|Hangul||형, 품세 (pre 1987) 품새 (post 1987), 틀|
|Hanja||形, 品勢(품세), no Hanja for 틀|
|Revised Romanization||hyeong, pumsae, teul|
|McCune–Reischauer||hyŏng, p'umsae, t'ŭl|
The Korean terms hyeong, pumsae, and teul (meaning "form" or "pattern") are all used to refer to martial arts forms that are typically used in Korean martial arts such as Taekwondo and Tang Soo Do. In non-martial terms, hyung (형) can mean "big brother," but this is fundamentally distinct from hyeong (形). Hyeong is often romanized as hyung; pumsae is often romanized as poomsae or poomse; and teul is often romanized as tul.
A hyeong is a systematic, prearranged sequence of martial techniques that is performed either with or without the use of a weapon. In traditional dojangs (training halls), hyeong are used primarily as a form of interval training that is useful in developing mushin, proper kinetics and mental and physical fortitude. Hyeong may resemble combat, but are artistically non-combative and woven together so as to be an effective conditioning tool. One's aptitude for a particular hyeong may be evaluated in competition. In such competitions, hyeong are evaluated by a panel of judges who base the score on many factors including energy, precision, speed, and control. In western competitions, there are two general classes of hyeong: creative and standard. Creative hyeong are created by the performer and are generally more acrobatic in nature and do not necessarily reflect the kinetic principles intrinsic in any martial system.
- 1 Early taekwondo forms
- 2 Ch'ang Hon
- 3 Official ITF Syllabus
- 3.1 Cheon-Ji
- 3.2 Dan-Gun
- 3.3 Do-San
- 3.4 Won-Hyo
- 3.5 Yul-Gok
- 3.6 Jung-Geun
- 3.7 Toi-Gye
- 3.8 Hwa-Rang
- 3.9 Chung-Mu
- 3.10 Gwang-Gae
- 3.11 Po Eun
- 3.12 Gye-Baek
- 3.13 Eui-Am
- 3.14 Chung-Jang
- 3.15 Juche
- 3.16 Sam-Il
- 3.17 Yu-Sin
- 3.18 Choe-Yeong
- 3.19 Yeon-Gae
- 3.20 Eul-Ji
- 3.21 Mun-Mu
- 3.22 Seo-San
- 3.23 Se-Jong
- 3.24 Tong-Il
- 4 Unofficial ITF Syllabus
- 5 Pumsae
- 5.1 Taegeuk Il Jang/Palgwe Il Jang
- 5.2 Taegeuk Yi Jang/Palgae Yi Jang
- 5.3 Taegeuk Sam Jang/Palgae Sam Jang
- 5.4 Taegeuk Sa Jang/Palgae Sa Jang
- 5.5 Taegeuk O Jang/Palgae O Jang
- 5.6 Taegeuk Yuk Jang/Palgae Yuk Jang
- 5.7 Taegeuk Chil Jang/Palgae Chil Jang
- 5.8 Taegeuk Pal Jang/Palgae Pal Jang
- 5.9 Koryo
- 5.10 Keumgang
- 5.11 Taebaek
- 5.12 Pyongwon
- 5.13 Sipjin
- 5.14 Jitae
- 5.15 Cheonkwon
- 5.16 Hansu
- 5.17 Ilyo
- 6 Tang Soo Do
- 7 See also
- 8 References
There are many different taekwondo organizations, and there are many differences in the forms used in these organizations. Some schools may use a mixture of two or more sets of forms, whereas other schools strictly adhere to just one set of forms. In addition, sometimes a school will incorporate some forms that have been developed by the masters of their school into their training while still adhering to the original set of forms. The first kwan (or school) of taekwondo, called the Chung Do Kwan, was formed in 1944 by Won Kuk Lee.1 This school, like all the kwans, practiced the Okinawan/Japanese Heian (Pyongahn) set you see below in the Tang Soo Do section, along with a few variant forms. These patterns are borrowed from Shotokan Karate, founded by Gichin Funakoshi.
Schools that follow the International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF) standards typically use the Chang Hon 창헌 (also called Chang Hun, Chang 'On or Chon-Ji) forms that were developed by Choi Hong Hi, Nam Tae Hi, Han Cha Kyo, Choi Chang Keun,2 Park Won Ha,3 Woo Jae Lim, Kim Bok Man and Cho Sang Min,4 and have their roots in the Oh Do Kwan.5 In addition, Kim J.C., Park Jong Soo, and Lee Byung Moo are thought to have developed four of the Ch'ang Hon patterns (Eui-Am, Moon-Moo, Yong-Gae & So-San) in 1968.4 Park Jung Tae, likely assisted by Choi Jung Hwa (General Choi's son), Michael McCormack (General Choi's son-in-law) and Lim Won Sup, is credited with developing the Juche pattern.4 Kong Young Il may have helped develop the Ch'ang Hon patterns as well.6 With the Oh Do Kwan in charge of the taekwondo training in the Korean military, the "Chang Hon hyeong" set of forms spread widely, and they are seen in many taekwondo organizations.
The pattern names below are shown with Revised Romanization spellings; however, the traditional spellings are shown in parentheses if they vary from the modern standard, since those patterns have long been known with those spellings.
천지 / 天地 - 19 movements
Literally, Cheon-Ji (or Chon-Ji) means "heaven and earth" and refers to the creation of the world or the beginning of human history, and thus is the initial pattern learned by the beginner. It consists of forearm low blocks and punches in the first part to represent earth, and inner forearm middle blocks and punches in the second part to denote heaven. It does not use any kicks. The cross shaped diagram represents the four elements of the universe : fire, water, air and earth.
단군 / 檀君 - 21 movements
Dan-Gun is named after the holy Dangun, the legendary founder of Korea in 2333 BC. Unusually for a teul, all the punches in Dan-Gun are high section (at eye level), symbolizing Dangun scaling a mountain.
도산 / 島山 - 24 movements
원효 / 元曉 - 28 movements
율곡 / 栗谷 - 38 movements
Yul-Gok is a pseudonym of a great philosopher and scholar Yi I (1536-1584) nicknamed the "Confucius of Korea". The 38 movements of this pattern refer to his birthplace on 38-degree latitude and the diagram of the pattern represents scholar.
중근 / 重根 - 32 movements
Jung-Geun (or Joong-Gun) is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Itō Hirobumi, the first Japanese governor-general of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-Japan merger. There are 32 movements in this pattern to represent Mr Ahn's age when he was executed at Lui-Shung Prison in 1910.
퇴계 / 退溪 - 37 movements
Toi-Gye is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16th century), an authority on neo-Confucianism. The 37 movements of the pattern refer to his birthplace on 37-degree latitude, the diagram represents "scholar" as in the Yul-Gok hyeong.
화랑 / 花郎 - 29 movements
Hwa-Rang is named after the Hwarang youth group that originated under the Silla Dynasty roughly 1350 years ago. The group eventually became the driving force for the unification of the three Kingdoms of Korea. The 29 movements refer to the 29th infantry Division, where Taekwondo developed into maturity.
충무 / 忠武 - 30 movements
Chung-Mu (or Choong-Moo) was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Sun-sin of the Yi Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armored battleship (kobukson) in 1592, which is said to be the precursor of the present day submarine. The reason this pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolize his regrettable death having no chance to show his unrestrained potentiality checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty to the King.
광개 / 廣開 - 39 movements
Gwang-Gae (or Kwang-Gae) is named after the famous Kwang-Gae-Toh-Wang, the 19th king of the Goguryeo Dynasty, who achieved the greatest territorial expansion including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram of the form represents the expansion and recovery of lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391AD, the year he came to the throne.
포은 / 圃隱 - 36 movements
Po Eun is the pseudonym of a loyal subject Jeong Mongju who was a distinguished scholar of neo-Confucianism during the Goryeo Dynasty. His poem "I would not serve a second master though I might be crucified a hundred times" is known to every Korean. The diagram, which is simply a straight line represents his unerring loyalty to the king and his country.
계백 / 階伯 - 44 movements
의암 / 義菴 - 45 movements
Eui-Am is the pseudonym of Son Byong Hi, leader of the Korean independence movement on March 1, 1919. The 45 movements refer to his age when he changed the name of his religion from Dong Hak (oriental learning) to Chondogyo (Heavenly Way Religion) in 1905. The diagram represents his indomitable spirit, displayed while dedicating himself to the prosperity of his nation.
충장 / 忠壯 - 52 movements
Chung-Jang (or Choong-Jang) is the pseudonym given to General Kim Duk Ryang who lived during the Yi Dynasty, 14th century. This pattern ends with a left hand attack to symbolize the tragedy of his death at 27 in prison before he was able to reach full maturity.
주체 / 主體 - 45 movements
The Juche hyeong has 45 movements. Juche is a philosophical idea that man is the master of everything and decides everything. In other words, the idea that man is that master of the world and his own destiny. It is said that this idea was rooted in Baekdu Mountain, which symbolize the spirit of the Korean people. The diagram represents Baekdu Mountain, which is the highest mountain in Korea.
삼일 / 三一 - 33 movements
Sam-Il name refers to the historic March 1st Movement, the biggest nation-wide Korean independence movement against the imperial Japan in 1919. The 33 movements in the pattern represent for the 33 patriots who planned the movement.
유신 / 庾信 - 68 movements
Yu-Sin (or Yoo-Sin) is named after General Kim Yu-Sin, a commanding general during the Silla Dynasty who played an important role in the merger of Goguryeo and Baekje by Silla. The 68 movements refer to the last two figures of 668 AD the year the three kingdoms were unified. The ready posture signifies a sword drawn to the right rather than the left side, symbolizing Yoo Sin's mistake of following his king's orders to fight with foreign forces (Tang Dynasty of China) against his own people (Goguryeo and Baik-je).
최영 / 崔榮 - 45 movements
Choe-Yeong (or Choi-Yong) is named after General Choe Yong, Premier and Commander-in Chief of the armed forces during the 14th century Goryeo Dynasty. Choi Yong was greatly respected for his loyalty, patriotism, and humility. He was executed by subordinate commanders headed by General Yi Seonggye, who later became the first king of the Joseon Dynasty.
연개 / 淵蓋 - 49 movements
Yeon-Gae (or Yon-Gae) is named after the famous general Yon Gae Somoon during the Goguryeo Dynasty. He defended Goguryeo from the aggression of the Tang Dynasty by destroying nearly 300,000 of their troops at Ansi Sung. (This pattern normally resides between Choi Yong and Se-Jong)
을지 / 乙支 - 42 movements
Eul-Ji (or Ul-Ji) is named after general Eulji Mundeok who successfully defended Goguryeo against a Sui invasion force of over one million soldiers led by Yang Je in 612AD. By employing hit and run guerilla tactics, he was able to destroy the majority of the force. The diagram of the hyeong represents his surname. The 42 movements represent the author's age when he designed the pattern.
문무 / 文武 - 61 movements
Mun-Mu (or Moon-Moo) honors King Munmu, the 30th king of the Silla Dynasty, who completed the unification of the three kingdoms (Goguryeo, Baik-je, Silla). His body was buried near Dae Wang Am (Great King's Rock). According to his will, the body was placed in the sea "Where my soul shall forever defend my land against the Japanese". The 61 movements in this pattern symbolize the last two figures of 661 AD when Munmu came to the throne. (This pattern normally resides between Choi Yong and Sea-Jong)
서산 / 西山 - 72 movements
Seo-San (or So-San) is the pseudonym of the great monk Choi Hyon Ung during the Joseon Dynasty. The 72 movements refer to his age when he organized a corps of monk soldiers with the assistance of his pupil Sa Myung Dang. The monk soldiers helped repulse the Japanese who overran most of the Korean peninsula in 1592 during the Imjin War. (This pattern normally resides between Choi Yong and Sea-Jong) Seo-San is the longest of all Taekwon-do patterns.
세종 / 世宗 - 24 movements
This pattern is named after Se-Jong who was the 4th King of the Yi Dynasty. He was known for his many great achievements in domestic and foreign affairs, diplomacy, scientific advancements, defense matters and culture. His most remarkable achievement was his invention of "Hangeul", the Korean Alphabet. The 24 movements of this pattern represent the 24 letters of the "Hangeul".
통일 / 統一 - 56 movements
Tong-Il means "unification" which is the ultimate goal of all Koreans. Korea used to be one country, but was divided into North and South Korea in 1945 by the ideological conflict between the USSR and the USA after World War II. Yon Mu Sun, the diagram of this pattern symbolizes the North and South becoming one.
Chul-Gi literally means Iron Horse and stresses techniques performed in a horse/riding stance. Chul-Gi is Okinawan in origin and practiced by many martial arts styles. Chul-Gi is known as Naihanchi in Okinawan Karate and as Tekki in Shotokan Karate. (This pattern normally resides between Hwa-Rang and Choong-Moo)
Bassai is also Okinawan in origin and is practiced in Taekwondo and Tang Soo Do (tangsudo) as well as many Japanese and Okinawan Karate styles. Bassai is also known as Balsek. Bassai is often translated as "to break down the fortress". The Korean pronunciation of the characters that make up Bassai is "Patsai". It is usually associated with the Cobra, because of the quick, snapping motions of the techniques. (This pattern normally resides between Choong-Moo and Kwang-Gae)
고당/古堂 - 39 movements
Go-Dang (or Ko-Dang) was one of the original 24 patterns created by General Choi. In the early 1980s, however, Kodang was removed from the official syllabus by General Choi and replaced by a new pattern which he named Juche. Go-Dang was a famous South Korean anti-communist, and when Choi began to spread his art throughout the world, and to North Korea in particular, he removed this pattern so as not to offend anyone. Although no longer part of official ITF Taekwondo, Kodang is still included in the syllabi of many Taekwondo organisations. In those organisations where it is still taught, it is generally taught to students at the level of second dan black belt. It consists of a sequence of 39 individual techniques. Although some sources lead to the deduction that Kodang is exactly the same pattern as Juche, they are in fact two completely different patterns. The confusion arose when one of the ITF Taekwondo groups changed the name of the pattern Juche to Kodang in 2008, because the word "Juche" is associated with North Korea's communist ideology.
The Kukkiwon uses the word pumsae for form. Pumsae philosophy originate from the book 'I Ching', a Chinese oracle. The I Ching has 64 hexagrams, a combination of two sets of three lines, closed or broken. The sets of three lines are called [[ trigrams ]]. The open lines represent Yin, the solid lines Yang. In the Chinese language, the unity of Yin and Yang is called 'taich'i'. In the Korean language, the unity is called Tae-geuk. This explains the term pumsae Taegeuk. The eight trigrams together are called Pal-gwe as in pumsae Palgwe.
Most Kukkiwon schools will use the pumsae Taegeuk whereas a few schools will use the pumsae Palgwe. The meanings, trigrams and symbols are shared by both pumsae Taegeuk and pumsae Palgwe, however the sequence of movements is different. The first 8 forms of the set of pumsae differ from each other, whereas the last 9 forms of the set are shared between the two sets.
Palgwe pumsae were used from 1967 to 1971. Taegeuk pumsae have been in use from 1971 to the present time. Kukkiwon states that Palgwe pumsae have been eliminated.
The official forms for Kukki-Taekwondo, as mandated by the Kukkiwon (World Taekwondo Headquarters), are the Taegeuk pumsae. Pumsae is sometimes written as poomse; however this would lead to an incorrect pronunciation as the Hangeul for the term uses the same Jamo as the Tae in Taekwondo, not the sound "Sey" (comparison: Teh-kwon-do not Tay-kwon-do nor Tie-kwon-do). However, many dialects of Korean pronounce the jamo ae and e almost identically. Until 1987 the Hanja for poomse was 品勢, and meant "dynamic shape of movement creating a static resting shape". In 1987 the Hangul was changed to a pure Korean word, with no Hanja by changing the last Hangul letter from Se to Sae. Now the meaning of Poomsae according to Kukkiwon stayed the same.
On February 26, 1987, the Kukkiwon amended the spelling with it being interpreted as poomsae, which changed the Hangul word ending from the earlier "se" to the current "Sae".
The general meaning of this form and associated trigram is Yang, which represents Heaven and Light. Also, this trigram has a relationship to South and Father. The first Taegeuk form is the beginning of all pumsaes, the "birth" of the martial artist into Taekwondo. This pumsae should be performed with the greatness of Heaven.
The associated trigram of this pumsae represents the Lake(joy, a calm sturdy spirit:). Also, related to the symbol is South East and the relationship of the youngest daughter. The movements of this Taegeuk/Palgwe are aimed to be performed believing that man has limitations, but that we can overcome these limitations. The Lake and its water symbolize the flowing and calm nature of the martial artist. This form is to reflect those attributes.
This trigram represents Fire. Related to this symbol is also East and the relationship of the Second Daughter. Fire contains a lot of energy. The symbol behind the fire is similar to the symbolism of the water in that both can aid and both can destroy. This form is intended to be performed rhythmically, with some outbursts of energy to reflect fire's rhythmic and energetic dualism.
This trigram represents Thunder. Also, the trigram is strongly connected to northeast and the relationship of the Eldest son. Thunder comes from the sky and is absorbed by the earth, thus, according to the beliefs of the I Ching, thunder is one of the most powerful natural forces. This pumsae is associated with power and the connection between the heavens and earth. This pumsae is intended to be performed with power resembling the Thunder for which it is named.
The trigram associated with this pumsae represents Wind. The trigram is also related to southwest and the relationship with an eldest daughter. The I Ching promotes that wind is a gentle force, but can sometimes be furious, destroying everything in its path. As such, it is intended that this pumsae is performed like the wind: gently, but knowing the ability of mass destruction with a single movement. The performer and audience should be aware of the duality of the form.
The trigram associated with this pumsae represents Water. Also, there is a relation to West and the relationship with a Second son. The movements of this pumsae are intended to be performed like water; flowing, powerful and cleansing. Sometimes standing still like water in a lake, sometimes thriving as a river, sometimes powerful like a waterfall. The water is to symbolize calm and cleansing, while also possessing the attribute of being violent and destructive.
The trigram associated with this pumsae represents a Mountain. Also, it represents the northwest and youngest son. The symbolism behind the mountain is the indomitable and majestic nature that all mountains possess. This pumsae is intended to be performed with the feeling that all movements are this majestic due to their unconquerable nature.
The trigram associated with this pumsae represents the Earth. Also, there is a representation of North and Mother. The associated trigram of this pumsae is Yin. Yin, here, represents the end of the beginning, the evil part of all that is good. This being the last of the pumsae Taegeuk, it represents the end of the circle and the cyclic nature of the Earth.
Koryo, or Goryeo, is the name of an old Korean Dynasty. The people from the Goryeo defeated the Mongolian aggressors. It is intended that their spirit is reflected in the movements of the pumsae Koryo. Each movement of this pumsae represents the strength and energy needed to control the Mongols. The line of direction is the shape of the Hanja for a "Scholar", learned man.
Keumgang means "diamond," symbolizing hardness. Keumgang is also the name of the most beautiful mountain in Korea, as well as the Keumgang warrior, named by Buddha. Thus, the themes of hardness, beauty, and pondering permeate this pumsae.
The legendary Dangun founded a nation in Taebaek, near Korea's biggest mountain Baekdoo. Baekdoo is a known symbol for Korea. The definition of the word taebaek is literally "lightness". Every movement in this poomsae is intended to be not only be exact and fast, but with determination and hardness resembling the mountain Baekdoo, the origin of the nation of Korea.
The definition of Pyongwon is "stretch, vast plain." The name carries with it a connotation of being large and majestic.
Sipjin stands for ten symbols of longevity, which are Sun, Moon, Mountain, Water, Stone, Pine tree, Herb of eternal youth, Turtle, Deer, and Crane. This pumsae represents the endless development and growth by the basic idea of the ten symbols of longevity and the decimal system.
Cheonkwon literally means 'sky'. In the pumsae, the sky symbolizes the ruler of the universe. According to belief, it is mysterious, infinite and profound. The motions of Cheonkwon are full of piety, vitality and reverence.
This pumsae is derived from the fluidity of water which easily adapts within nature. The symbol of the water repeats itself many times throughout all pumsae, hyeongs, and in martial arts in general.
The state of spiritual cultivation in Buddhism is called 'Ilyo' which means 'oneness'. In Ilyo, body and mind, spirit and substance, "I" and "you" are unified. The ultimate ideal of the martial art and pumsae can be found in this state. It is a discipline in which every movement is concentrated on leaving all materialistics thoughts, obsessions and external influences behind.
There are several different Tang Soo Do organizations around the world, but they generally follow a similar course with regard to hyeong. Most Tang Soo Do hyeong are related by borrowing from Japanese/Okinawan kata, with the names often directly translated from the Japanese.
Some schools teach new students the gicho/kicho, "basic," hyeong:
- (Kicho) Hyeong Il Bu
- (Kicho) Hyeong Ee Bu
- (Kicho) Hyeong Sam Bu
- (Kicho) Hyeong Sa Bu
The Kicho hyeong are extremely similar to the Taikyoku kata developed by Yoshitaka Funakoshi (son of the Japanese karate master Gichin Funakoshi). The embusen used are the same, the stances are the Tang Soo Do equivalent, and the blocks and strikes are virtually identical. There is great reason to believe that Hwang Kee based his Korean Kicho hyeong on the Japanese Taikyoku kata.
The Kicho hyeong were developed as a basic, simple form for beginners. The symbol used in Tang Soo Do for the Kicho hyeong is a human baby learning to walk. The pattern is also visible in the increasingly complex forms that follow. Hwang Kee used these forms to teach applications of basic moves and techniques. These forms are also influenced by the Wa Ka Ryu style of southern China. These and the Pyung Ahn forms to follow are characterized by speed, aggressiveness, dynamic action, and quick reaction.
The World Tang Soo Do Association has modified the Kicho Hyeong, adding some kicks to it:
- Sae Kye Hyeong Il Bu
- Sae Kye Hyeong E Bu
- Sae Kye Hyeong Sam Bu
The Pyong Ahn hyung are a series of five forms cognate in many ways to the pinan kata series of karate. They were reorganized by Master Itosu, an Okinawan practitioner of Te and mentor of Funakoshi Gichin. They were originally a single form called Jae Nam. To make them easier to learn and safer for younger practitioners, the form was divided, and the more dangerous and lethal techniques were removed. These newly organized hyung were designed as training forms to prepare for Kong Sang Koon (Kusanku). For a more comprehensive description of these hyung see Pinan Kata.
- Pyong Ahn Cho Dan
- The first of the Pyong Ahn series that most practitioners learn, much of this form is a combination of gicho hyung il bu and ee bu. This form also employs low knife-hand blocks (ha dan soo do mahk kee). It is also the first hyung to incorporate multiple techniques per count (the low block/middle knife hand block combination).
- Pyong Ahn Ee Dan
- This hyeong is one count/technique longer than the other low-rank forms, due to one of its techniques, a side kick (yup podo cha gi), which is performed in two counts, the first to set up and the second to deliver. It is also one of the few low-level hyung to have a ki hap (yell) on the last move. Most forms feature their ki haps between the first and last techniques. The most-often used technique in this hyung is the middle knife-hand block in a back stance (hu gul choong dan soo do mahk kee).
- Pyong Ahn Sam Dan
- The third of the pyong ahn forms, this is also the shortest. While the forms before it involve an I-structure for movement, this form instead goes along an inverted T-structure, cutting out several counts. Its series of outside-inside kicks (ahnesoo pahkuro cha gi) to sideways elbow blocks (pal koop mahk kee) and hammerfist strikes (kwon do kong kyuk) is its most recognizable feature. It also ends with a ki hap.
- Pyong Ahn Sa Dan
- This form starts out much like Pyong Ahn Ee Dan, except that where Pyong Ahn Ee Dan has closed fists on its first blocks, Pyong Ahn Sa Dan has open hands. It is cognate to the Shotokan kata Pinan Yondan.
- Pyong Ahn O Dan
- Cognate to Pinan Godan, this is the final hyung of the series, as well as the most involved. Its key features are cross-legged stances (kyo cha rip jaseh) and a jump followed by a double arm X low block (song soo ha dan mahk kee).
The phrase "pyong ahn" is often translated as "balance and security." These forms are usually taught after the gicho hyung. These forms were reorganized from their original form(called "Jae-Nam") in approximately 1870. In their original state they are run in sequence starting with the second form Pyong Ahn Ee Dan, to Pyong Ahn Cho Dan, and then to Pyong Ahn Sam Dan, Pyong Ahn Sa Dan, and Pyong Ahn O Dan, an order different from the order they are learned. Though designed as open hand forms (weaponless), their versatility allows weapon application very easily. Common adaptations include the sais, jool bong (nunchaku), and bong (fighting staff). These forms show the influence of the southern China martial art style.
The Pyung Ahn hyung can be represented by the tortoise. The tortoise is well balanced, calm, and peaceful (pyung) and it carries its "home" on its back in the form of its shell. These forms are meant as a means of defense and should promote security (ahn). Also like the tortoise, they are meant to inspire longevity through both balance and security.
The Keema hyeong series are borrowed from the naihanchi series of karate, and in fact some schools use the name Naihanchi for these forms. The level at which they are taught varies, but their difficulty and technicality means that they are most often reserved for red/black belts, though not always directly after each other. Hwang Kee assigned the Horse to represent the form. They are:
- Naihanchi Cho Dan
- Naihanchi Ee Dan
- Naihanchi Sam Dan
The "Bassai" pattern, meaning "to penetrate a fortress," has cognates in both Chinese, Japanese and Korean martial arts. Moreover, there are many variations upon the two Bassai hyeong present in Tang Soo Do, Bassai(Palche) So and Bassai(Palche) Deh. Some schools only practice Palche De, the "greater" of the two forms. These are usually higher-belt forms. The animal these forms represent is the snake.
Meaning "Ten Hands," Ship Soo (or Sip Soo, depending on the Romanization) is cognate to the karate kata Jitte, though there are differences. Traditionally, this hyeong contains only hand techniques (its name can be taken to mean "all hands"), but some styles of Tang Soo Do do include kicking techniques. Its variations are many, and depend on the school, as with all hyeong. This form supposedly represents the bear.
Jinte is a typically high-rank hyeong, whose hanja can be read as "Battle East". The hyeong requires balance with one legged techniques, and is often seen at tournament hyeong competitions.
ITF Tang Soo Do refers to the form as Jintae, instead of Chinto or Jindo.
These two series of hyeong were created by Grandmaster Hwang Kee, who founded the Moo Duk Kwan organization. Chil Sung literally means "Seven Stars" in Korean. These are presumably represented by the seven forms of the series. "Yuk" meaning "six" and "Ro" means "Path". These forms represent the "six paths" taken in connecting the Physical, Mental, and Spiritual in Tang Soo Do/ Soo Bahk Do.
Chil Sung series:7
- Chil Sung Il Ro
- Chil Sung Ee Ro
- Chil Sung Sam Ro
- Chil Sung Sa Ro
- Chil Sung O Ro
- Chil Sung Yuk Ro
- Chil Sung Chil Ro
Yuk Ro series:
- Yuk Ro Cho Dan (Du Mun)
- Yuk Ro Ee Dan (Joong Jol)
- Yuk Ro Sam Dan (Po Wol)
- Yuk Ro Sa Dan (Yang Pyun)
- Yuk Ro O Dan (Sahl Chu)
- Yuk Ro Yuk Dan (Choong Ro)
- Yates, Keith (1988). The Complete Book Of Tae Kwon Do Forms. Boulder, Colorado: Paladin Press. ISBN 978-0-87364-492-1.
- A Modern History of Tae Kwon Do. Bokyung Moonhwasa. 1999. ISBN 89-358-0124-0.
- Anslow, Stuart (2010). The Encyclopedia of Taekwon-Do Patterns: The Complete Patterns Resource For Ch’ang Hon, ITF & GTF Students of Taekwon-Do (Vol 1). Checkpoint Press. p. 9. ISBN 1906628165.
- Anslow, Stuart (2010). The Encyclopedia of Taekwon-Do Patterns: The Complete Patterns Resource For Ch’ang Hon, ITF & GTF Students of Taekwon-Do (Vol 1). Checkpoint Press. p. 165. ISBN 1906628165.
- Anslow, Stuart (2010). The Encyclopedia of Taekwon-Do Patterns: The Complete Patterns Resource For Ch’ang Hon, ITF & GTF Students of Taekwon-Do. Checkpoint Press. p. 10. ISBN 1906628165.
- Choi Hong Hi. The Encyclopedia of Taekwon-Do (15 volumes). International Taekwon-Do Federation.
- Cook, Doug (May 2011). "The Evolution of Tae Kwon Do Poomse, Hyung and Tul". Totally TaeKwonDo (27): 27–33.
- "The Forms of Tang Soo Do (Soo Bahk Do)". TangSooDoWorld.com.