1st Row: Chanakya • Chandragupta Maurya • Aryabhata • Guru Hargobind • Akbar the Great
17.31% of the world's population
|Regions with significant populations|
|India 1,210,193,422 (2011)|
|United Arab Emirates||1,500,0006|
|South Africa||1,160,000citation needed|
|Languages of India|
|Hinduism · Islam · Christianity · Sikhism · Buddhism · Jainism · Zoroastrianism · Judaism · Irreligion|
Indian people or Indians also known as Bharatiya are citizens of India and people of Indian heritage, the second most populous nation containing 17.50%17 of the world's population. The Indian nationality consists of many regional ethno-linguistic groups, reflecting the rich and complex history of India. The diaspora populations with Indian ancestry, as a result of emigration, are somewhat widespread most notably in Southeast Asia, United Kingdom, North America, Australia, South Africa and Southern Europe. Population estimates vary from a conservative 12 million to 20 million diaspora.12
The name Bharat (भारत) has been used as a self-ascribed name by people of the Indian subcontinent and the Republic of India.18 The designation Bhārata appears in the official Sanskrit name of the country, Bhārata Gaṇarājya. The name is derived from the ancient Vedic and Puranas, which refer to the land that comprises India as Bhārata. varṣam and uses this term to distinguish it from other varṣas or continents.19 The Bhāratas were vedic tribe mentioned in the Rigveda, notably participating in the Battle of the Ten Kings.20 India is named after mythological Emperor Bharata who is descendant of Bharata tribe, scion of Kuru Dynasty who unified Indian Subcontinent under one realm.21
- उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् ।
- वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।।
- "The country (varṣam) that lies north of the ocean and south of the snowy mountains is called Bhāratam; there dwell the descendants of Bharata."2223
While the word Indian and India is derived from Greek Ἰνδία (Indía), via Latin India. Indía in Koine Greek denoted the region beyond the Indus (Ἰνδός) river, since Herodotus (5th century BC) ἡ Ἰνδική χώρη, hē Indikē chōrē; "the Indian land", Ἰνδός, Indos, "an Indian", from Old Persian Hinduš and medieval term Hindustani24 The name is derived ultimately from Sindhu, the Sanskrit name of the river Indus, but also meaning "river" generically.25
The Indian people established during ancient and medieval period some of the greatest Dynasties in South Asian history like the Maurya Empire, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukya Empire, Chola Empire, Vijayanagara Empire and Maratha Empire.The first great Empire of the Indian people was the Maurya Empire which conquered the major part of South Asia in the 4th and 3rd century BC during the reign of the Indian Emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka alongside with their senior advisor, Acharya Chanakya, the pioneer of the field of political science and economics in India. The next great ancient Empire of the Indian people was the Gupta Empire. This period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or "Golden Age of India". During this period, aspects of Indian civilization, administration, culture, and religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) spread to much of Asia, while kingdoms in southern India had maritime business links with the Roman Empire from around AD 77. The ancient Indian mathematicians Aryabhata, Bhāskara I and Brahmagupta invented the concept of zero and the decimal system during this period.26 During this period Indian cultural influence spread over many parts of Southeast Asia which led to the establishment of Indianized kingdoms in Southeast Asia.27
During the early medieval period the great Rashtrakuta dynasty dominated the major part of the Indian subcontinent. from the 8th to 10th century and the Indian Emperor Amoghavarsha of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty was described by the Arab traveler Sulaiman as one of the 4 great Kings of the world.28 The medieval south Indian mathematician Mahāvīra (mathematician) lived in the Rashtrakuta dynasty and was the first Indian mathematician who separated astrology from mathematics and who wrote the earliest Indian text entirely devoted to mathematics.29 The greatest maritime Empire of the medieval Indians was the Chola dynasty. Under the great Indian Emperors Rajaraja Chola I and his successor Rajendra Chola I the Chola dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia.3031 The power of the Chola empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the occupation of cities of the maritime empire of Srivijaya in Southeast Asia, as well as by the repeated embassies to China.32
During the late medieval period the great Vijayanagara Empire dominated the major part of southern India from the 14th to 16th century and reached its peak during the reign of the south Indian Emperor Sri Krishnadevaraya33 The medieval Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics flourished during this period under such well known south Indian mathematicians as Madhava (c. 1340-1425) who made important contributions to Trigonometery and Calculus, and Nilakhanta (c. 1444-1545) who postulated on the orbitals of planets.34 The Indian Maratha people emerged in the 17th century and established the Maratha Empire under the reign of Shivaji Maharaj which became the dominant power in India in the 18th century.35
India had a Mughal and a Mysore Empire influence by great Muslim Emperors like Shahabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan, Mohammad Salim Jahangir, and Tipu Sultan for many centuries. This marked a huge influence in the Indian society.36
|Part of a series on the|
India is the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, collectively known as Indian religions.37 Indian religions, also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along with Abrahamic ones. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third- and fourth-largest religions respectively, with over 2 billion followers altogether,383940 and possibly as many as 2.5 or 2.6 billion followers.3841 India is also the birthplace for the Jain, Lingayat, and Ahmadiyya faiths.
India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world, with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of most of its people.
The religion of 80.5% of the people is Hinduism. Islam is practiced by around 13% of all Indians.42 Sikhism, Jainism and especially Buddhism are influential not only in India but across the world. Zoroastrianism, Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith are also influential but their numbers are smaller. Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life, atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self-ascribed tolerance to other people.
Hinduism is the majority in most states; Kashmir and Lakshadweep are Muslim majority; Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya are Christian majority; Punjab is a Sikh majority with Hindus 37%. It is to be noted that while participants in the Indian census may choose to not declare their religion, there is no mechanism for a person to indicate that he/she does not adhere to any religion. Due to this limitation in the Indian census process, the data for persons not affiliated with any religion may not be accurate. India contains the majority of the world's Hindus, Zoroastrians, Sikhs, Jains and Bahá'í. India is also home to the third-largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia and Pakistan. Muslims are the largest religious minority.
|Other religions & persuasions||6,639,626||0.6%|
|Religion not stated||727,588||0.1%|
The Census of India under the office of Registrar General and Census Commissioner maintains comprehensive lists based on decennial survey across the country and corroborated by digital data regarding the social, economic, geographical and religious indicators in the country. It is the largest such regularised exercise related to tabulating religious information in the world. The latest census figures for religion may be found here.44
The music of India includes multiple varieties of music. India's classical music tradition, including Carnatic and Hindustani music, has a history spanning millennia and, developed over several eras, it remains fundamental to the lives of Indians today as sources of spiritual inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment. Other popular mode of music includes folk, popular, pop, and R&B. India is made up of several dozen ethnic groups, speaking their own languages and dialects, having very distinct cultural traditions.
Some of the best-known hindu deities, Shiva, Durga, Ganesha, Ramayana and Krishna, are typically represented dancing. There are hundreds of Indian folk dances such as Bhangra, Garba and special dances observed in regional festivals. India offers a number of classical Indian dance forms, each of which can be traced to different parts of the country. The presentation of Indian dance styles in film, Bollywood, has exposed the range of dance in India to a global audience.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2015)|
Though Constitution of India gives equal rights to all citizens,4647 traditionally caste system has been existed in India, which is a system of social stratification within various social sections defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed jatis or castes. Within a jati, there exist exogamous groups known as gotras, the lineage or clan of an individual. Caste barriers have mostly broken down in cities but still exists in some form in rural areas.48
The jātis are thought of as being grouped into four varnas:49 Brahmins (priests and scholars), Kshatriyas (rulers and warriors), Vaishyas (merchants and traders) and Shudras (labourers and peasants). Certain groups, now known as "Dalits", find no mention in the Varna System and are supposed to have been added into the System later on as a consequence of political instability around 1000 CE, ostracised as untouchables.5051
Caste is often thought of as an ancient fact of Hindu life, but various contemporary scholars argue that the caste system was constructed by the British colonial regime.52 Between 1860 and 1920, the British segregated Indians by caste, granting administrative jobs and senior appointments only to the upper castes. Social unrest during 1920s led to a change in this policy.5354 From then on, the colonial administration began a policy of positive discrimination by reserving a certain percentage of government jobs for the lower castes.55 After India achieved independence, this policy of caste-based reservation of jobs was formalised with lists of Scheduled Castes (Dalit) and Scheduled Tribes (Adivasi).56
Discrimination against lower castes is illegal in India under Article 15 of its constitution. India tracks violence against Dalits nationwide; in 2011, the crime prevalence rate against Dalits was 2.8 per 100,000.57 Since 1950, the country has enacted many laws and social initiatives to protect and improve the socioeconomic conditions of its lower caste population.58 These caste classifications for college admission quotas, job reservations and other affirmative action initiatives, according to the Supreme Court of India, are based on heredity and are not changeable. These initiatives by India, over time, have led to many lower caste members being elected to the highest political offices including that of president, with the election of K.R. Narayanan, a Dalit, from 1997 to 2002.59
Bharat Mata (Hindi, from Sanskrit भारत माता, Bhārata Mātā), Mother India, or Bhāratāmbā (from अंबा ambā 'mother') is the national personification of India as a mother goddess. She is usually depicted as a woman clad in an orange or saffron sari holding a flag, and sometimes accompanied by a lion.
The genetic analysis of two Y chromosome variants, Hgr9 and Hgr3 provides insightful data. Microsatellite variation of Hgr9 among Iranians, Indians and Pakistanis indicate an expansion of populations to around 9000 YBP in Iran and then to 6,000 YBP in India. This migration originated in what was historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to the Indus valley, and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian speakers from south-west Iran606162 Subsequently, the Indo-European migration into subcontinent from Sintashta culture about 4,000 ybp.616364 and the Tibeto-Burmans and Austroasiatics via the Himalayan and north-eastern borders of the subcontinent.65
All major Y chromosome DNA haplogroups in the subcontinent are Haplogroup F's descendant haplogroups R (mostly R2a, R2 and R1a1), L, H and J (mostly J2).67 other minor but notable haplogroups include O3 among Tibeto-Burman speakers, O2a among Austroasiatic speakers, G and T.
In a 2009 study of 132 individuals, 560,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 25 different south asian groups were analysed, providing strong evidence in support of the notion that modern south asians (both Indo-Aryan and Dravidian groups) are a hybrid population descending from two genetically divergent populations referred to as the 'Ancestral North Indians' related to Western Eurasians and the 'Ancestral South Indians' who are not closely related to groups outside the subcontinent. 68 According to the study, Asians split into Ancestral South Indians, Proto-East Asian and Andamanese around 48,500 ybp 69 which today only exists in admixture form through maternal subgroup of M (mtDNA) in South Asia and in Eastern Asia through paternal Haplogroup D and maternal subgroup of M (mtDNA). 69 70 Andamanese were unique in that they were the only population in the study that lacked any Ancestral North Indian and all Y-DNA and MtDNA unique to South Asia.71 The authors thus suggest that the peopling of Andaman islands must have occurred before the appearance of Haplogroup F and it's descendants. 72
Although population groups originating in different parts of the Indian subcontinent and within the international borders of the modern country of India had been migrating to south east Asia, far east Asia, central Asia, north Africa and even along the European mediterrannean coast, the Indian diaspora generally socio-politically or historically refers to those whose families or themselves migrated to other parts of the world after the British Empire established itself in India. Population estimates vary from a conservative 12 million to 20 million diaspora.12
The British Indian community had grown to number over one million. According to the 2001 UK Census, 1,053,411 Britons had full Indian ethnicity (representing 1.8% of the UK's population). An overwhelming majority of 99.3% resided in England (in 2008 the figure is thought to be around 97.0%). In the seven-year period between 2001 and 2009, the number of Indian-born people in the UK increased in size by 38% from 467,634 to around 647,000 (an increase of approximately 180,000).73
There are over 1 million Indian people in Canada, the majority of which live in Greater Toronto and Vancouver. Nearly 4% of the total Canadian population is of Indian ancestry, a figure higher than both the United States and Britain.
More than a million people of Indian descent live in South Africa, concentrated around the city of Durban.
About 40,000 people of Indian origin live in Tanzania mostly in the urban areas.
According to the American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau, the Indian American population in the United States grew from almost 1.67 million in 2000 to 3.1 million in 2010 which comprises as the third-largest Asian American community in the United States after Chinese Americans and Filipino Americans.
- Vijay Mishra (2007). The Literature of the Indian Diaspora: Theorizing the Diasporic Imaginary. Taylor & Francis US. pp. 256–. ISBN 978-0-415-42417-2. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Sagarika Dutt (28 November 2006). India in a Globalised World. Manchester University Press. pp. 176–. ISBN 978-0-7190-6900-0. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Race Reporting for the Asian Population. Factfinder2.census.gov (5 October 2010). Retrieved on 2012-11-19.
- C. S. Kuppuswamy (28 February 2003). MALAYSIAN INDIANS: The third class race. South Asia Analysis Group
- Chandru (26 November 2009). "The Indian Community in Myanmar". Southasiaanalysis.org. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
- "BBC 2011 Census breakdown". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- Australian Government - Department of Immigration and Border Protection. "Indian Australians". Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- . ISTAT. Retrieved on 2014-01-01.
- K. Kesavapany; A. Mani; Palanisamy Ramasamy (2008). Rising India and Indian Communities in East Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 537–. ISBN 978-981-230-799-6. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
-  31 Dec. 2014 German Statistical Office. Zensus 2014: Bevölkerung am 31. Dezember 2014
- Anzahl der Ausländer in Deutschland nach Herkunftsland (Stand: 31. Dezember 2014)
- Imagens, Factos, Notícias, Informações e História sobra Goa India. SuperGoa. Retrieved on 2012-11-19.
- . Retrieved on 2012-03-13.
- "CSO Emigration" (PDF). Census Office Ireland. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- "Minifacts about Norway 2015". Statistics Norway. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- Official population clock
- Article 1 of the English version of the Constitution of India: "India that is Bharat shall be a Union of States."
- Pargiter, F. F. (1922), Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p. 131
- Schmidt, H.P. Notes on Rgveda 7.18.5-10. Indica. Organ of the Heras Institute, Bombay. Vol.17, 1980, 41-47.
- National Council of Educational Research and Training, History Text Book, Part 1, India
- "Was the Ramayana actually set in and around today’s Afghanistan?".
- Cheung, Martha Pui Yiu (2014) . "Zan Ning (919–1001 CE), To Translate Means to Exchange". An Anthology of Chinese Discourse on Translation: From Earliest Times to the Buddhist Project. Routledge. pp. 179, 181. ISBN 978-1-317-63928-2.
- The Earth and Its Peoples by Richard Bulliet,Pamela Crossley,Daniel Headrick,Steven Hirsch,Lyman Johnson p.192
- The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: From early times to c. 1800, Band 1 by Nicholas Tarling p.281
- The Shaping of Modern Gujarat: Plurality, Hindutva, and Beyond; Acyuta Yājñika, Suchitra Sheth, Penguins Books, (2005), p.42, ISBN 978-0-14400-038-8
- The Math Book: From Pythagoras to the 57th Dimension, 250 Milestones by Clifford A. Pickover: page 88
- Kulke and Rothermund, p 115
- Keay, p 215
- K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p 158
- Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture by John Stewart Bowman p.270
- "History of Science and Philosophy of Science: A Historical Perspective of the Evolution of Ideas in Science", editor: Pradip Kumar Sengupta, author: Subhash Kak, 2010, p91, vol XIII, part 6, Publisher: Pearson Longman, ISBN 978-81-317-1930-5
- Western India in the Nineteenth Century: A Study in the Social History by Ravinder Kumar p.5
- Zahir ud-Din Mohammad (10 September 2002). Thackston, Wheeler M., ed. The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor. New York: Modern Library. p. xlvi. ISBN 978-0-375-76137-9.
- Nikki Stafford Finding Lost, ECW Press, 2006 ISBN 1-55022-743-2 p. 174
- "45". What Is Hinduism?: Modern Adventures Into a Profound Global Faith. Himalayan Academy Publications. 2007. p. 359. ISBN 1-934145-00-9.
- "Non Resident Nepali – Speeches". Nrn.org.np. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
- "BBCVietnamese.com". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
- "Religions of the world: numbers of adherents; growth rates". Religioustolerance.org. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
- "Religions Muslim" (PDF). Registrat General and Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2006. Retrieved 2006-06-01.
- "Census of India – India at a Glance : Religious Compositions". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
- The website of the Census of India, showing religious composition
- M.K. Gandhi (1936). Collected works of Mahatama Gandhi; Dr. Ambedkar's Indictment — I & II (see pages 205–207 for part I, and pages 226–227 for part II, see other pages on castes as well) (PDF). 69: 16 May 1936—19 OCTOBER.
- "Constitution of India/Part III". Wikisource. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "Article 17 in The Constitution Of India 1949". Indian Kanoon. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- BBC, Religion and ethics, Hinduismdead link
- Robb 1997, pp. 91-99, 349-353.
- Sadangi (2008). Emancipation of Dalits and Freedom Struggle. ISBN 978-81-8205-481-3.
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (2006). "The Impact of Affirmative Action in India: More Political than Socioeconomic". India Review 5 (2): 173–189. doi:10.1080/14736480600824516.
- de Zwart, Frank (July 2000). "The Logic of Affirmative Action: Caste, Class and Quotas in India". Acta Sociologica 43 (3): 235–249. doi:10.1177/000169930004300304. JSTOR 4201209.
- Robin J Moore, Sir Charles Wood's Indian Policy 1853–66, The University Press, University of Manchester, Chapter 10, pp 204-226
- André Burguière and Raymond Grew (2001), The Construction of Minorities: Cases for Comparison Across Time and Around the World, The University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0472067374, pp 215-229
- The Economist (June 29, 2013), Affirmative Action, India Reservations
- "List of Schedule Castes". Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India. 2011.
- CRIME AGAINST PERSONS BELONGING TO SCs / STs Government of India (2011), page 108
- How do I obtain caste certificate Protective Discrimination Policies, Government of India (2012)
- Ex-India President Narayanan dies BBC News (2005)
- Tamil Literature Society (1963), Tamil Culture 10, Academy of Tamil Culture, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... together with the evidence of archaeology would seem to suggest that the original Dravidian-speakers entered India from Iran in the fourth millennium BC ...
- Namita Mukherjee, Almut Nebel, Ariella Oppenheim and Partha P. Majumder (December 2001), "High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from central Asia and West Asia into India" (PDF), Journal of Genetics (Springer India) 80 (3), doi:10.1007/BF02717908, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... More recently, about 15,000-10,000 years before present (ybp), when agriculture developed in the Fertile Crescent region that extends from Israel through northern Syria to western Iran, there was another eastward wave of human migration (Cavalli-Sforza et al., 1994; Renfrew 1987), a part of which also appears to have entered India. This wave has been postulated to have brought the Dravidian languages into India (Renfrew 1987). Subsequently, the Indo-European (Aryan) language family was introduced into India about 4,000 ybp ...
- Dhavendra Kumar (2004), Genetic Disorders of the Indian Subcontinent, Springer, ISBN 1-4020-1215-2, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... The analysis of two Y chromosome variants, Hgr9 and Hgr3 provides interesting data (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001). Microsatellite variation of Hgr9 among Iranians, Pakistanis and Indians indicate an expansion of populations to around 9000 YBP in Iran and then to 6,000 YBP in India. This migration originated in what was historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to the Indus valley, and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian languages from south-west Iran (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001). ...
- Frank Raymond Allchin and George Erdosy (1995), The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States, Cambridge University Press, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... There has also been a fairly general agreement that the Proto-Indoaryan speakers at one time lived on the steppes of Central Asia and that at a certain time they moved southwards through Bactria and Afghanistan, and perhaps the Caucasus, into Iran and India-Pakistan (Burrow 1973; Harmatta 1992) ...
- Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund (1998), High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from central Asia and West Asia into India, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-15482-0, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... During the last decades intensive archaeological research in Russia and the Central Asian Republics of the former Soviet Union as well as in Pakistan and northern India has considerably enlarged our knowledge about the potential ancestors of the Indo-Aryans and their relationship with cultures in west, central and south Asia. Previous excavations in southern Russia and Central Asia could not confirm that the Eurasian steppes had once been the original home of the speakers of Indo-European language ...
- Richard Cordaux , Gunter Weiss, Nilmani Saha and Mark Stoneking (2004), "The Northeast Indian Passageway: A Barrier or Corridor for Human Migrations?", Molecular Biology and Evolution (Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution), doi:10.1093/molbev/msh151, PMID 15128876, retrieved 2008-11-25,
... Our coalescence analysis suggests that the expansion of Tibeto-Burman speakers to northeast India most likely took place within the past 4,200 years ...
- Y Haplogroups of the World, 2005, McDonald
- Y Haplogroups of the World
- Moorjani, Priya; Kumarasamy Thangaraj; Nick Patterson; Alkes L. Price; David Reich (5 September 2013). "Genetic Evidence for Recent Population Mixture in India". Cell 93 (3): p422–438. PMC 2842210. PMID 19779445. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Reich, David; Kumarasamy Thangaraj; Nick Patterson; Alkes L. Price; Lalji Singh (24 September 2009). "Reconstructing Indian Population History". Nature 461 (7263): 489–494. doi:10.1038/nature08365. PMC 2842210. PMID 19779445. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- M. Phillip Endicott, Thomas P. Gilbert, Chris Stringer, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Eske Willerslev, Anders J. Hansen, Alan Cooper (2003), "The Genetic Origins of the Andaman Islanders" (PDF), American Journal of Human Genetics 72 (1): 178–184, doi:10.1086/345487, PMC 378623, PMID 12478481, retrieved 2009-04-21,
... The HVR-1 data separate them into two lineages, identified on the Indian mainland (Bamshad et al. 2001) as M4 and M2 ... The Andamanese M2 contains two haplotypes ... developed in situ, after an early colonization ... Alternatively, it is possible that the haplotypes have become extinct in India or are present at a low frequency and have not yet been sampled, but, in each case, an early settlement of the Andaman Islands by an M2-bearing population is implied ... The Andaman M4 haplotype ... is still present among populations in India, suggesting it was subject to the late Pleistocene population expansions ...
- Reich, David; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.; Singh, Lalji (2009). "Reconstructing Indian population history". Nature 461 (7263): 489–94. Bibcode:2009Natur.461..489R. doi:10.1038/nature08365. PMC 2842210. PMID 19779445.
- Reich, David; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.; Singh, Lalji (2009). "Reconstructing Indian population history". Nature 461 (7263): 489–94. Bibcode:2009Natur.461..489R. doi:10.1038/nature08365. PMC 2842210. PMID 19779445.
- "Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth (Table 1.3)". Office for National Statistics. September 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2010.