, stated after the 2010 Kashmir Unrest that his government was willing to grant autonomy to the region within the purview of Indian constitution if there was consensusby whom? on this issue.69 The Indian viewpoint is succinctly summarised by Ministry of External affairs, Government of India7071 —
- India holds that the Instrument of Accession of the State of Jammu and Kashmir to the Union of India, signed by Maharaja Hari Singh (erstwhile ruler of the State) on 25 October 19477273 and executed on 27 October 194773 between the ruler of Kashmir and the Governor General of India was a legal act and completely valid in terms of the Government of India Act (1935), Indian Independence Act (1947) as well as under international law and as such was total and irrevocable.71
- The Constituent assembly of Jammu and Kashmir had unanimously ratified the Maharaja's Instrument of Accession to India and adopted a constitution for the state that called for a perpetual merger of Jammu and Kashmir with the Union of India. India claims that the constituent assembly was a representative one, and that its views were those of the Kashmiri people at the time.7475
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1172 tacitly accepts India's stand regarding all outstanding issues between India and Pakistan and urges the need to resolve the dispute through mutual dialogue without the need for a plebiscite.76
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 cannot be implemented since Pakistan failed to withdraw its forces from Kashmir, which was the first step in implementing the resolution.28 India is also of the view that Resolution 47 is obsolete, since the geography and demographics of the region have permanently altered since it adoption.77 The resolution was passed by United Nations Security Council under Chapter VI of the United Nations Charter and as such is non-binding with no mandatory enforceability, as opposed to resolutions passed under Chapter VII.3031
- India does not accept the two-nation theory that forms the basis of Pakistan's claims and considers that Kashmir, despite being a Muslim-majority state, is in many ways an "integral part" of secular India.67
- The state of Jammu and Kashmir was provided with significant autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India.78
- All differences between India and Pakistan, including Kashmir, need to be settled through bilateral negotiations as agreed to by the two countries under the Simla Agreement signed on 2 July 1972.79
Additional Indian viewpoints regarding the broader debate over the Kashmir conflict include –
- In a diverse country like India, disaffection and discontent are not uncommon. Indian democracy has the necessary resilience to accommodate genuine grievances within the framework of India's sovereignty, unity, and integrity. The Government of India has expressed its willingness to accommodate the legitimate political demands of the people of the state of Kashmir.70
- Insurgency and terrorism in Kashmir is deliberately fuelled by Pakistan to create instability in the region.80 The Government of India has repeatedly accused Pakistan of waging a proxy war in Kashmir by providing weapons and financial assistance to terrorist groups in the region.81828384
- Pakistan is trying to raise anti-India sentiment among the people of Kashmir by spreading false propaganda against India.85 According to the state government of Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistani radio and television channels deliberately spread "hate and venom" against India to alter Kashmiri opinion.86
- India has asked the United Nations not to leave unchallenged or unaddressed the claims of moral, political, and diplomatic support for terrorism, which were clearly in contravention of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373. This is a Chapter VII resolution that makes it mandatory for member states to not provide active or passive support to terrorist organisations.8788 Specifically, it has pointed out that the Pakistani government continues to support various terrorist organisations, such as Jaish-e-Mohammad and Lashkar-e-Taiba, in direct violation of this resolution.89
- India points out reports by human rights organisations condemning Pakistan for the lack of civic liberties in Pakistan-administered Kashmir.8590 According to India, most regions of Pakistani Kashmir, especially Northern Areas, continue to suffer from lack of political recognition, economic development, and basic fundamental rights.91
- Karan Singh, the son of the last ruler of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu, has said that the Instrument of Accession signed by his father was the same as signed by other states. He opined that Kashmir was therefore a part of India, and that its special status granted by Article 370 of the Indian Constitution stemmed from the fact that it had its own constitution.92
In 2008, the death toll from the last 20 years was estimated by Indian authorities to be over 47,000.93
Pakistan maintains that Kashmir is the "jugular vein of Pakistan"94 and a currently disputed territory whose final status must be determined by the people of Kashmir. Pakistan's claims to the disputed region are based on the rejection of Indian claims to Kashmir, namely the Instrument of Accession. Pakistan insists that the Maharaja was not a popular leader, and was regarded as a tyrant by most Kashmiris. Pakistan maintains that the Maharaja used brute force to suppress the population.95
Pakistan claims that Indian forces were in Kashmir before the Instrument of Accession was signed with India, and that therefore Indian troops were in Kashmir in violation of the Standstill Agreement, which was designed to maintain the status quo in Kashmir (although India was not signatory to the Agreement, which was signed between Pakistan and the Hindu ruler of Jammu and Kashmir).9697
From 1990 to 1999, some organisations reported that the Indian Armed Forces, its paramilitary groups, and counter-insurgent militias were responsible for the deaths of 4,501 Kashmiri civilians. During the same period, there were records of 4,242 women between the ages of 7–70 being raped.9899 Similar allegations were also made by some human rights organisations.100
In short, Pakistan holds that –
- The popular Kashmiri insurgency demonstrates that the Kashmiri people no longer wish to remain within India. Pakistan suggests that this means that Kashmir either wants to be with Pakistan or independent.101
- According to the two-nation theory, one of the theories that is cited for the partition that created India and Pakistan, Kashmir should have been with Pakistan, because it has a Muslim majority.
- India has shown disregard for the resolutions of the UN Security Council and the United Nations Commission in India and Pakistan by failing to hold a plebiscite to determine the future allegiance of the state.102
- Pakistan was of the view that the Maharaja of Kashmir had no right to call in the Indian Army, because it held that the Maharaja of Kashmir was not a hereditary ruler and was merely a British appointee, after the British defeated Ranjit Singh who ruled the area before the British conquest.103
- Pakistan has noted the widespread use of extrajudicial killings in Indian-administered Kashmir carried out by Indian security forces while claiming they were caught up in encounters with militants. These encounters are commonplace in Indian-administered Kashmir. The encounters go largely uninvestigated by the authorities, and the perpetrators are spared criminal prosecution.104105
- The Chenab formula was a compromise proposed in the 1960s, in which the Kashmir valley and other Muslim-dominated areas north of the Chenab river would go to Pakistan, and Jammu and other Hindu-dominated regions would go to India.109
Former Pakistani president General Pervez Musharraf on 16th October 2014 said that Pakistan needs to incite those fighting in Kashmir,110111“We have source (in Kashmir) besides the (Pakistan) army…People in Kashmir are fighting against (India). We just need to incite them,” Musharraf told a TV channel.112113
A survey carried out across both Jammu and Kashmir and Pakistan-occupied Kashmir by London-based thinktank Chatham House, its author claims 'is the first ever of its kind', shows that only 2% of the respondents on the Indian side favour joining Pakistan.114
- China did not accept the boundaries of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu, north of Aksai Chin and the Karakoram as proposed by the British.22
- China settled its border disputes with Pakistan under the 1963 Trans Karakoram Tract with the provision that the settlement was subject to the final solution of the Kashmir dispute.115
The border and the Line of Control separating Indian and Pakistani Kashmir passes through some exceptionally difficult terrain. The world's highest battleground, the Siachen Glacier, is a part of this difficult-to-man boundary. Even with 200,000 military personnel,116 India maintains that it is infeasible to place enough men to guard all sections of the border throughout the various seasons of the year. Pakistan has indirectly acquiesced its role in failing to prevent "cross-border terrorism" when it agreed to curb such activities117 after intense pressure from the Bush administration in mid-2002.
The Government of Pakistan has repeatedly claimed that by constructing a fence along the line of control, India is violating the Shimla Accord. India claims the construction of the fence has helped decrease armed infiltration into Indian-administered Kashmir.
Another reason for the dispute over Kashmir is water. Kashmir is the source of many rivers and tributaries in the Indus River basin. This basin is divided between Pakistan, which has about 60 percent of the catchment area, India with about 20 percent, Afghanistan with 5 percent and around 15 percent in China (Tibet autonomous region). The river tributaries are the Jhelum and Chenab rivers, which primarily flow into Pakistan, while other branches—the Ravi, Beas, and the Sutlej—irrigate northern India.
The Indus is a river system that sustains communities in India and Pakistan. Both have extensively dammed the Indus River for irrigation of their crops and hydro-electricity systems. In arbitrating the conflict in 1947, Sir Cyril Radcliffe, decided to demarcate the territories as he was unable to give to one or the other the control over the river as it was a main economic resource for both areas. The Line of Control (LoC) was recognised as an international border establishing that India would have control over the upper riparian and Pakistan over the lower riparian of the Indus and its tributaries. Despite appearing to be separate issues, the Kashmir dispute and the dispute over the water control are in reality related and the fight over the water remains one of the main problems in establishing good relations between the two countries.
In 1948, Eugene Black, then president of the World Bank, offered his services to solve the tension over water control. In the early days of independence, the fact that India was able to shut off the Central Bari Doab Canals at the time of the sowing season, causing significant damage to Pakistan's crops. Nevertheless, military and political clashes over Kashmir in the early years of independence appear to have been more about ideology and sovereignty rather than over the sharing of water resources. However, the minister of Pakistan has stated the opposite.118
The Indus Waters Treaty was signed by both countries in September 1960, giving exclusive rights over the three western rivers of the Indus river system (Jhelum, Chenab and Indus) to Pakistan, and over the three eastern rivers (Sutlej, Ravi and Beas) to India, as long as this does not reduce or delay the supply to Pakistan. India therefore maintains that they are not willing to break the established regulations and they see no more problems with this issue.
India has furnished documentary evidence to the United Nations that Pakistan supports Kashmiri militants, leading to a ban on some terrorist organisations, which Pakistan has yet to enforce.citation needed Former President of Pakistan and the ex-chief of the Pakistan military Pervez Musharraf, stated in an interview in London, that the Pakistani government indeed helped to form underground militant groups and "turned a blind eye" towards their existence.119
According to former Indian Prime-minister Manmohan Singh, one of the main reasons behind the conflict was Pakistan's "terror-induced coercion". He further stated at a Joint Press Conference with United States President Barack Obama in New Delhi that India is not afraid of resolving all the issues with Pakistan including that of Kashmir "but it is our request that you cannot simultaneously be talking and at the same time the terror machine is as active as ever before. Once Pakistan moves away from this terror-induced coercion, we will be very happy to engage productively with Pakistan to resolve all outstanding issues."120
In 2009, the President of Pakistan Asif Zardari asserted at a conference in Islamabad that Pakistan had indeed created Islamic militant groups as a strategic tool for use in its geostrategic agenda and "to attack Indian forces in Jammu and Kashmir".121 Former President of Pakistan and the ex-chief of the Pakistan military Pervez Musharraf also stated in an interview that Pakistani government helped to form underground militant groups to fight against Indian troops in Jammu and Kashmir and "turned a blind eye" towards their existence because it wanted to force India to enter negotiations.119 The British Government have formally accepted that there is a clear connection between Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and three major militant outfits operating in Jammu and Kashmir, Lashkar-e-Tayiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed and Harkat-ul-Mujahideen.122123 The militants are provided with "weapons, training, advice and planning assistance" in Punjab and Kashmir by the ISI which is "coordinating the shipment of arms from the Pakistani side of Kashmir to the Indian side, where Muslim insurgents are waging a protracted war".124125
Throughout the 1990s, the ISI maintained its relationship with extremist networks and militants that it had established during the Afghan war to utilise in its campaign against Indian forces in Kashmir.126 Joint Intelligence/North (JIN) has been accused of conducting operations in Jammu and Kashmir and also Afghanistan.127 The Joint Signal Intelligence Bureau (JSIB) provide communications support to groups in Kashmir.127 According to Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, both former members of the National Security Council, the ISI acted as a "kind of terrorist conveyor belt" radicalising young men in the Madrassas of Pakistan and delivering them to training camps affiliated with or run by Al-Qaeda and from there moving them into Jammu and Kashmir to launch attacks.128
Reportedly, about Rs. 24 million are paid out per month by the ISI to fund its activities in Jammu and Kashmir.129 Pro-Pakistani groups were reportedly favoured over other militant groups.129 Creation of six militant groups in Kashmir, which included Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), was aided by the ISI.130131 According to American Intelligence officials, ISI is still providing protection and help to LeT.131 The Pakistan Army and ISI also LeT volunteers to surreptitiously penetrate from Pakistan Administrated Kashmir to Jammu and Kashmir.132
In the past, Indian authorities have alleged several times that Pakistan has been involved in training and arming underground militant groups to fight Indian forces in Kashmir.133
Claims of human rights abuses have been made against the Indian Armed Forces and armed insurgents operating in Jammu and Kashmir.134 Since 1989, over 50,000 (by some reports nearly 100,000) Kashmiris are claimed to have died during the conflict.135 Some human rights organisations have alleged that Indian Security forces have killed hundreds of Kashmiris through the indiscriminate use of force and torture, firing on demonstrations, custodial killings, encounters and detensions.136137138139 The government of India denied that torture was widespread137 and stated that some custodial crimes may have taken place but that "these are few and far between".137 According to one human rights report in Kashmir there have been more than three hundred cases of "disappearances" since 1990.140141142 State Human Rights Commission (SHRC) has found 2,730 bodies buried into unmarked graves scattered all over Kashmir believed to contain the remains of victims of unlawful killings and enforced disappearances by Indian security forces.143144145 SHRC stated that about 574 of these bodies have already been identified as those of disappeared locals.146 SHRC also accused Indian army of forced labour.147 According to cables leaked by the WikiLeaks website, US diplomats in 2005 were informed by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) about the use of torture and sexual humiliation against hundreds of Kashmiri detainees by the security forces.148 The cable said Indian security forces relied on torture for confessions and that the human right abuses are believed to be condoned by the Indian government.149 In 2012, the Jammu and Kashmir State government stripped its State Information Commission (SIC) department of most powers after the commission asked the government to disclose information about the unmarked graves. This state action was reportedly denounced by the former National Chief Information Commissioner.150 A state government inquiry into the 22 October 1993 Bijbehara killings, in which the Indian military fired on a procession and killed 40 people and injured 150, found out that the firing by the forces was 'unprovoked' and the claim of the military that it was in retaliation was 'concocted and baseless'. However, the accused are still to be punished.151
According to a report by Human Rights Watch,
"Indian security forces have assaulted civilians during search operations, tortured and summarily executed detainees in custody and murdered civilians in reprisal attacks. Rape most often occurs during crackdowns, cordon-and-search operations during which men are held for identification in parks or schoolyards while security forces search their homes. In these situations, the security forces frequently engage in collective punishment against the civilian population, most frequently by beating or otherwise assaulting residents, and burning their homes. Rape is used as a means of targetting women whom the security forces accuse of being militant sympathizers; in raping them, the security forces are attempting to punish and humiliate the entire community."152
The allegation of mass rape incidents as well as forced disappearances are reflected in a Kashmiri short documentary film by an Independent Kashmiri film-maker, the Ocean of Tears produced by a non-governmental non-profit organisation called the Public Service Broadcasting Trust of India and approved by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India). The film also depicts mass rape incidents in Kunan Poshpora and Shopian as facts and alleging that Indian Security Forces were responsible.153154 A report from the Indian Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) claimed that the seven people killed in 2000 by the Indian military, were innocent civilians.155156157 The Indian Army has decided to try the accused in the General Court Martial.158 It was also reported that the killings that were allegedly committed in "cold-blood" by the Army, were actually in retaliation for the murder of 36 civilians [Sikhs] by militants at Chattisingpora in 2000.158 The official stance of the Indian Army was that, according to its own investigation, 97% of the reports about human rights abuses have been found to be "fake or motivated".159 However, there have been at least one case where civilians have been killed in 'fake encounters' by Indian army personnel for cash rewards.160
|“||"Our people were killed. I saw a girl tortured with cigarette butts. Another man had his eyes pulled out and his body hung on a tree. The armed separatists used a chainsaw to cut our bodies into pieces. It wasn't just the killing but the way they tortured and killed."||”|
—A crying old Kashmiri Hindu in refugee camps of Jammu told BBC news reporter161
The violence was condemned and labelled as ethnic cleansing in a 2006 resolution passed by the United States Congress.162 It stated that the Islamic terrorists infiltrated the region in 1989 and began an ethnic cleansing campaign to convert Kashmir into a Muslim state. According to the same resolution, since then nearly 400,000 Pandits were either murdered or forced to leave their ancestral homes.163
According to a Hindu American Foundation report, the rights and religious freedom of Kashmiri Hindus have been severely curtailed since 1989, when there was an organised and systematic campaign by Islamist militants to cleanse Hindus from Kashmir. Less than 4,000 Kashmiri Hindus remain in the valley, reportedly living with daily threats of violence and terrorism.164
According to an op-ed published in a BBC journal, the emphasis of the movement after 1989, ″soon shifted from nationalism to Islam.″ It also claimed that the minority community of Kashmiri Pandits, who have lived in Kashmir for centuries, were forced to leave their homeland.161
The displaced Pandits, many of who continue to live in temporary refugee camps in Jammu and Delhi, are still unable to safely return to their homeland.164 The lead in this act of ethnic cleansing was initially taken by the Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front and the Hizbul Mujahideen. According to Indian media, all this happened at the instigation of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) by a group of Kashmiri terrorist elements who were trained, armed and motivated by the ISI. Reportedly, organisations trained and armed by the ISI continued this ethnic cleansing until practically all the Kashmiri Pandits were driven out after having been subjected to numerous indignities and brutalities such as rape of their women, torture, forcible seizure of property etc.165 The separatists in Kashmir deny these allegations. The Indian government is also trying to reinstate the displaced Pandits in Kashmir. Tahir, the district commander of a separatist Islamic group in Kashmir, stated: "We want the Kashmiri Pandits to come back. They are our brothers. We will try to protect them." But the majority of the Pandits, who have been living in pitiable conditions in Jammu, believe that, until insurgency ceases to exist, return is not possible.161
Mustafa Kamal, brother of Union Minister Farooq Abdullah, blamed security forces, former Jammu and Kashmir governor Jagmohan and PDP leader Mufti Sayeed for forcing the migration of Kashmiri Pandits from the Valley.166 Jagmohan denies these allegations.161
Reports by the Indian government state 219 Kashmiri pandits were killed and around 140,000 migrated due to millitancy while over 3000 remained in the valley.167168 The local organisation of pandits in Kashmir, Kashmir Pandit Sangharsh Samiti claimed that 399 Kashmiri Pandits were killed by insurgents.169170
The CIA has reported that at least 506,000 people from Indian Administered Kashmir are internally displaced, about half of who are Hindu Pandits.171172 The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCR) reports that there are roughly 1.5 million refugees from Indian-administered Kashmir, the bulk of who arrived in Pakistan-administered Kashmir and in Pakistan after the situation on the Indian side worsened in 1989 insurgency.173
Médecins Sans Frontières conducted a research survey in 2005 that found 11.6% of the interviewees who took part had been victims of sexual abuse since 1989.174175 Some surveys have found that in the Kashmir region itself (where the bulk of separatist and Indian military activity is concentrated), popular perception holds that the Indian Armed Forces are more to blame for human rights violations than the separatist groups. Amnesty International has called on India to "unequivocally condemn enforced disappearances" and to ensure that impartial investigations are conducted into mass graves in its Kashmir region. The Indian state police confirms as many as 331 deaths while in custody and 111 enforced disappearances since 1989.176177178179 Amnesty International criticised the Indian Military regarding an incident on 22 April 1996, when several armed forces personnel forcibly entered the house of a 32-year-old woman in the village of Wawoosa in the Rangreth district of Jammu and Kashmir. They reportedly molested her 12-year-old daughter and raped her other three daughters, aged 14, 16, and 18. When another woman attempted to prevent the soldiers from attacking her two daughters, she was beaten. Soldiers reportedly told her 17-year-old daughter to remove her clothes so that they could check whether she was hiding a gun. They molested her before leaving the house.179
Several international agencies and the UN have reported human rights violations in Indian-administered Kashmir. In a recent press release the OHCHR spokesmen stated "The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights is concerned about the recent violent protests in Indian-administered Kashmir that have reportedly led to civilian casualties as well as restrictions to the right to freedom of assembly and expression."48 A 1996 Human Rights Watch report accuses the Indian military and Indian-government backed paramilitaries of "committ[ing] serious and widespread human rights violations in Kashmir."180 One such alleged massacre occurred on 6 January 1993 in the town of Sopore. TIME Magazine described the incident as such: "In retaliation for the killing of one soldier, paramilitary forces rampaged through Sopore's market, setting buildings ablaze and shooting bystanders. The Indian government pronounced the event 'unfortunate' and claimed that an ammunition dump had been hit by gunfire, setting off fires that killed most of the victims."181 There have been claims of disappearances by the police or the army in Kashmir by several human rights organisations.182183 Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act, 1978:184185 Human rights organisations have asked Indian government to repeal186 the Public Safety Act, since "a detainee may be held in administrative detention for a maximum of two years without a court order."177
Many human rights organisations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch (HRW) have condemned human rights abuses in Kashmir by Indians such as "extra-judicial executions", "disappearances", and torture.178 The "Armed Forces Special Powers Act" grants the military, wide powers of arrest, the right to shoot to kill, and to occupy or destroy property in counterinsurgency operations. Indian officials claim that troops need such powers because the army is only deployed when national security is at serious risk from armed combatants. Such circumstances, they say, call for extraordinary measures. Human rights organisations have also asked the Indian government to repeal186 the Public Safety Act, since "a detainee may be held in administrative detention for a maximum of two years without a court order."177 A 2008 report by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees determined that Indian Administered Kashmir was only 'partly free'.176 A recent report by Amnesty International stated that up to 20,000 people have been detained under a law called AFSPA in Indian-administered Kashmir.177178179187
Claims of religious discrimination and restrictions on religious freedom in Azad Kashmir have been made against Pakistan.188 The country is also accused of systemic suppression of free speech and demonstrations against the government.188 UNHCR reported that a number of Islamist militant groups, including al-Qaeda, operate from bases in Pakistani-administered Kashmir with the tacit permission of ISI173188 There have also been several allegations of human rights abuse.173
In 2006, Human Rights Watch accused ISI and the military of systemic torture with the purpose of "punishing" errant politicians, political activists and journalists in Azad Kashmir.189 A report titled "Kashmir: Present Situation and Future Prospects", submitted to the European Parliament by Emma Nicholson, was critical of the lack of human rights, justice, democracy, and Kashmiri representation in the Pakistan National Assembly.190 According to the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, Pakistan's ISI operates in Pakistan-administered Kashmir and is accused of involvement in extensive surveillance, arbitrary arrests, torture, and murder.188 The 2008 report by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees determined that Pakistan-administered Kashmir was 'not free'.188 According to Shaukat Ali, chairman of the International Kashmir Alliance, "On one hand Pakistan claims to be the champion of the right of self-determination of the Kashmiri people, but she has denied the same rights under its controlled parts of Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan".191
After the 2011 elections, Azad Kashmir Prime Minister Sardar Attique Ahmad Khan stated that there were mistakes in the voters list which have raised questions about the credibility of the elections.192
In December 1993, the blasphemy laws of Pakistan were extended to Pakistan Administered Kashmir. The area is ruled directly through a chief executive Lt. Gen. Mohammed Shafiq, appointed by Islamabad with a 26-member Northern Areas Council.193
UNCR reports that the status of women in Pakistani-administered Kashmir is similar to that of women in Pakistan. They are not granted equal rights under the law, and their educational opportunities and choice of marriage partner remain "circumscribed". Domestic violence, forced marriage, and other forms of abuse continue to be issues of concern. In May 2007, the United Nations and other aid agencies temporarily suspended their work after suspected Islamists mounted an arson attack on the home of two aid workers after the organisations had received warnings against hiring women. However, honour killings and rape occur less frequently than in other areas of Pakistan.173
The main demand of the people of Gilgit-Baltistan is constitutional status for the region as a fifth province of Pakistan.194195 However, Pakistan claims that Gilgit-Baltistan cannot be given constitutional status due to Pakistan's commitment to the 1948 UN resolution.195196 In 2007, the International Crisis Group stated that "Almost six decades after Pakistan's independence, the constitutional status of the Federally Administered Northern Areas (Gilgit and Baltistan), once part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir and now under Pakistani control, remains undetermined, with political autonomy a distant dream. The region's inhabitants are embittered by Islamabad's unwillingness to devolve powers in real terms to its elected representatives, and a nationalist movement, which seeks independence, is gaining ground. The rise of sectarian extremism is an alarming consequence of this denial of basic political rights".197 A two-day conference on Gilgit-Baltistan was held on 8–9 April 2008 at the European Parliament in Brussels under the auspices of the International Kashmir Alliance.198 Several members of the European Parliament expressed concern over human rights violations in Gilgit-Baltistan and urged the government of Pakistan to establish democratic institutions and the rule of law in the area.198199
In 2009, the Pakistani government implemented an autonomy package for Gilgit-Baltistan, which entails rights similar to those of Pakistan’s other provinces.194 Gilgit-Baltistan thus gains province-like status without actually being conferred such status constitutionally.194196 Direct rule by Islamabad has been replaced by an elected legislative assembly under a chief minister.194196
There has been criticism and opposition to this move in Pakistan, India, and Pakistan administrated Kashmir.200 The move has been dubbed a cover-up to hide the real mechanics of power, which allegedly are under the direct control of the Pakistani federal government.201 The package was opposed by Pakistani Kashmiri politicians who claimed that the integration of Gilgit-Baltistan into Pakistan would undermine their case for the independence of Kashmir from India.202 300 activists from Kashmiri groups protested during the first Gilgit-Baltistan legislative assembly elections, with some carrying banners reading "Pakistan's expansionist designs in Gilgit-Baltistan are unacceptable"195
As with other disputed territories, each government issues maps depicting their claims in Kashmir territory, regardless of actual control. Due to India's Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1961, it is illegal in India to exclude all or part of Kashmir from a map (or to publish any map that differs from those of the Survey of India).204 It is illegal in Pakistan not to include the state of Jammu and Kashmir as disputed territory, as permitted by the United Nations. Non-participants often use the Line of Control and the Line of Actual Control as the depicted boundaries, as is done in the CIA World Factbook, while the region is often marked out in hashmarks. When Microsoft released a map in Windows 95 and MapPoint 2002, a controversy arose because it did not show all of Kashmir as part of India as per the Indian claim. All neutral and Pakistani companies claim to follow the UN's map and over 90% of all maps containing the territory of Kashmir show it as disputed territory.205
India continues to assert its sovereignty or rights over the entire region of Kashmir, while Pakistan maintains that it is a disputed territory. Pakistan argues that the status quo cannot be considered as a solution and further insists on a UN-sponsored plebiscite. Unofficially, the Pakistani leadership has indicated that they would be willing to accept alternatives such as a demilitarised Kashmir, if sovereignty of Azad Kashmir was to be extended over the Kashmir valley, or the "Chenab" formula, by which India would retain parts of Kashmir on its side of the Chenab river, and Pakistan the other side—effectively re-partitioning Kashmir on communal lines. The problem with the proposal is that the population of the Pakistan-administered portion of Kashmir is for the most part ethnically, linguistically, and culturally different from the Valley of Kashmir, a part of Indian-administered Kashmir. Partition based on the Chenab formula is opposed by some Kashmiri politicians, although others, including Sajjad Lone, have suggested that the non-Muslim part of Jammu and Kashmir be separated from Kashmir and handed to India. Some political analysts say that the Pakistan state policy shift and mellowing of its aggressive stance may have to do with its total failure in the Kargil War and the subsequent 9/11 attacks. These events put pressure on Pakistan to alter its position on terrorism.206 Many neutral parties to the dispute have noted that the UN resolution on Kashmir is no longer relevant.207 The European Union holds the view that the plebiscite is not in Kashmiris' interest.208 The report notes that the UN conditions for such a plebiscite have not been, and can no longer be, met by Pakistan.209 The Hurriyat Conference observed in 2003 that a "plebiscite [is] no longer an option".210 Besides the popular factions that support one or other of the parties, there is a third faction which supports independence and withdrawal of both India and Pakistan. These have been the respective stands of the parties for a long while, and there have been no significant changes over the years. As a result, all efforts to solve the conflict have so far proved futile.
Revelations made on 24 September 2013 by the former Indian army chief General V. K. Singh claim that the state politicians of Jammu and Kashmir are funded by the army secret service to keep the general public calm and that this activity has been going on since Partition. He also stated that the secret service paid a bribe to a politician to topple the state government, which was pushing for AFSPA repeal in 2010.211212
In a 2001 report entitled "Pakistan's Role in the Kashmir Insurgency" from the American RAND Corporation, the think tank noted that "the nature of the Kashmir conflict has been transformed from what was originally a secular, locally based struggle (conducted via the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front – JKLF) to one that is now largely carried out by foreign militants and rationalized in pan-Islamic religious terms." The majority of militant organisations are composed of foreign mercenaries, mostly from the Pakistani Punjab.213 In 2010, with the support of its intelligence agencies, Pakistan again 'boosted' Kashmir militants, and recruitment of mujahideen in the Pakistani state of Punjab has increased.214215 In 2011, the FBI revealed that Pakistan's spy agency ISI paid millions of dollars into a United States-based non-governmental organisation to influence politicians and opinion-makers on the Kashmir issue and arrested Syed Ghulam Nabi Fai.216
The Freedom in the World 2006 report categorised Indian-administered Kashmir as "partly free", and Pakistan-administered Kashmir, as well as the country of Pakistan, as "not free".217 India claims that contrary to popular belief, a large proportion of the Jammu and Kashmir populace wishes to remain with India. A MORI survey found that within Indian-administered Kashmir, 61% of respondents said they felt they would be better off as Indian citizens, with 33% saying that they did not know, and the remaining 6% favouring Pakistani citizenship. However, this support for India was mainly in the Ladakh and Jammu regions, not the Kashmir Valley, where only 9% of the respondents said that they would be better off with India.218 According to a 2007 poll conducted by the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies in New Delhi, 87% of respondents in the Kashmir Valley prefer independence over union with India or Pakistan.219 However, a survey by Chatham House in both Indian and Pakistani administered Kashmir found that support for independence stood at 43% and 44% respectively.220
The 2005 Kashmir earthquake, which killed over 80,000 people, led to India and Pakistan finalising negotiations for the opening of a road for disaster relief through Kashmir.
The 9/11 attacks on the United States resulted in the US government wanting to restrain militancy in the world, including Pakistan. They urged Islamabad to cease infiltrations, which continue to this day, by Islamist militants into Indian-administered Kashmir. In December 2001, a terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament linked to Pakistan resulted in war threats, massive troop deployments, and international fears of a nuclear war in the subcontinent.
After intensive diplomatic efforts by other countries, India and Pakistan began to withdraw troops from the international border on 10 June 2002, and negotiations restarted.citation needed From 26 November 2003, India and Pakistan agreed to maintain a ceasefire along the undisputed international border, the disputed Line of Control, and Actual Ground Position Line near the Siachen glacier. This was the first such "total ceasefire" declared by both powers in nearly 15 years. In February 2004, Pakistan increased pressure on Pakistanis fighting in Indian-administered Kashmir to adhere to the ceasefire. Their neighbours launched several other mutual confidence-building measures. Restarting the bus service between the Indian- and Pakistani- administered Kashmir has helped defuse tensions between the countries while both India and Pakistan have decided to co-operate on economic fronts.
In 2005, General Musharraf as well as other Pakistani leaders sought to resolve the Kashmir issue through the Chenab Formula road map. Based on the 'Dixon Plan', the Chenab Formula assigns Ladakh to India, Gilgit-Baltistan (G-B) to Pakistan, proposes a plebiscite in the Kashmir Valley and splits Jammu into two-halves.221 On 5 December 2006, Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf told an Indian TV channel that Pakistan would give up its claim on Kashmir if India accepted some of his peace proposals, including a phased withdrawal of troops, self-governance for locals, no changes in the borders of Kashmir, and a joint supervision mechanism involving India, Pakistan, and Kashmir.222 Musharraf stated that he was ready to give up the United Nations' resolutions regarding Kashmir.223
In the week of 10 March 2008, 17 people were wounded when a blast hit the region's only highway overpass located near the civil secretariat—the seat of government of Indian-controlled Kashmir—and the region's high court. A gun battle between security forces and militants fighting against Indian rule left five people dead and two others injured on 23 March 2008. The battle began when security forces raided a house on the outskirts of the capital city of Srinagar housing militants. The Indian Army has been carrying out cordon-and-search operations against militants in Indian-administered Kashmir since the violence broke out in 1989. While the authorities say 43,000 people have been killed in the violence, various human rights groups and non-governmental organisations have put the figure at twice that number.224
According to the Government of India Home Ministry, 2008 was the year with the lowest civilian casualties in 20 years, with 89 deaths, compared to a high of 1,413 in 1996.225 In 2008, 85 security personnel died compared to 613 in 2001, while 102 militants were killed. The human rights situation improved, with only one custodial death, and no custodial disappearances. Many analysts say Pakistan's preoccupation with jihadis within its own borders explains the relative calm.226
Massive demonstrations occurred after plans by the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir state government to transfer 100 acres (0.40 km2) of land to a trust which runs the Hindu Amarnath shrine in the Muslim-majority Kashmir valley.227 This land was to be used to build a shelter to house Hindu pilgrims temporarily during their annual pilgrimage to the Amarnath temple. Such demonstrations have been aloof of the fact that the India government very regularly undertakes activities for upliftment of Muslim community (as a secular government)and very regularly donates lands and other properties to the systemized Waqf Boards.228229
Indian security forces and the Indian army responded quickly to keep order. More than 40 unarmed protesters were killed230231 and at least 300 were detained.232 The largest protests saw more than a half million people waving Pakistani flags and crying for freedom at a rally on 18 August, according to Time magazine.233 Pro-independence Kashmiri leader Mirwaiz Umar Farooq warned that the peaceful uprising could lead to an upsurge in violence if India's heavy-handed crackdown on protests was not restrained.234 The United Nations expressed concern at India's response to peaceful protests and urged investigations be launched against Indian security personnel who had taken part in the crackdown.48
Separatists and political party workers were believed to be behind stone-throwing incidents, which have led to retaliatory fire from the police.235236 An autorickshaw laden with stones meant for distribution was seized by the police in March 2009. Following the unrest in 2008, secessionist movements got a boost.237238
State elections were held in Indian-held Kashmir in seven phases, starting on 17 November and finishing on 24 December 2008. In spite of calls by separatists for a boycott, an unusually high turnout of almost 50% was recorded.239 The National Conference party, which was founded by Sheikh Abdullah and is regarded as pro-India, emerged with a majority of the seats.240 On 30 December, the Congress Party and the National Conference agreed to form a coalition government, with Omar Abdullah as Chief Minister.241 On 5 January 2009, Abdullah was sworn in as the eleventh Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir.242
In March 2009, Abdullah stated that only 800 militants were active in the state and out of these only 30% were Kashmiris.243
In 2009, protests started over the alleged rape and murder of two young women in Shopian in South Kashmir. Suspicion pointed towards the police as the perpetrators. A judicial enquiry by a retired High Court official confirmed the suspicion, but a CBI enquiry reversed their conclusion. This gave fresh impetus to popular agitation against India. Significantly, the unity between the separatist parties was lacking this time.244
The 2010 Kashmir unrest was series of protests in the Muslim majority Kashmir Valley in Jammu and Kashmir which started in June 2010. These protests involved the 'Quit Jammu Kashmir Movement' launched by the Hurriyat Conference led by Syed Ali Shah Geelani and Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, who had called for the complete demilitarisation of Jammu and Kashmir. The All Parties Hurriyat Conference made this call to protest, citing human rights abuses by Indian troops.245not specific enough to verify Chief Minister Omar Abdullah attributed the 2010 unrest to the fake encounter staged by the military in Machil. Protesters shouted pro-independence slogans, defied curfews, attacked security forces with stones and burnt police vehicles and government buildings.246247 The Jammu and Kashmir Police and Indian para-military forces fired live ammunition on the protesters, resulting in 112 deaths, including many teenagers. The protests subsided after the Indian government announced a package of measures aimed at defusing the tensions in September 2010.248
In an interview with Joe Klein of Time magazine in October 2008, Barack Obama expressed his intention to try to work with India and Pakistan to resolve the crisis.249 He said he had talked to Bill Clinton about it, as Clinton has experience as a mediator. In an editorial in The Washington Times, Selig S Harrison,250 director of the Asia Programme at the Center for International Policy and a senior scholar of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars called it Obama's first foreign policy mistake.251 In an editorial, The Australian called Obama's idea to appoint a presidential negotiator "a very stupid and dangerous move indeed".252 In an editorial in Forbes, Reihan Salam, associate editor for The Atlantic, noted "The smartest thing President Obama could do on Kashmir is probably nothing. We have to hope that India and Pakistan can work out their differences on Kashmir on their own".253 The Boston Globe called the idea of appointing Bill Clinton as an envoy to Kashmir "a mistake".254 President Obama subsequently appointed Richard Holbrooke as special envoy to Pakistan and Afghanistan.255 President Asif Ali Zardari hoped that Holbrooke would help mediate to resolve the Kashmir issue.256 Kashmir was later removed from Holbrooke's mandate.257 "Eliminating ... Kashmir from his job description ... is seen as a significant diplomatic concession to India that reflects increasingly warm ties between the country and the United States," The Washington Post noted in a report.258 Brajesh Mishra, India's former national security adviser, was quoted in the same report as saying that "No matter what government is in place, India is not going to relinquish control of Jammu and Kashmir". "That is written in stone and cannot be changed."259 According to The Financial Times, India has warned Obama that he risks "barking up the wrong tree" if he seeks to broker a settlement between Pakistan and India over Kashmir.260
In July 2009, US Assistant Secretary of State Robert O. Blake, Jr. stated that the United States had no plans to appoint any special envoy to settle the dispute, calling it an issue which needed to be sorted out bilaterally by India and Pakistan.261 According to Dawn this will be interpreted in Pakistan as an endorsement of India's position on Kashmir that no outside power has any role in this dispute.262
In October 2014, Indian and Pakistani troops traded gunfire over their border in the divided Himalayan region of Kashmir, killing at least four civilians and worsening tensions between the longtime rivals, officials on both sides have said. The small-arms and mortar exchanges – which Indian officials called the worst violation of a 2003 ceasefire – left 18 civilians wounded in India and another three in Pakistan. Tens of thousands of people fled their homes on both sides after the violence erupted on 5 October. Official reports state that nine civilians in Pakistan and seven in India were killed in three nights of fighting.263
In 2002, former US President, Bill Clinton described Kashmir as "the most dangerous place in the world."264 He averted a nuclear war between India and Pakistan over the issue of Kashmir according to former US Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott. Talbott reveals in his book Engaging India: Diplomacy, Democracy and the Bomb that India and Pakistan came very close to a nuclear war in 1999.265 According to Talbott, before Clinton met with Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif in 1999 to discuss the issue, US national security adviser Sandy Berger told Clinton that he could be heading into "the single most important meeting with a foreign leader of his entire presidency".265
India and Pakistan conducted nuclear tests in 1998 and the two countries each hold significant numbers of nuclear warheads.266 India and Pakistan fought two wars over the issue of Kashmir in 1947 and 1965. These two neighbours came dangerously close to a third war during the Kargil conflict in 1999.267
- All Parties Hurriyat Conference
- Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir
- History of Jammu and Kashmir
- Pakistan and state sponsored terrorism
- India–Pakistan relations
- Indo-Pakistani Wars
- Animated PNG of disputed regions
- Ganguly, Sumit; Paul Kapur (7 August 2012). India, Pakistan, and the Bomb: Debating Nuclear Stability in South Asia. Columbia University Press. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0231143752.
- Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, Conflict Summary, Conflict name: India: Kashmir, Type of incompatibility: Territory, Interstate/intrastate dimension: Intrastate, Conflict status: Ongoing, Date of first stated goals of incompatibility: 29 May 1977, viewed 2013-05-29, http://www.ucdp.uu.se/gpdatabase/gpcountry.php?id=74®ionSelect=6-Central_and_Southern_Asia#
- Social Studies S5 Ab. Pearson Education. p. 70. ISBN 978-981-4114-72-1.
- Choudhury, Salah Uddin Shoaib (8 October 2010). "Pakistani rogue policy on Kashmir". Sri Lanka Guardian. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Durrani, Atiq (4 February 2013). "PAK-INDIA Dialogue: Single-Point-Agenda: KASHMIR". PKKH. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, Conflict Summary, Conflict name: India: Kashmir, "Roots of Conflict and the emergence of Kashmir Insurgents, viewed 2013-05-29, http://www.ucdp.uu.se/gpdatabase/gpcountry.php?id=74®ionSelect=6-Central_and_Southern_Asia#
- "Elections in Kashmir". Kashmirlibrary.org. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- "India Pakistan | Timeline". BBC News. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Kashmir: A History Littered With Rigged Elections (by Mushtaq A. Jeelani) – Media Monitors Network". Mediamonitors.net. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- Hussain, Altaf (14 September 2002). "South Asia | Kashmir's flawed elections". BBC News. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "A Good Voice Silenced: Kashmir's Loss Is Also Mine". Mea.gov.in. 9 June 2002. Retrieved 2 February 2010.dead link
- Emily Wax (28 August 2008). "Peaceful Protests in Kashmir Alter Equation for India". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
- Trofimov, Yaroslav (15 December 2008). "A New Tack in Kashmir". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Freedom in the World 2009 – Kashmir (India)". UNHCR. 16 July 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- "Pro-India parties win majority in Kashmir elections". CNN. 28 December 2008. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- "Regional Party Enters Talks for Coalition Government in Jammu and Kashmir". Voice of America. 29 December 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
- "Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) ''Kashmir''". 1911encyclopedia.org. 5 January 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Volume 4, Kashmir
- Revised Statute from The UK Statute Law Database: Indian Independence Act 1947 (c.30)dead link at opsi.gov.uk
- "Rediff on the NeT: An interview with Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw". Rediff.com. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "Kashmir (region, Indian subcontinent) :: The Kashmir problem". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- Sayyid Mīr Qāsim. My Life and Times. Allied Publishers Limited. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
On the battlefield, the National Conference volunteers were working shoulder-to-shoulder with the Indian army to drive out the invaders. On 31 December 1947, India filed a complaint with the United Nations against the Pakistani aggression and its help to the invading tribesmen. Sheikh Abdullah was not in favor of India seeking the UN intervention because he was sure the Indian army could free the entire State of the invaders. The UNO did not resolve the Kashmir issue. It called for withdrawal of troops on 21 April 1948. The Indian army had driven the Pakistanis up to Uri in Kashmir and Poonch in Jammu when ceasefire was ordered in December 1948. Mr. Jinnah, the promoter of this invasion, had died in September of that year. Both India and Pakistan accepted the ceasefire.
- "Plebiscite Conundrum". Kashmirlibrary.org. 5 January 1949. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- Schofield, Victoria (17 January 2002). "Kashmir's forgotten plebiscite". BBC News. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
- "The J&K conflict: A Chronological Introduction". India Together. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- 24 September 2001 (24 September 2001). "A brief history of Kashmir conflict". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "India Grabs It". Time (Time Inc.). 4 February 1957. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
- "Foreign Minister of Pakistan, on the role of the Security Council in the Pacific Settlement of Disputes". Pakun.org. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- Kashmir policy: an overview by Shamshad Ahmaddead link, Dawn 5 August 2004
- Nick Easen CNN (24 May 2002). "CNN.com – Aksai Chin: China's disputed slice of Kashmir – 24 May 2002". CNN. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy, Ramachandra Guha, Pan Macmillan, 2008, p. 654
- "1989 Insurgency". Kashmirlibrary.org. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Contours of Militancydead link
- "Timeline of the conflict". BBC News. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Timeline of the conflict – BBC
- PMO in secret talks with secessionists, The Hindu, 25 January 2006
- Malik Under Fire, Rebels Call For 'less Autocratic' JKLF, The Indian Express, 23 December 2005
- Huey, Caitlin (28 March 2011). "Amnesty International Cites Human Rights Abuse in Kashmir". Usnews.com. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- "Kashmir graves: Human Rights Watch calls for inquiry". BBC News. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- "Asia Pacific Human Rights by region". Amnesty International. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Kashmir insurgency is being 'Talibanised'dead linkJane's Information Group, 5 October 2001
- Foreign militants creating mayhem in Kashmir: Omar Abdullah , The Hindu, 12 March 2006
- "FBI has images of terror camp in Pak". The Tribune. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- Zardari expects world to come up with $100bn,Dawndead link
- "Fury over Zardari Kashmir comment". BBC News. 6 October 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "OHCHR calls for restraint in Indian-administered Kashmir". 27 August 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Osama bin Laden "letter to the American people", GlobalSecurity.org, 20 November 2002
- Full text: bin Laden's 'letter to America', The Guardian, 24 November 2002
- Analysis: Is al-Qaeda in Kashmir?, BBC, 13 June 2002
- Rumsfeld offers US technology to guard Kashmir border, The Sydney Morning Herald, 14 June 2002
- Al Qaeda thriving in Pakistani Kashmir, The Christian Science Monitor, 2 July 2002
- SAS joins Kashmir hunt for bin Laden, The Daily Telegraph, 23 February 2002
- Taliban, al-Qaeda linked to Kashmir, USA Today, 29 May 2002
- Kashmir Militant Extremists, Council on Foreign Relations, 9 July 2009
- Al-Qaeda claim of Kashmir link worries India, The New York Times, 13 July 2006
- "No Al Qaeda presence in Kashmir: Army". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 18 June 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- Al Qaeda could provoke new India-Pakistan war: Gates, Dawn, 20 January 2010
- US drones killed two terrorist leaders in Pak, Dawn, 17 September 2009
- Chicago Man Pleads Not Guilty in Terror Cases, The New York Times, 25 January 2010
- Al Qaeda's American Mole, Brookings Institution, 15 December 2009
- Ilyas Kashmiri alive, lays out future terror strategy, Daily Times (Pakistan), 15 October 2009
- Ilyas Kashmiri had planned to attack COASdead link, The News International, 18 September 2009
- US charges Ilyas Kashmiri in Danish newspaper plot, Dawn, 15 January 2010
- "Farman Shinwari: New Al Qaeda leader, Kashmir jihad expert". Rediff.com. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- Hardgrave, Robert. "India: The Dilemmas of Diversity", Journal of Democracy, pp. 54–65
- "BJP questions PM's Kashmir autonomy remark". The Times of India. 11 August 2010.
- "Ministry of External Affairs, India – Kashmir Issue". Meaindia.nic.in. Archived from the original on 16 June 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Kashmir: The true story, Ministry of External Affairs, India" (PDF). Archived from the original on 6 January 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Excerpted from Kashmir 1947, Rival Versions of History, by Prem Shankar Jha, Oxford University Press, 1996 – An interview of Sam Manekshaw, the first field marshal in the Indian army, then chosen to accompany V P Menon on his historic mission to Kashmir.". Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- "From A.S. Anand, former Chief Justice of India in his book 'The Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir – Its Development and Comments'".
- Sayyid Mīr Qāsim. My Life and Times. Allied Publishers Limited. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
On the battlefield, the National Conference volunteers were working shoulder-to-shoulder with the Indian army to drive out the invaders. On 31 December 1947, India filed a complaint with the United Nations against the Pakistani aggression and its help to the invading tribesmen. Sheikh Abdullah was not in favour of India seeking the UN intervention because he was sure the Indian army could free the entire State of the invaders. As the subsequent events showed, the UNO by procrastinating, only messed up the Kashmir issue. Unwilling to call a spade a spade, it called for withdrawal of troops on 21 April 1948. The Indian army had driven the Pakistani invaders up to Uri in Kashmir and Poonch in Jammu when ceasefire was ordered in December 1948. Mr. Jinnah, the promoter of this invasion, had (in September) died by then. Both India and Pakistan accepted the ceasefire.
- "The Kashmir Story, M. L. Kotru". Kashmir Information Network. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- "Full Text of Resolution 1172" (PDF). Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Indian Embassy, Washington, D.C. – A Comprehensive note on Jammu & Kashmir". Indianembassy.org. Retrieved 2 February 2010.dead link
- M.J. Akbar Monday (30 September 2002). "Exerting Moral Force". Time. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Ministry of External Affairs, India – Simla Agreement". Meaindia.nic.in. Archived from the original on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Pakistan, India meet on Kashmir". CNN. 18 April 2005. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- World: South Asia Vajpayee: Pakistan a 'terrorist' state, BBC, 9 August 1999
- "India Renews Call for U.S. to Declare Pakistan a Terrorist State", The New York Times, 17 July 2002
- COMMENTARY: Qualifying as a terrorist state, Asia Times Online, 5 February 2002
- Congress wants Pakistan declared terror statedead link, Dawn, 8 February 2009
- "Pakistan'S Anti-India Propaganda". Indianembassy.org. Retrieved 2 February 2010.dead link
- "Pak media being anti-India: J&K CM". The Indian Express. 13 April 2006. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- STATEMENT BY MR. V.K. NAMBIAR, PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE, ON THREATS OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY CAUSED BY TERRORIST ACTS AT THE SECURITY COUNCIL ON MARCH 4, 2004, United Nations, 4 March 2004
- UN Security Council Resolution 1373 (2001)dead link, United States Department of State
- STATEMENT BY MR. KAMALESH SHARMA, PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE ON THREATS TO INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY CAUSED BY TERRORIST ACTS IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL ON JANUARY 18, 2002, United Nations 18 January 2002
- "No freedom in PoK: Human Rights Watch". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 24 September 2006. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "A Comprehensive Note on Jammu & Kashmir THE NORTHERN AREAS". Indianembassy.org. Retrieved 2 February 2010.dead link
- "Karan echoes Omar, but 'J&K part of India'". The Indian Express. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "India revises Kashmir death toll to 47,000". Hindustan Times. Reuters. 21 November 2008.
- Jinnah and Kashmir, Government of Azad Kashmir
- "Azad Kashmir Regiment". Pakistanarmy.gov.pk. 15 August 1947. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Kashmir: The origins of the dispute, Victoria Schofield". BBC News. 16 January 2002. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Pakistan Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Mofa.gov.pk. Retrieved 2 February 2010.dead link
- "Cry and Anguish for Freedom in Kashmir (by Anver Suliman) – Media Monitors Network". Mediamonitors.net. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Conflict Rape Victims: Abandoned And Forgotten By Syed Junaid Hashmi". Countercurrents.org. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Human Rights Watch World Report 2001: India: Human Rights Developments". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- Kashmiris want accession to Pakistan: Attiquedead link
- Schofield, Victoria (17 January 2002). "South Asia | Kashmir's forgotten plebiscite". BBC News. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- Srinagar www.collectbritain.co.uk.
- "South Asia | Kashmir's extra-judicial killings". BBC News. 8 March 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- Brad Adams, Asia director at Human Rights Watch (31 January 2007). "India: Prosecute Police for Killings in Jammu and Kashmir". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- Brad Adams, Asia director at Human Rights Watch. (9 February 2009). "India: Hold Abusers in Kashmir Accountable". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- "Kashmir's extra-judicial killings". BBC News. 8 March 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- Somini Sengupta (6 February 2007). "Indian Army and Police Tied to Kashmir Killings". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- . BBC News http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/south_asia/03/kashmir_future/html/7.stm. Retrieved 2 February 2010. Missing or empty
- "Factbox: all about India, China's border dispute". IBN Live. 8 November 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
- "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 23 November 2004. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Pakistan wants to curb terrorism: Straw's assurance to Jaswant -DAWN – Top Stories; 30 May 2002". DAWN. 30 May 2002. Retrieved 2 February 2010.dead link
- Ayesha Siddiqi. "Kashmir and the politics of water – Kashmir: The forgotten conflict". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "SPIEGEL Interview with Pervez Musharraf: 'Pakistan is Always Seen as the Rogue' – SPIEGEL ONLINE". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- "Remarks by President Obama and Prime Minister Singh in Joint Press Conference in New Delhi, India | The White House". White House. 8 November 2010. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Nelson, Dean (8 July 2009). "Pakistani president Asif Zardari admits creating terrorist groups". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- "Links between ISI, militant groups: Straw". Rediff.com. 11 June 2002. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Shoaib, Syed (3 March 2010). "Why Pakistan is 'boosting Kashmir militants'". BBC News. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Pakistan Reportedly Aiding Kashmir Rebels – Despite Assurances To U.S., Military Fueling India Conflict. The Washington Post.
- John Pike. "Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence [ISI] – Pakistan Intelligence Agencies". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- "The Pakistani Inter-Service Intelligence Directorate's Sponsorship of Terrorism" (PDF). Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Camp, Dick (2011). Boots on the Ground: The Fight to Liberate Afghanistan from Al-Qaeda and the Taliban, 2001–2002. Zenith. p. 38. ISBN 978-0760341117.
- Caldwell, Dan; Robert Williams (2011). Seeking Security in an Insecure World (2nd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 103–104. ISBN 978-1442208032.
- Pike, John (25 July 2002). "Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Does Obama understand his biggest foreign-policy challenge?, Salon, 12 December 2008
- Pakistani Militants Admit Role in Siege, Official Says, The New York Times, 1 January 2009
- Ashley J. Tellis (11 March 2010). "Bad Company – Lashkar-e-Tayyiba and the Growing Ambition of Islamist Militancy in Pakistan" (PDF). Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
- "BBC News – Musharraf admits Kashmir militants trained in Pakistan". BBC. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- dead link
- Brad Adams, Asia director at Human Rights Watch (13 September 2006). "India: Impunity Fuels Conflict in Jammu and Kashmir". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "CONTINUING REPRESSION IN KASHMIR – Abuses Rise as International Pressure on India Eases" (Press release). August 1994. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Document – India: Torture continues in Jammu and Kashmir". Amnesty International. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1 January 1996). "Refworld | Amnesty International Report 1996 – India". UNHCR. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "The Kashmir tinderbox". Human Rights Watch. 20 August 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Behind the Kashmir Conflict – Abuses in the Kashmir Valley (Human Rights Watch Report, July 1999)". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Brad Adams, Asia director at Human Rights Watch. (9 February 2009). "India: Hold Abusers in Kashmir Accountable". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "India". State.gov. 6 March 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "India must investigate unidentified graves – Amnesty International Australia". Amnesty.org.au. 8 April 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Thousands lost in Kashmir mass graves". Amnesty International. 18 April 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Cathy Scott-Clark (9 July 2012). "The mass graves of Kashmir | World news". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Asia and the Pacific. "Amnesty International | Working to Protect Human Rights". Amnesty International. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- GreaterKashmir.com (Greater Service) (16 October 2012). "ARMY CHALLENGES SHRC JURISDICTION Lastupdate:- Tue, 16 Oct 2012 18:30:00 GMT". Greaterkashmir.com. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- Jason Burke in Delhi (16 December 2010). "WikiLeaks cables: India accused of systematic use of torture in Kashmir | World news". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Allen, Nick (17 December 2010). "WikiLeaks: India 'systematically torturing civilians in Kashmir'". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- GreaterKashmir.com (Greater Service) (10 September 2012). "Wajahat expresses displeasure Lastupdate:- Mon, 10 Sep 2012 18:30:00 GMT". Greaterkashmir.com. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- "Bijbehara massacre: Guilty yet to be punished even after 19 years". Kashmir Times. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- Rape in Kashmir – A Crime of War by Asia Watch, Human Rights Watch and Physicians for Human Rights
- "A documentary movie on Kashmir lands in controversy". english.samaylive.com. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Billal A. Jan (Director) (2012). Ocean of Tears (Excerpt) (Youtube). Jammu and Kashmir: PSBTIndia.
- India, Express. "Pathribal encounter 'cold blooded murder', CBI tells SC". Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- India, Express. "Pathribal encounter "cold blooded murders," CBI tells SC". Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Hindu, The (20 March 2012). "Pathribal encounter is cold-blooded murder, CBI tells court". Chennai, India. Press Trust of India. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "Pathribal case: Army decides to try 5 accused officers in GCM". Zeenews. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Why Kashmiris want the hated AFSPA to go". Daily News & Analysis. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "Fake encounter at LoC: 3 arrested, probe ordered". 29 May 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- Paradise lost. BBC News.
- Expressing the sense of Congress that the Government of the Republic of India and the State Government of Jammu and Kashmir should take immediate steps to remedy the situation of the Kashmiri Pandits and should act to ensure the physical, political, and economic security of this embattled community. HR Resolution 344, United States House of Representatives, 15 February 2006
- "PALLONE INTRODUCEs resolution CONDEMnING HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AGAINST KASHMIRI PANDITS". U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved 30 August 2012.dead link
- "Human Rights Issues by Country – Currently viewing issues for India". Hindu American Foundation. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "23 years on, Kashmiri Pandits remain refugees in their own nation". Rediff News. 19 January 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Kamal blames army, central agencies for Pandit migration".
- "Front Page : "219 Kashmiri Pandits killed by militants since 1989"". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 24 March 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "219 Pandits Killed in J&K Since 1989". news.outlookindia.com. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Azad Essa. "Kashmiri Pandits: Why we never fled Kashmir – Kashmir: The forgotten conflict". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- GreaterKashmir.com (Greater Service) (20 June 2011). "399 Pandits killed since 1990 KPSS Lastupdate:- Mon, 20 Jun 2011 18:30:00 GMT". Greaterkashmir.com. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Ka Leo The Voice – Kashmir: The Predicamentdead link
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2 July 2008). "Refworld | Freedom in the World 2008 – Kashmir [Pakistan]". UNHCR. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Médecins Sans Frontières – Kashmir: Violence and Health" (PDF). Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Wailing Woesdead link
- "Thousands lost in Kashmir mass graves". Amnesty International. 18 April 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Behind the Kashmir Conflict: Undermining the Judiciary (Human Rights Watch Report: July 1999)". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Behind the Kashmir Conflict – Abuses in the Kashmir Valley". Human Rights Watch. 20 April 1998. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- dead link
- "Blood Tide Rising". Time. 18 January 1993. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "India". State.gov. 6 March 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "World | Kashmir's extra-judicial killings". BBC News. 8 March 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "India: The Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act- a threat to human rights". Amnesty International. 15 May 2000. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld | Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act, 1978 (Act No. 6 of 1978)". UNHCR. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "India: Repeal the Armed Forces Special Powers Act". Human Rights Watch. 20 November 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Amnesty International criticises 'tough' Kashmir law". BBC News. 21 March 2011.
- Freedom in the World 2008 – Kashmir (Pakistan), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2 July 2008
- Human Rights Watch: "With Friends Like These...". Human Rights Watch. p. 51.
- EU Report Rattles Pakistan, Outlook, 8 December 2006
- European Parliamentarians express concern for Gilgit-Baltistan, German Information Center, New Delhi, 12 April 2008
- "Sham Elections in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir – Analysis". Eurasia review. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- "Chapter 5: Pakistan-Occupied-Kashmir, Tashkent & The Shimla Agreement". Kashmir story. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- Nadeem (21 September 2009). "Gilgit-Baltistan: A question of autonomy". Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Shigri, Manzar (12 November 2009). "Pakistan's disputed Northern Areas go to polls". Reuters. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- "DAWN: Gilgit-Baltistan autonomy". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Political unrest in Gilgit-Baltistan, Dawn, 26 July 2009
- European MPs concerned at rights violations in Pakistani Kashmir, Thaindian News, 13 April 2008
- European Parliament concerned on Gilgit-Baltistan, The Indian Express, 20 December 2009
- Gilgit-Baltistan package termed an eyewash, Dawn, 30 August 2009
- Discontents in Gilgit-Baltistan, Daily Times (Pakistan), 21 April 2010
- Shigri, Manzar (12 November 2009). "Pakistan's disputed Northern Areas go to polls". Reuters. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Killing of youth in GB by-polls condemned, Dawn, 27 December 2009
- The Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1961, Vakilno1.com
- "Microsoft's Geopolitical Bug Experts: The company's Geopolitical Product Strategy Team helps Microsoft understand and address worldwide geographical, political and cultural issues that affect its products". Microsoft.com. 6 December 2000. Retrieved 2 February 2010.dead link
- Pakistan’s Kashmir Policy after the Bush Visit to South Asia Strategic Insights Volume V, Issue 4 (April 2006) by Peter R. Lavoy
- Kickstart Kashmir – The Times of India.
- EU: Plebiscite not in Kashmiris' interestdead link – 30 November 2006, Pak Observer
- REPORT on Kashmir: present situation and future prospectsdead link Committee on Foreign Affairs Rapporteur: Baroness Nicholson of Winterbourne
- Plebiscite no longer an option; Kashmir row must be resolved within two years' — — Hurriyat Conference Chairman, Mr Abdul Gani Bhat, The Hindu, 1 July 2003
- "Paying ministers nothing new in J&K, former Army chief Gen VK Singh". indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
- "JK ministers on Army payroll: Gen Singh". greaterkashmir.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
- Pakistan's Role in the Kashmir Insurgency by Peter Chalk, RAND,2001-09-01
- Why Pakistan is 'boosting Kashmir militants', BBC, 3 March 2010
- "Kashmir militants 'regrouping' in Pakistan". BBC. 14 May 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
- Swami, Praveen (20 July 2011). "ISI paid millions to influence U.S. on Kashmir". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- dead link
- The Milli Gazette, OPI, Pharos Media. "Full Text of the MORI Survey on Kashmir". Milligazette.com. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "87 pct in Kashmir Valley Want Independence". Reuters. 13 August 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- (PDF). p.15 http://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/public/Research/Asia/0510pp_kashmir.pdf. Retrieved 6 January 2013. Missing or empty
- The Indus Equation Report, Strategic Foresight Group
- "South Asia | Musharraf pushes Kashmir proposal". BBC News. 5 December 2006. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Musharraf's Bold Initiative on Kashmir". Arabnews.com. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- From journalist Mukhtar Ahmad (23 March 2008). "Five dead after Kashmir gun battle". CNN. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- dead link
- "Level of violence in Kashmir dips". The Washington Times. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "South Asia | Kashmir – missed chances for peace". BBC News. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "BBC World Service – News – Non-violent protest in Kashmir". BBC. 14 October 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "South Asia | Top Kashmir separatists detained". BBC News. 5 September 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "After Uprising, 300 Protestors Arrested in Indian Kashmir". Newsblaze.com. 6 September 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- Thottam, Jyoti (4 September 2008). "Valley of Tears". Time. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Mirwaiz warns of violent upsurge -DAWN – Top Stories; 8 September 2008". DAWN. 8 September 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2010.dead link
- "Stones And Psyches". Kashmirobserver.net. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India – Jammu & Kashmir". The Tribune. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- Avijit Ghosh (17 August 2008). "In Kashmir, there's azadi in air". Online edition of The Times of India, dated 17 August 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
- Thottam, Jyoti (4 September 2008). "Valley of Tears". Time. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- "Kashmiris vote despite boycott call". English.aljazeera.net. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- Whitehead, Andrew (1 January 2009). "Kashmir crisis comes full circle". BBC News. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- Pro-India parties to take power in Indian Kashmir, International Herald Tribune, 30 December 2008
- Omar Abdullah sworn in, Tara Chand to be deputy CM, Rediff.com, 5 January 2009
- 800 ultras active in state: Omar, The Tribune, 2 March 2009
- The changing character of the Kashmir movement, Al Jazeera 20 July 2010
- Duff, Gordon. "Hurriyat (G) Launches 'Quit Kashmir' Stir With Hartal". Kashmirobserver.net. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Yardley, Jim; Kumar, Hari (11 September 2010). "Buildings Are Set Ablaze During Protests in Kashmir". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- Pohlgren, Lydia (4 August 2010). "Kashmiris Storm the Street, Defying Curfew". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
- "India to free protesters in Kashmir peace move". Reuters. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- The full Obama Interview, Time
- "SELIG S. HARRISON, director of the Asia Program at the Center for International Policy". Ciponline.org. Retrieved 2 February 2010.dead link
- Kashmir issue leading Obama into first 'tar pit', The Washington Times, 6 January 2009
- Asia's Islamism engine, The Australian, 4 December 2008
- What Should Obama Do On Kashmir, Forbes, 1 December 2008
- A wrong role for Bill Clinton, Boston Globe, 28 December 2008
- Holbrooke Plans First Trip as Afghanistan-Pakistan Envoydead link, Voice of America
- Partnering With Pakistan, The Washington Post, 28 January 2009
- Will Kashmir Be an Obama Foreign Policy Focus?, Time 28 January 2009
- Kashmir taken out of Holbrooke’s brief, says reportdead link, Dawn, 31 January 2009
- "U.S. Removes Kashmir From Envoy's Mandate; India Exults", The Washington Post, 30 January 2009
- "India warns Obama over Kashmir", Financial Times, 3 February 2009
- US has no plans to appoint special envoy on Kashmir: Blakedead link, The News International, 16 July 2009
- US to sign 0 billion defence accords with India, Dawn, 17 July 2009
- "India and Pakistan exchange fire in Kashmir border clashes". The Guardian (UK). 8 October 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Mishra, Pankaj (March 4, 2010). "Kashmir: "The World’s Most Dangerous Place"". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- Talbott, Strobe (2004). Engaging India: Diplomacy, Democracy, and the Bomb. Brookings Institution Press. p. 161. ISBN 0-8157-8300-0.
- "Nuclear weapons: Who has what". CNN. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- "Musharraf moved nuclear weapons in Kargil war". The Nation. Archived from the original on 2007-12-23. Retrieved 2009-05-27.
- Drew, Federic. 1877. The Northern Barrier of India: a popular account of the Jammoo and Kashmir Territories with Illustrations.&;#8221; 1st edition: Edward Stanford, London. Reprint: Light & Life Publishers, Jammu. 1971.
- Dr. Ijaz Hussain, 1998, Kashmir Dispute: An International Law Perspective, National Institute of Pakistan Studies
- Alastair Lamb, Kashmir: A Disputed Legacy 1846–1990 (Hertingfordbury, Herts: Roxford Books, 1991)
- Kashmir Study Group, 1947–1997, the Kashmir dispute at fifty : charting paths to peace (New York, 1997)
- Jaspreet Singh, Seventeen Tomatoes– an unprecedented look inside the world of an army camp in Kashmir (Vehicle Press; Montreal, Canada, 2004)
- Navnita Behera, Demystifying Kashmir (Washington, D.C.: Brooking Institute Press, 2006).
- Navnita Behera, State, identity and violence : Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh (New Delhi: Manohar, 2000)
- Sumit Ganguly, The Crisis in Kashmir (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press; Cambridge : Cambridge U.P., 1997)
- Sumantra Bose, The challenge in Kashmir : democracy, self-determination and a just peace (New Delhi: Sage, 1997)
- Robert Johnson, A Region in Turmoil (London and New York, Reaktion, 2005)
- Hans Köchler, The Kashmir Problem between Law and Realpolitik. Reflections on a Negotiated Settlement. Keynote speech delivered at the "Global Discourse on Kashmir 2008." European Parliament, Brussels, 1 April 2008.
- Prem Shankar Jha, Kashmir, 1947: rival versions of history (New Delhi : Oxford University Press, 1996)
- Manoj Joshi, The Lost Rebellion (New Delhi: Penguin India, 1999)
- Alexander Evans, "Why Peace Won't Come to Kashmir", Current History (Vol 100, No 645) April 2001 p170-175.
- Surinder Mohan, "Transforming the Line of Control: Bringing the 'Homeland' Back In", Asian Politics & Policy (Vol 5, No 1) January 2013 p51-75.
- Younghusband, Francis and Molyneux, E. 1917. Kashmir. A. & C. Black, London.
- Victoria Schofield, Kashmir in Conflict I.B. Tauris, London.
- Victoria Schofield, Kashmir in the Crossfire, I.B. Tauris, London.
- Andrew Whitehead, A Mission in Kashmir, Penguin India, 2007
- Muhammad Ayub, An Army; Its Role & Rule (A History of the Pakistan Army from Independence to Kargil 1947–1999). Rosedog Books, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA. 2005. ISBN 0-8059-9594-3
- Kashmir Conflict, Homepage Washington Post.
- The UN Security Council Resolution on Kashmir Capt Samarth Singh.
- The Future of Kashmir, Matthew A. Rosenstein et al., ACDIS Swords and Ploughshares 16:1 (winter 2007-8), Program in Arms Control, Disarmament, and International Security (ACDIS) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- Centre for Contemporary Conflict on Kargil War
- BBC articles on Kashmir
- Recent Kashmir developments
- The Political Economy of the Kashmir Conflictdead link US Institute of Peace Report, June 2004
- The Kashmir dispute-cause or symptom?
- LoC-Line of Control situation in Kashmir
- An outline of the history of Kashmir
- News Coverage of Kashmir
- Accession Document
- Conflict in Kashmir: Selected Internet Resources by the Library, University of California, Berkeley, USA; University of California at Berkeley Library Bibliographies and Web-Bibliographies list
- Timeline since April 2003dead link
- Kashmir resolution of the European Parliament, 24 May 2007
- "Election in Kashmir Begins Amid Boycott Calls"
- Disputed territories of India