Hui people

Hui people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hui people

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The Hui () ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui () languages.


Hui خُوِذُو
回族 (Huízú)
Hui Muslims
Total population
Regions with significant populations
Mandarin, Dungan,
other Chinese languages
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
Dungan, Panthay, Dongxiangs, Han Chinese,
other Sino-Tibetan peoples
Hui people
Chinese 回族

The Hui people (Chinese: ; pinyin: Huízú, Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو / حواري, Dungan: Хуэйзў/Huejzw) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group in China. Hui people are found throughout the country, though they are concentrated mainly in the Northwestern provinces and the Central Plain. According to a 2011 census, China is home to approximately 10.5 million Hui people, the majority of whom are Chinese-speaking practitioners of Islam, though some practice other religions. Hui people are ethnically and linguistically similar to Han Chinese2 with the exception that they practice Islam,3 engendering distinctive cultural characteristics. For example, as Muslims, they follow Islamic dietary laws and reject the consumption of pork, the most common meat consumed in China,4 and have given rise to their variation of Chinese cuisine, Chinese Islamic cuisine, as well as Muslim Chinese martial arts. Their mode of dress differs primarily in that men wear white caps and women wear headscarves or (occasionally) veils, as is the case in many Islamic cultures.

The Hui people are one of 56 ethnic groups recognized by China. The government defines the Hui people to include all historically Muslim communities not included in China's other ethnic groups.5 The Hui predominantly speak Chinese.3 In fact, the Hui nationality is unique among Chinese ethnic minorities in that it associates with no non-Sinitic language.6

Etymology and identification

After the establishment of the People's Republic, the term "Hui" came to define one of China's ten minority nationalities historically associated with Islam.7 Broadly, the term has been used in reference to Chinese-speaking groups sharing foreign Muslim ancestry. Practising Islam is not required. Use of the Hui category to describe foreign Muslims moving into China dates back to the Song dynasty (960–1279).

Pan-Turkic Uyghur activist, Masud Sabri, viewed the Hui people as Muslim Han Chinese and separate from his own people, noting that with the exception of religion, their customs and language were identical to the Han.8

The Hui people are of varied ancestry,9 and many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers. Their ancestors include Central Asians, Arabs and Persians who married Hans. West Eurasian DNA is prevalent among the Hui people—6.7% of Hui people's maternal genetics have a West Eurasian origin.9bare URL Several medieval dynasties, particularly the Tang Dynasty, Song Dynasty and Mongol Yuan Dynasty encouraged immigration from predominantly Muslim Persia and Central Asia, with both dynasties welcoming traders from these regions and appointing Central Asian officials. In the subsequent centuries, they gradually mixed with Mongols and Hans, eventually forming the Hui.citation needed Nonetheless, included among the Hui in Chinese census statistics (and not officially recognized as separate ethnic groups) are members of a few small non-Chinese speaking communities. Among them are several thousand Utsuls in southern Hainan province, who speak an Austronesian language (Tsat) related to that of the Vietnamese Cham Muslim minority, who are said to be descended from Chams who migrated to Hainan.10 A small Muslim minority among Yunnan's Bai people are classified as Hui as well (even if they are Bai speakers),11 as are some groups of Tibetan Muslims.10 The Hui people are more concentrated in Northwestern China (Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang), but communities exist across the country, e.g. Beijing, Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Hainan and Yunnan.

"Huihui" and "Hui"

Huihui (回回), which was the usual generic term for China's Muslims during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, is thought to have its origin in the earlier Huihe (回纥) or Huihu (回鶻), which was the name for the Uyghur State of the 8th and 9th centuries.12 Although the ancient Uyghurs were neither Muslims nor directly related to today's Uyghur people,12 the name Huihui came to refer to foreigners, regardless of language or origin, by the time of the Yuan (1271–1368).13 and Ming Dynasties (1368–1644).12 During the Yuan Dynasty, large numbers of Muslims came from the west, and since the Uyghur land was in the west, this led the Chinese to call all foreigners of all religions, including Muslims, Nestorian Christians, and Jews, as "HuiHui".

Genghis Khan called both foreign Jews and Muslims in China "Hui Hui" when he forced them to stop halal and kosher methods of preparing food:14

Among all the [subject] alien peoples only the Hui-hui say “we do not eat Mongol food”. [Cinggis Qa’an replied:] “By the aid of heaven we have pacified you; you are our slaves. Yet you do not eat our food or drink. How can this be right?” He thereupon made them eat. “If you slaughter sheep, you will be considered guilty of a crime.” He issued a regulation to that effect ... [In 1279/1280 under Qubilai] all the Muslims say: “if someone else slaughters [the animal] we do not eat”. Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman [Muslim] Huihui and Zhuhu [Jewish] Huihui, no matter who kills [the animal] will eat [it] and must cease slaughtering sheep themselves, and cease the rite of circumcision.

The Chinese called Muslims, Jews and Christians in ancient times by the same name, "Hui Hui". Christians were called "Hui who abstain from animals without the cloven foot", Muslims were called "Hui who abstain from pork", Jews were called "Hui who extract the sinews". Hui zi or Hui Hui is presently used almost exclusively for Muslims, but Jews were still called Lan mao Hui zi which means "Blue cap Hui zi". Jews and Muslims in China shared the same name for synagogue and mosque, which were both called Qingzhen si "Temple of Purity and Truth" from the thirteenth century. Synagogues and mosques were also known as Libai Si (temple of worship). The Kaifeng Jews were nicknamed "Teaou kin jiao" (挑筋教, extract sinew religion). A tablet indicated that Judaism was once known as "Yih-tsze-lo-nee-keaou" (一赐乐业教, Israelitish religion) and synagogues known as Yih-tsze lo née leen (Israelitish Temple), but this fell from use.15

Islam was originally called Dashi Jiao during the Tang Dynasty, when Muslims first appeared in China. "Dashi Fa" literally means "Arab law", in old Chinese (modern calls Alabo).16 Since almost all Muslims in China were exclusively foreign Arabs or Persians at the time, it was barely mentioned by the Chinese, unlike other religions like Zoroastrism, Mazdaism, and Nestorian Christianity which gained followings in China.17 As an influx of foreigners, such as Arabs, Persians, Jews and Christians, most but not all of them were Muslims who came from western regions, they were labelled as Semu people, but were also mistaken by Chinese as Uyghur, due to them coming from the west (uyghur lands).18 so the name "Hui Hui" was applied to them, and eventually became the name applied to Muslims.

Another, probably unrelated, early use of the word Huihui comes from the History of Liao Dynasty, which mentions Yelü Dashi, the 12th-century founder of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, defeating the Huihui Dashibu (回回大食部) people near Samarkand – apparently, referring to his defeat of the Khwarazm ruler Ahmed Sanjar in 1141.19 Khwarazm is referred to as Huihuiguo in the Secret History of the Mongols as well.20 The widespread and rather generic application of the name "Huihui" in Ming China was attested by foreign visitors as well. Matteo Ricci, the first Jesuit to reach Beijing (1598), noted that "Saracens are everywhere in evidence . . . their thousands of families are scattered about in nearly every province"21 Ricci noted that the term Huihui or Hui was applied by Chinese not only to "Saracens" (Muslims) but also to Chinese Jews and supposedly even to Christians.22 In fact, when the reclusive Wanli Emperor first saw a picture of Ricci and Diego de Pantoja, he supposedly exclaimed, "Hoei, hoei. It is quite evident that they are Saracens", and had to be told by a eunuch that they actually weren't, "because they ate pork".23 The 1916 Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8 said that Chinese Muslims always called themselves Huihui or Huizi, and that neither themselves nor other people called themselves Han, and they disliked people calling them Dungan.24 A French army Commandant Viscount D'Ollone wrote a report on what he saw among Hui in 1910. He reported that due to religion, Hui were classed as a different nationality from Han as if they were one of the other minority groups.25

While Huihui or Hui remained a generic name for all Muslims in Imperial China, specific terms were sometimes used to refer to particular groups, e.g. Chantou Hui ("turbaned Hui") for Uyghurs, Dongxiang Hui and Sala Hui for Dongxiang and Salar people, and sometimes even Han Hui (漢回) ("Chinese Hui") for the (presumably Chinese-speaking) Muslims more assimilated into the Chinese mainstream society.2627 Some scholars also say that some Hui used to call themselves 回漢子 (Hui Hanzi) "Muslim Han" but the Communist regime separated them from other Chinese and placed them into a separate minzu, "Huizu".28

A halal (清真) shower house in Linxia City

Under the aegis of the Communist Party in the 1930s, the term Hui was defined to indicate only Sinophone Muslims. In 1941, this was clarified by a Party committee comprising ethnic policy researchers in a treatise entitled "On the question of Huihui Ethnicity" (Huihui minzu wenti). This treatise defined the characteristics of the Hui nationality as follows: the Hui or Huihui constituted an ethnic group associated with, but not defined by, Islam and they are descended primarily from Muslims who migrated to China during the Mongol-founded Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368), as distinct from the Uyghur]and other Turkic-speaking ethnic groups in Xinjiang. The Nationalist government had recognised all Muslims as one of "the five peoples"—alongside the Manchus, Mongols, Tibetans and Han Chinese—that constituted the Republic of China.29

These days, within the PRC, Huizu and is the standard term for the "Hui nationality" (ethnic group), and Huimin, for "Hui people" or "a Hui person". The traditional expression Huihui, its use now largely restricted to rural areas, would sound quaint, if not outright demeaning, to modern urban Chinese Muslims.30

Halal (清真) restaurants offering Northwestern beef lamian can be found throughout the country

A traditional Chinese term for Islam is 回教 (pinyin: Huíjiào, literally "the religion of the Hui"). However, since the early days of the PRC, thanks to the arguments of such Marxist Hui scholars as Bai Shouyi, the standard term for "Islam" within the PRC has become the transliteration 伊斯蘭教 (pinyin: Yīsīlán jiào, literally "Islam religion").31 32 The more traditional term Huijiao remains in use in Singapore, Taiwan and other overseas Chinese communities.33

Qīngzhēn (清真, literally "pure and true") has also been a popular term for Muslim culture since the Yuan or Ming Dynasty. Gladney suggested that a good translation for it would be Arabic tahára. i.e. "ritual or moral purity"34 The usual term for a mosque is qīngzhēn sì (清真寺), i.e. "true and pure temple", and qīngzhēn is commonly used to refer to halal eating establishments and bathhouses.


Hui people are referred to by Central Asian Turkic speakers and Tajiks as Dungans. This term has a long pedigree. The region's historian Joseph Fletcher cites Turkic and Persian manuscripts related to the preaching of the 17th century Kashgarian Sufi master Muhammad Yūsuf (or, possibly, his son Afaq Khoja) inside the Ming Empire (in today's Gansu and/or Qinghai), where the Kashgarian preacher is told to have converted ulamā-yi Tunganiyyāh (i.e., "Dungan ulema") into Sufism.18

In English and German, the ethnonym "Dungan", in various spelling forms, was attested as early as the 1830s, typically referring to the Hui people of Xinjiang. For example, Prinsep in 1835 mentions Muslim "Túngánis" in "Chinese Tartary".35 The word (mostly in the form "Dungani" or "Tungani", sometimes "Dungens" or "Dungans") acquired currency in English and other western languages when books in the 1860-70s discussed the Dungan Revolt in north-western China.

Later authors continued to use the term Dungan (in various transcriptions) for, specifically, the Hui people of Xinjiang. For example, Owen Lattimore, writing ca. 1940, maintained the terminological distinction between these two related groups: the "Tungkan" which is the older Wade-Giles spelling for "Dungan", described by him as the descendants of the Gansu Hui people resettled in Xinjiang in 17-18th centuries, vs. e.g. the "Gansu Moslems" or generic "Chinese Moslems".36

The name "Dungan" was used to refer to all Muslims coming from China proper, such as Dongxiang and Salar in addition to Hui. They were called Chinese Muslims by westerners. Reportedly, the Hui disliked the term Dungan and did not want people to refer to them as Dungans, calling themselves either HuiHui or Huizi.37

In the Soviet Union and its successor countries, the term "Dungans" (дунгане) became the standard name for the descendants of Chinese-speaking Muslims who emigrated to the Russian Empire (mostly to today's Kyrgyzstan and south-eastern Kazakhstan) in the 1870s and 1880s.38

Muslim Chinese

Hui people are often referred to via the misnomer "Muslim Chinese" or "Chinese Muslims" in Western media.citation needed However, not all Hui are Muslims, nor are all Chinese Muslims Hui.citation needed For example, Li Yong is a famous Han Chinese who practices Islam and Hui Liangyu is a notable atheist Hui. In addition, most Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Kirghiz and Dongxiang in China are Muslims.citation needed

Other terms

In Thailand, Chinese Muslims are referred to as Chin Ho and in Burma and Yunnan Province, as Panthay.

During the Qing Dynasty, the term Zhongyuan ren (中原人, people from the Central Plain) was synonymous with being Chinese, especially referring to Han Chinese and Hui in Xinjiang or Central Asia. While Hui do not consider themselves and are not Han, the Hui consider themselves Chinese and refer to themselves as Zhongyuan ren.39 The Dungan people, descendants of Hui who fled to Central Asia, called themselves Zhongyuan ren in addition to the standard labels lao huihui and huizi.40

Zhongyuan ren was used by Turkic Muslims to refer to ethnic Chinese. When Central Asian invaders from Kokand invaded Kashgar, in a letter the Kokandi commander criticised the Kashgari Turkic Muslim Ishaq for allegedly not behaving like a Muslim and wanting to be a Zhongyuan ren (Chinese).4142

Pusuman was a name used by Chinese during the Yuan Dynasty. It could have been a corruption of Musalman (the Persian word for Muslim),citation needed or another name for Persians. It either means Muslim or Persian.4344 Pusuman Kuo (Pusuman Guo) referred to the country where they came from.4546 The name "Pusuman zi" (pusuman script), was used to refer to the script that the HuiHui (Muslims) were using.47

During the Tang Dynasty, the Muslims that visited China were mostly Arabic speaking, whereas Persian speakers formed the majority of Muslims in China during the Song and Yuan dynasties.48

In English, the term "Mohammedan" was originally used to refer to Chinese of Islamic faithclarify Muslims during the 19th century.49 During the first half of the 20th century, writers such as Edgar Snow and Owen Lattimore who visited the Hui homeland also used the term "Mohammedans" in their accounts.citation needed The term gradually fell into disuse, and today the term "Hui" is used in English.citation needed



Hui people praying in Dongguan Mosque, Xining

The Hui Chinese have diverse origins; many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers. Some in the southeast coast (e.g., Guangdong, Fujian) and in major trade centers elsewhere in China are of mixed local and foreign descent. The foreign element, although greatly diluted, came from Arab (Dashi) and Persian (Bosi) traders, who brought Islam to China. These foreigners settled in China and gradually intermarried into the surrounding population while converting them to Islam, while they in turn assimilated Chinese culture, keeping only their distinctive religion.50

Early European explorers speculated that T'ung-kan (Hui, called "Chinese Mohammedan") in Xinjiang originated from Khorezmians who were transported to China by the Mongols, and that they were descended from a mixture of Chinese, Iranian and Turkic peoples. They also reported that the T'ung-kan were Shafi'ites, as were the Khorezmians.51

Another explanation is available for the Hui people of Yunnan and Northwestern China, whose ethnogenesis might be a result of the convergence of large number of Mongol, Turkic, Iranian or other Central Asian settlers in these regions, who were recruited by the Mongol-founded Yuan Dynasty either as officials (the semu, who formed the second-highest stratum in the Yuan Empire's ethnic hierarchy, after the Mongols themselves, but before both northern and southern Chinese) or artisans.5253 A proportion of the ancestral nomad or military ethnic groups were originally Nestorian Christians, many of whom later converted to Islam under the sinicizing pressures of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.citation needed

An elderly Hui man.

Southeastern Muslims have a much longer tradition of synthesizing Confucian teachings with Qur'anic teachings and were reported to have contributed to Confucianism since the Tang period. Among the Northern Hui, on the other hand, Central Asian Sufi schools such as Kubrawiyya, Qadiriyya, Naqshbandiyya (Khufiyya and Jahriyya) were strong influences, mostly of the Hanafi Madhhab (whereas among the Southeastern communities the Shafi'i Madhhab is more of the norm). Before the "Yihewani" movement, a Chinese Muslim sect inspired by the reform movement in the Middle East, Northern Hui Sufis were very fond of blending Taoist teachings and martial arts practices with Sufi philosophy.

In early modern times, villages in northern Chinese Hui areas bore labels like "Blue-cap Huihui," "Black-cap Huihui," and "White-cap Huihui," betraying their possible Christian, Judaic and Muslim origins, even though the religious practices among north China Hui by then were by and large Islamic. Hui is also used as a catch-all grouping for Islamic Chinese who are not classified under another ethnic group. In Henan, Guangdong and Gansu, Jews converted to Islam and were assimilated into the Hui.54 Many Chinese Jews converted to Islam by the 17th century. They often worked in government service.55

Faced with the devastating An Lushan Rebellion, Emperor Suzong of Tang wrote a desperate letter to Al-Mansur requesting armed assistance. Al-Mansur sent 7,000 cavalry. It is believed that those Muslim warriors were the originators of the Hui people.56

Converted Han

According to legend, a Muhuyindeni person converted an entire village of Han with the surname Zhang to Islam.57 Another source for the Hui comes from Hui adopting Han children and raising them as Hui.58

Hui in Gansu with the surname Tang (唐) and Wang (汪) descended from Han Chinese who converted to Islam and married Muslim Hui or Dongxiang people, switching their ethnicity and joining the Hui and Dongxiang ethnic groups, both of which were Muslim.citation neededwhich?

Tangwangchuan and Hanjiaji were notable as towns with a multi-ethnic community, with both non-Muslims and Muslims.59

Kuomintang official Ma Hetian visited Tangwangchuan and met an "elderly local literatus from the Tang clan" while he was on his inspection tour of Gansu and Qinghai.60

  1. ^ [2011 census]
  2. ^ name="Esposito">Esposito, John (2000-04-06). The Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. pp. 443–444, 462. ISBN 0-19-510799-3. 
  3. ^ a b Gladney 1996, p. 20.
  4. ^ Gladney 1996, p. 13 Quote: "In China, pork has been the basic meat protein for centuries and regarded by Chairman Mao as 'a national treasure'"
  5. ^ Lipman 1997, p. xxiii or Gladney 1996, pp. 18-20 Besides the Hui people, nine other officially recognized ethnic groups of PRC are considered predominantly Muslim. Those nine groups are defined mainly on linguistic grounds: namely, six groups speaking Turkic languages ( Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Salars, Uzbeks, and Tatars), two Mongolic-speaking groups (Dongxiang and Bonan), and one Iranian-speaking group (Tajiks).
  6. ^ Of course, many members of some other Chinese ethnic minorities don't speak their ethnic group's traditional language anymore, and practically no Manchu people speak the Manchu language natively anymore; but even the Manchu language is well attested historically. Meanwhile, the ancestors of today's Hui people are thought to have been predominantly native Chinese speakers of Islamic religion since no later than the mid- or early Ming Dynasty (Lipman (1997), p. 50.
  7. ^ Lipman, Jonathan N. Familiar Strangers. A History of Muslims in Northern China, Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1997, pp. xxii-xxiii
  8. ^ [1] Wei 2002, p. 181
  9. ^ a b Yao, Y. G.; Kong, Q. P.; Wang, C. Y.; Zhu, C. L.; Zhang, Y. P. (2004). "Different matrilineal contributions to genetic structure of ethnic groups in the silk road region in china". Molecular Biology and Evolution 21 (12): 2265–80. doi:10.1093/molbev/msh238. PMID 15317881.  
  10. ^ a b Gladney 1996, pp. 33-34.
  11. ^ Gladney 1996, pp. 33–34 The Bai-speaking Hui typically claim descent of Hui refugees who fled to Bai areas after the defeat of the Panthay Rebellion, and have assimilated to the Bai culture since
  12. ^ a b c Gladney 1996, p. 18; or Lipman 1997, pp. xxiii-xxiv
  13. ^ Gladney 2004, p. 161; he refers to Leslie 1986, pp. 195–196
  14. ^ Donald Daniel Leslie (1998). "The Integration of Religious Minorities in China: The Case of Chinese Muslims". The Fifty-ninth George Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology. p. 12. Retrieved 30 November 2010. .
  15. ^ Chinese and Japanese repository of facts and events in science, history and art, relating to Eastern Asia, Volume 1. s.n. 1863. p. 18. Retrieved 2011-07-06. 
  16. ^ Israeli 2002.
  17. ^ Donald Daniel Leslie (1998). "The Integration of Religious Minorities in China: The Case of Chinese Muslims". The Fifty-ninth George Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology. Retrieved 30 November 2010. .
  18. ^ a b Lipman, Jonathan Neaman (1998). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Hong Kong University Press. p. 33. ISBN 962-209-468-6. 
  19. ^ Dillon 1999, p. 13.
  20. ^ Dillon 1999, p. 15.
  21. ^ Trigault, Nicolas S. J. "China in the Sixteenth Century: The Journals of Mathew Ricci: 1583-1610". English translation by Louis J. Gallagher, S.J. (New York: Random House, Inc. 1953). This is an English translation of the Latin work, De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas based on Matteo Ricci's journals completed by Nicolas Trigault. Pp. 106-107. There is also full Latin text available on Google Books.
  22. ^ Trigault (trans.) (1953), p. 112. In Samuel Purchas's translation (1625) (Vol. XII, p. 466): "All these Sects the Chinois call, Hoei, the Jewes distinguished by their refusing to eate the sinew or leg; the Saracens, Swines flesh; the Christians, by refusing to feed on round-hoofed beasts, Asses, Horses, Mules, which all both Chinois, Saracens and Jewes doe there feed on." It's not entirely clear what Ricci means by saying that Hui also applied to Christians, as he does not report finding any actual local Christians.
  23. ^ Trigault (trans.) (1953), p. 375.
  24. ^ James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray (1916). Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8. T. & T. Clark. p. 892. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  25. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 80. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  26. ^ Gladney 1996, p. 18 Lipman 1997, p. xxiii
  27. ^ Garnaut, Anthony. "From Yunnan to Xinjiang:Governor Yang Zengxin and his Dungan Generals". Pacific and Asian History, Australian National University). p. 95. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  28. ^ Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi; Hisao Komatsu; Yasushi Kosugi (2006). Intellectuals in the modern Islamic world: transmission, transformation, communication. Taylor & Francis. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-415-36835-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  29. ^ China Heritage Newsletter.
  30. ^ Gladney 1996, pp. 20-21.
  31. ^ Gladney 1996, pp. 18-19.
  32. ^ Gladney 2004, pp. 161-162.
  33. ^ On the continuing use of Huijiao in Taiwan, see Gladney 1996, pp. 18–19
  34. ^ Gladney 1996, pp. 12-13.
  35. ^ Prinsep, James (December 1835). Memoir on Chinese Tartary and Khoten (48). The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. p. 655. ISBN 1-4021-5631-6. 
  36. ^ Lattimore, Owen. Inner Asian Frontiers of China p=183. 
  37. ^ Hastings, James; Alexander, John; Louis, Selbie; Gray, Herbert (1916). Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8. T. & T. Clark. p. 892. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  38. ^ Gladney 1996, pp. 33, 399.
  39. ^ Richard V. Weekes (1984). Muslim peoples: a world ethnographic survey, Volume 1. Greenwood Press. p. 334. ISBN 0-313-23392-6. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  40. ^ James Stuart Olson, Nicholas Charles Pappas (1994). An Ethnohistorical dictionary of the Russian and Soviet empires. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 202. ISBN 0-313-27497-5. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  41. ^ James A. Millward (1998). Beyond the pass: economy, ethnicity, and empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864. Stanford University Press. p. 215. ISBN 0-8047-2933-6. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  42. ^ Laura Newby (2005). The Empire and the Khanate: a political history of Qing relations with Khoqand c. 1760-1860. BRILL. p. 148. ISBN 90-04-14550-8. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  43. ^ Ralph Kauz (2010-05-20). Ralph Kauz, ed. Aspects of the Maritime Silk Road: From the Persian Gulf to the East China Sea (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 89. ISBN 3-447-06103-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  44. ^ Australian National University. Dept. of Far Eastern History 1986, p. 90 at Google Books.
  45. ^ Gabriel Ronay (1978-01-01). The Tartar Khan's Englishman (illustrated ed.). Cassell. p. 111. ISBN 0-304-30054-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  46. ^ Willem van Ruysbroeck, Giovanni (da Pian del Carpine, Archbishop of Antivari) (1900). William Woodville Rockhill, ed. The journey of William of Rubruck to the eastern parts of the world, 1253-55: as narrated by himself, with two accounts of the earlier journey of John of Pian de Carpine. Printed for the Hakluyt Society. p. 13. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  47. ^ Australian National University. Dept. of Far Eastern History 1986, p. "Australian National University at Google Books.
  48. ^ Australian National University. Dept. of Far Eastern History 1986, p. Australian National University at Google Books.
  49. ^ "SLAUGHTER OF MOHAMMEDANS.; The Chinese Commander Showing No Mercy to Insurrectionists". THE NEW YORK TIMES. 14 August 1896. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  50. ^ Lipman 1997, pp. 24–31.
  51. ^ Roerich Museum, George Roerich (August 2003). Journal Of Urusvati Himalayan Research Institute, Volumes 1-3. Vedams eBooks (P) Ltd. p. 526. ISBN 81-7936-011-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  52. ^ Lipman 1997, pp. 31–35.
  53. ^ Dillon 1999, pp. 19–21.
  54. ^ John Stuart Thomson (1913). China revolutionized. INDIANAPOLIS: The Bobbs-Merrill company. pp. 411,413,490. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  55. ^ Sir Thomas Walker Arnold (1896). The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith. WESTMINSTER: A. Constable and co. p. 249. Retrieved 2011-05-29. (Original from the University of California)
  56. ^ Jewel of Chinese Muslim Heritage
  57. ^ Dillon, Michael (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 127. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  58. ^ Kitagawa, Joseph Mitsuo (2002). The religious traditions of Asia: religion, history, and culture. Routledge. p. 283. ISBN 0-7007-1762-5. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  59. ^ Lipman, Jonathan Neaman. Hui people at Google Books Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China Check |url= scheme (help).  Unknown parameter |plainurl= ignored (help)| accessdate = 17 July 2011| edition = illustrated| year = 1997| publisher = University of Washington Press| isbn = 0-295-97644-6| page = 145 }}
  60. ^ {{cite book | url={{google books|id=m1RuAAAAMAAJ&dq=heading