|Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
Bauhinia blakeana (洋紫荊)
Location of Hong Kong
|Recognised regional languages||Cantonese|
|Ethnic groups||Chinese (93.6%)
|Demonym||Hong Kong people
|-||Chief Executive||CY Leung|
|-||Chief Secretary for Administration||Carrie Lam|
|-||Financial Secretary||John Tsang|
|-||Secretary for Justice||Rimsky Yuen|
|-||Treaty of Nanking||29 August 1842|
|-||Convention of Peking||18 October 1860|
|-||Second Convention of Peking||1 July 1898|
|-||Japanese occupation||25 December 1941
to 15 August 1945
|-||Transfer of sovereignty from the UK||
1 July 1997
|-||Total||1,104 km2 (179th)
426 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||4.58 (50 km2; 19 mi2)2|
|-||2014 estimate||7,234,8003 (100th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2014 estimate|
|-||Total||$400.607 billion5 (44th)|
|-||Per capita||$55,1675 (9th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2014 estimate|
|-||Total||$292.677 billion5 (38th)|
|-||Per capita||$40,3045 (24th)|
|HDI (2013)|| 0.8917
very high · 15th
|Currency||Hong Kong dollar (HKD)|
|Time zone||HKT (UTC+8)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+8)|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||HK|
|Literal meaning||Fragrant Harbour|
|Hong Kong Special Administrative Region|
|Traditional Chinese||香港特別行政區 (or 香港特區)|
|Simplified Chinese||香港特别行政区 (or 香港特区)|
|Cantonese Jyutping||Hoeng1gong2 Dak6bit6Hang4zing3 Keoi1 (or Hoeng1gong2Dak6keoi1)|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Xiānggǎng Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū (or Xiānggǎng Tèqū)|
Hong Kong (香港; "Fragrant Harbour"), officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a region on the southern coast of China geographically enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea.8 Hong Kong is known for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour, and with a land mass of 1,104 km2 (426 sq mi) and a population of over seven million people, is one of the most densely populated areas in the world.9 Hong Kong's population is 93.6% ethnic Chinese and 6.4% from other groups.4 Hong Kong's Cantonese-speaking majority originate mainly from the neighbouring Guangdong province,10 from which many of them fled to escape wars and communist rule in mainland China from the 1930s to 1960s.11121314
Hong Kong was established as a colony of the British Empire after the First Opium War (1839–42). Hong Kong Island was first ceded in perpetuity to Great Britain, followed by Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and then the New Territories were put under lease in 1898. It was occupied by Japan during The Second World War (1941–45), after which the British resumed control until 1997. The amalgam of British and Chinese culture during the colonial era shaped the current culture of Hong Kong. For example, the educational system followed the British model until 2009.
As a result of the negotiations and the 1984 agreement between China and Britain, Hong Kong was handed over to the People's Republic of China and became its first Special Administrative Region on 1 July 1997, under the principle of "one country, two systems" (the other special region, Macau, attained that status when Portugal handed it over in December 1999). Hong Kong has a different political system from mainland China. Hong Kong's independent judiciary functions under the common law framework.1516 The Hong Kong Basic Law , the constitutional document drafted by the Chinese side before the handover based on the terms enshrined in the Joint Declaration,17 governs its political system, and stipulates that Hong Kong shall have a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign relations and military defence.1819 Although it has a multi-party system, a small-circle electorate controls 30 out of 70 seats of its legislature, which was classified as flawed democracy2021 with the lowest score in political rights among advanced economies.22
Hong Kong is a world city and is one of the Alpha+ cities. It ranks the 5th most important city all over the world in Global cities index in 2014, after New York City, London, Tokyo and Paris.23 It has the largest income inequality among advanced economies.5 It also has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, and has a high Human Development Index and high international rankings in financial and economic competitiveness.24 As Hong Kong ranks as the third most important international financial centre, after London and New York City, it has a major capitalist service economy characterised by low taxation and free trade, and the currency, the Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth most traded currency in the world.25 The limited space created demand for denser construction, which developed the city into a centre for modern architecture and the world's most vertical city.2627 The confined area has also led to a highly developed transportation network with the public transport travelling rate exceeding 90 percent,28 the highest in the world.29 Air pollution and smog is a serious problem30 with loose emission standards and a high level of atmospheric particulates compared to other advanced economies.31
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 2.1 Pre-colonial
- 2.2 British Crown Colony: 1842-1941
- 2.3 Japanese occupation: 1941-45
- 2.4 Resumption of British rule and Cold War era: 1945-97
- 2.5 Since the Handover 1997
- 3 Governance
- 4 Geography and climate
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Footnotes
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
The name "Hong Kong" is an approximate phonetic rendering of the pronunciation of the spoken Cantonese or Hakka name 香港, meaning "Fragrant Harbour".32 Before 1842, the name referred to a small inlet—now Aberdeen Harbour (香港仔 hoeng1gong2 zai2, "Little Hong Kong")—between Aberdeen Island and the south side of Hong Kong Island, which was one of the first points of contact between British sailors and local fishermen.33
The reference to fragrance may refer to the harbour waters sweetened by the fresh water estuarine influx of the Pearl River, or to the incense from factories lining the coast to the north of Kowloon, which was stored around Aberdeen Harbour for export before the development of Victoria Harbour.32 In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking was signed, and the name Hong Kong was first recorded on official documents to encompass the entirety of the island.34
The name was often written as the single word Hongkong until the government adopted the current form in 1926.35 Nevertheless, some century-old organisations still use the single-word form, such as the Hongkong Post, Hongkong Electric and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation.
The Mandarin pronunciation of the name Hong Kong is represented in pinyin as Xiānggǎng. Unlike place names in Mainland China, which are now mostly romanised into English using (Mandarin-based) pinyin spelling, the official English name in this case remains the traditional Hong Kong.
The full official name is "Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China", this being the official convention employed on the Chinese text of the Hong Kong regional emblem, the text of the Hong Kong Basic Law, and the Hong Kong Government website,36 although "Hong Kong Special Administrative Region" and "Hong Kong" are also accepted.
Hong Kong has many nicknames, but the most famous is "Pearl of the orient" (Cantonese: Dong Fong Chi Chu), reflecting the impressive city lights on both sides of Victoria Harbour, and the numerous high rise buildings.
Wong Tei Tung and Three Fathoms Cove are the two earliest sites of human habitation in Hong Kong during the Paleolithic Period. It is believed that the Three Fathom Cove was a river-valley settlement and Wong Tei Tung was a lithic manufacturing site. Excavated Neolithic artefacts suggested cultural differences from the Longshan culture of northern China and settlement by the Che people, prior to the migration of the Baiyue (Viets) to Hong Kong.4041 Eight petroglyphs, which dated to the Shang dynasty in China, were discovered on the surrounding islands.42
In 214 BC, Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of China, conquered the Baiyue tribes in Jiaozhi (modern Liangguang region) and incorporated the territory into imperial China for the first time. Modern Hong Kong was assigned to the Nanhai commandery (modern Nanhai District), near the commandery's capital city Panyu.434445
The area of Hong Kong was consolidated under the kingdom of Nanyue (Southern Viet), founded by general Zhao Tuo in 204 BC after the collapse of the short-lived Qin dynasty.46 When the kingdom of Nanyue was conquered by the Han Dynasty in 111 BC, Hong Kong was assigned to the Jiaozhi commandery. Archaeological evidence indicates that the population increased and early salt production flourished in this time period. Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb on the Kowloon Peninsula is believed to have been built during the Han dynasty.47
Under the Tang dynasty, the Guangdong (Canton) region flourished as a regional trading centre. In 736 AD, the first Emperor of Tang established a military stronghold in Tuen Mun, western Hong Kong, to defend the coastal area of the region.48 The first village school, Li Ying College, was established around 1075 AD in the modern-day New Territories under the Northern Song dynasty.49 During the Mongol invasion in 1276, the Southern Song dynasty, an extension to Northern Song, moved their court to Fujian. After their defeat by the Mongols, the Southern Song court moved to Lantau Island and to the modern-day Kowloon City (a place named Sung Wong Toi as a memorial), where the child Emperor Bing and his officials escaped by boat and were drowned following the defeat in the Battle of Yamen. Hau Wong, an official of the late emperor, is still worshipped by a small number of Hong Kong residents today.50
Voyages of discovery
The earliest recorded European visitor was Jorge Álvares, a Portuguese explorer who arrived in 1513.5152 After establishing settlements in the region, Portuguese merchants began trading in southern China. At the same time, they invaded Hong Kong and built up military fortifications in Tuen Mun. The subsequent military clashes between China and Portugal, however, led to the expulsion of all Portuguese merchants.
In the mid-16th century, the Haijin order (closed-door, isolation policy) was enforced and it strictly forbade all maritime activities and prevented contact between China and any foreigners by sea. This policy was effective since Chinese emperors had absolute powers over their citizens.50 From 1661 to 1669, Hong Kong was directly affected by the Great Clearance of Kangxi Emperor, who required the evacuation of coastal areas of Canton (Guangdong). About 16,000 people from Hong Kong and Bao'an County were forced to emigrate inland; only 1,648 of those who evacuated were said to have returned after the evacuation was rescinded in 1669.5354
British Crown Colony: 1842-1941
In 1839, the refusal of the Qing dynasty authorities to sanction opium imports caused the outbreak of the First Opium War between Britain and China. After the defeat of China, Hong Kong Island was occupied by British forces on 20 January 1841 and was initially ceded under the Convention of Chuenpee, as part of a ceasefire agreement between Captain Charles Elliot and Governor Qishan. This agreement, however was never ratified due to a dispute between high-ranking officials in both governments.55
It was not until 29 August 1842 that Hong Kong Island was formally ceded in perpetuity to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Treaty of Nanking (1842). The British officially established a Crown colony and founded the City of Victoria in the following year.56
The population of Hong Kong Island was 7,450 when the Union Flag raised over Possession Point on 26 January 1841. It mostly consisted of Tanka fishermen and Hakka charcoal burners scattered along a number of coastal hamlets. In the 1850s, a large number of Chinese immigrants crossed the then free border to escape from the Taiping Rebellion. Other natural disasters, such as flooding, typhoons and famine in mainland China would play a role in establishing Hong Kong as a place for safe shelter.5758
The establishment of the free port turned Hong Kong into a major entrepôt, attracting new immigrants to settle from China and Europe alike. The society, however, remained racially segregated and polarised under the British colonial policies. Despite the rise of a British-educated Chinese upper-class by the late-19th century, race laws such as the Peak Reservation Ordinance prevented ethnic Chinese in Hong Kong from acquiring houses in reserved areas, such as the Victoria Peak.
At this time, the majority of the Chinese population in Hong Kong had no political representation in the British colonial government. There were, however, a small number of Chinese elites whom the British governors relied on, such as Sir Kai Ho and Robert Hotung. They served as communicators and mediators between the government and local population. Sir Kai Ho later became an unofficial member of the Legislative Council. Robert Hotung was a millionaire with huge financial influence in the Crown Colony.
Addition of Kowloon: 1860
Following further disputes with opium trade between Britain and China, several murders in the province of West Canton (Guangxi) quickly escalated into a full-scale war, the Second Opium War with Britain and France fighting against China. The Anglo-French victory expanded the Crown Colony to include the Kowloon Peninsula (south of Boundary Street) and Stonecutter's Island. Both areas were ceded to the British in perpetuity under the Convention of Peking (1860).
According to the 1865 Census, Hong Kong had a population of 125,504, of which some 2,000 were Americans and Europeans. In 1894, the deadly Third Pandemic of bubonic plague spread from China to Hong Kong. It caused around 50,000 to 100,000 deaths in the Crown Colony. Almost 15% to 25% of the population vanished after the plague.59 In 1914, there was an exodus of 60,000 Chinese residents for fear of an attack on the British colony during the First World War. Nonetheless, Hong Kong's population continued to increase from 530,000 in 1916 to 725,000 in 1925 and reached 1.6 million by 1941.60
New Territories: 99 years of lease
In 1898, Britain obtained a 99-year lease from China from the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory, in which Hong Kong obtained a 99-year lease of Lantau Island and the area north of Boundary Street in Kowloon up to Shenzhen River. Governor Henry Arthur Blake oversaw the addition of the 'New Territories', Lantau and Surrounding Islands in 1898.616263
1900 to 1941
In 1925, Cecil Clementi became the 17th Governor of Hong Kong. Fluent in Cantonese from his work for the British colonial government of Hong Kong during 1902 to 1912, and without a need for translator, Clementi introduced the first ethnic Chinese, Shouson Chow, into the Executive Council as an unofficial member. Under his tenure, Kai Tak Airport (the old Hong Kong International Airport) entered operation for the Royal Air Force (RAF) Hong Kong and several aviation clubs.
In 1937, the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out when the Japanese Empire expanded their territories from northeastern China into the mainland proper. To safeguard Hong Kong as a freeport, Governor Geoffry Northcote declared the Crown Colony as a neutral zone. Falling ill to poor health, Northcote took a 6-month leave in October 1940 before returning to Hong Kong for another 6 months. With the Japanese armies looming close to Canton, Northcote completed his appointment in September 1941 and Sir Mark Aitchison Young succeeded him.
Japanese occupation: 1941-45
As part of the military campaign in East Asia and the Pacific, the Japanese Empire, ally of Germany and Italy, declared war against the British Crown Colony. Despite numerous petitions of Hong Kong to remain a neutral port during the Second World War, Japanese armies moved south from the City of Canton (Guangzhou) and crossed the Shenzhen River to enter Hong Kong on 8 December 1941.64
The Battle of Hong Kong ended with the British and Canadian defenders surrendering control of the Crown Colony to Japan on 25 December 1941. This day was regarded by the locals as the Black Christmas Day. 65
Under the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, civilians suffered widespread food shortages, limited rationing and hyper-inflation arising from the forced exchange of currency from Hong Kong Dollars to Japanese military banknotes. The initial ratio of 2:1 was gradually devalued to 4:1 and ownership of Hong Kong Dollars was declared illegal and punishable by harsh torture. Through a policy of enforced repatriation of the unemployed to mainland China, the population of Hong Kong had dwindled from 1.6 million in 1941 to 600,000 in 1945, when Britain resumed control of the Crown Colony.66
Resumption of British rule and Cold War era: 1945-97
Hong Kong's population recovered quickly after the war, as a wave of skilled migrants from China flooded into Hong Kong for refuge from the Chinese Civil War (1945-49). When the peasant communists gained control of Peking and removed the democratic Republic of China, even more skilled migrants fled to Hong Kong, across the open border, for fear of persecution.61 Many established corporations and small to medium businesses, especially those based in major port cities of Shanghai and Canton, shifted their base operations to British Hong Kong.61
End to open border: the 1950s
The Chinese communist party's establishment of a socialist state in China on 1 October 1949 caused the British colonial government to reconsider Hong Kong's open border to mainland China. In 1951, a boundary zone was demarked as a buffer zone against military attacks from communist China. Border posts in the north of Hong Kong began operation in 1953 to regulate the movement of people and goods into and out of British Hong Kong.
In the 1950s, Hong Kong's rapid industrialisation was driven by textile exports, manufacturing industries and re-exports of goods to China. As the population grew but labour costs remained low, living standards began to rise steadily. Corruption and ineffiency of public services, however, were widespread even among the police and firefighters.67 The construction of council housing, Shek Kip Mei Estate, in 1953 was a response to the massive slum fire in the same locality. This marked the beginning of the public housing estate programme in Hong Kong to provide shelter for the less privileged and cope with the influx of immigrants.
Water shortage in the 1960s
Between 1961 and 1964, droughts occurred for consecutive years in Hong Kong. The water supply from local reservoirs became insufficient due to low amounts of annual rainfall. Water rationing occurred in 1961, 1963 and 1964; the crisis became more severe in 1964, when water supply was available for 4 hours on every fourth day.
Reform and renaissance: the 1970s
Under Sir Murray MacLehose, 25th Governor of Hong Kong (1971–82), a series of reforms improved the public services, environment, housing, welfare, education and infrastructure of Hong Kong. MacLehose was the longest-serving governor and, by the end of his tenure, has become one of the most popular and well-known figures in the Crown Colony. MacLehose laid the foundation for Hong Kong's elevated role across the globe: in the 1990s as the Pearl of the East, one of the three global financial centre (along with New York and London), a regional hub for logistics and port freight, a regional centre of films and pop songs, and one of the Four Asian Tigers (or Dragons).
A number of MacLehose's most significant policies included:
- 9 years of compulsory, free education for school-aged children
- ICAC (Independent Commission Against Corruption (Hong Kong)) in 1974: eradicated corruption in public bodies, police force, firefighters and business corporations, which led to Hong Kong being regarded as one of the least corrupt cities during the 1990s
- Social welfare protection: Jobseekers' Allowance, Elderly Allowance, Disability Allowance, etc.
- Home Ownership scheme
- Labour reforms: paid holidays, redundancy payments, weekly rest days, tribunal courts
- Rehaul of the healthcare system and construction of Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Queen Mary Hospital, Princess Margaret Hospital and Prince of Wales Hospital
- Adoption of Chinese, along with English, as an official language of British Hong Kong
- Development of new towns, Sha Tin and Tuen Mun
- Establishment of country parks to preserve 70% of Hong Kong's green landmass
The British system of council administration was introduced to Hong Kong through the Urban Council and Regional Council, which have played a significant role in improving the sanitary conditions and developing numerous cultural and recreational facilities.
Mass Transit Railway of Hong Kong
To resolve traffic congestion and to provide a more reliable means of crossing the Victoria Harbour for commuters and residents, a rapid transit railway system (metro) was planned from the 1970s onwards. The Island Line (Hong Kong Island), Kwun Tong Line (Kowloon Peninsula and East Kowloon) and Tsuen Wan Line (Kowloon and urban New Territories) opened in the early 1980s.68
Hong Kong's future: the 1980s
After the devastating Cultural Revolution (1966–76), Deng Xiaoping, Chairman of the Communist Party of China, adopted an open-door policy to restore China's damaged society, infrastructure and planned economy. Trade in Hong Kong, a booming port and financial city, accelerated even further when Shenzhen, a city to the immediate north of Hong Kong, was designated as a special economic zone by the Chinese government in the 1980s. Hong Kong was recognised by the communists as the main source of foreign investment in China.69
Hong Kong's competitiveness in manufacturing, however, gradually declined due to rising labour and property costs and the new development in southern China under the open-door policy. Nevertheless, Hong Kong successfully transitioned its economy into a service-based type, as evident in the high rates of growth during the 1980s and 1990s.70
Facing the uncertain future of Hong Kong, Governor MacLehose raised the question in the late 1970s. The expiry of 1898's Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory (Second Convention of Peking) in 1997 created problems for business contracts, property leases and confidence among foreign investors. In 1983, the United Kingdom reclassifed Hong Kong as a British Dependent Territory (now British Overseas Territory) when reorganising global territories of the British Empire. Talks and negotiations began with China and concluded with the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration. Both countries to transfer Hong Kong's sovereignty to the People's Republic of China on 1 July 1997, when Hong Kong would remain autonomous as a Special Administrative Region and be able to retain its free-market economy, British common law through the Basic Law, independent representation in international organisations (e.g. WTO and WHO), treaty arrangements and policy-making except foreign diplomacy and military defence. 61 It stipulated that Hong Kong would be governed as a special administrative region, retaining its laws and a high degree of autonomy for at least 50 years after the transfer. The Hong Kong Basic Law, which is based on English law, would serve as the constitutional document after the transfer. It was ratified in 1990.61
Since the Handover 1997
Transfer of sovereignty
On 1 July 1997, the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China took place; this significant event officially marked the end of Hong Kong's 156 years under British colonial governance. As the last Crown Colony of the United Kingdom, loss of Hong Kong also represented the end of the British Empire. At the same time, Hong Kong switched countries overnight to become China's first Special Administrative Region. Tung Chee-Hwa, a pro-Beijing business tycoon, was elected to be Hong Kong's first Chief Executive under a televised managed election.
Asian financial crisis, bird flu and SARS
In 1997, Hong Kong suffered an economic double-blow from the Asian financial crisis and the pandemic of H5N1 bird flu; in December 1997, officials had to destroy 1.4 million chickens and ducks.61 In 2003 Hong Kong was gravely affected by the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).7172 The World Health Organization reported 1,755 infected and 299 deaths in Hong Kong.73 An estimated 380 million Hong Kong dollars (US$48.9 million) in contracts were lost as a result of the epidemic.74
Resignations: Basic Law Article 23
Distrust of the communist Chinese remained strong in the initial years of the former British Crown Colony. The Provisional Legislative Council of Hong Kong, which was unable to draft any new bills or authorise new legislation, expired in 1999. The Legislative Council of Hong Kong (LegCo) resumed its full function after the 1999 LegCo election.
Despite the re-election of Tung (by means of managed voting) in July 2002, the government's attempt to complete legislation of the Basic Law's Article 23 (National Security) aroused strong suspicion among Hong Kong citizens. This was due to the Article granting the police force right of access to private property, under the reason of 'safeguarding national security', without court warrants. Coupled with years of economic hardships and deflation following the Asian Financial Crisis, a peaceful yet powerful protest broke out on 1 July 2003. This hastened the resignations of two ministers and, eventually, that of Tung on 10 March 2005.75 Sir Donald Tsang, the then-Chief Secretary for Administration and ex-official of the British Hong Kong government, entered the 2005 election uncontested and was appointed by Beijing as the second Chief Executive of Hong Kong on 21 June 2005. In December 2005, Hong Kong hosted the WTO Ministerial Conference and became the place of fierce anti-globalisation demonstrations.76
Sir Donald Tsang: 2005-12
In July 2007, Tsang won the Chief Executive election under managed voting and continued into his second term of office.77 In 2009, Hong Kong hosted the 5th East Asian Games, in which nine national teams participated in this sporting event. It was the first and largest international multi-sport event ever being organised and hosted by the city.78
Hong Kong's political challenges and the uncertainty over its political future arising from interactions with China have caused fierce debate and social discontent.79
Protests and mass civil disobedience began in Hong Kong in protest against the Chinese government's decision on proposed electoral reform for the upcoming 2017 Hong Kong Chief Executive election. The Hong Kong Federation of Students and Scholarism began protesting outside the government headquarters on 22 September 2014,80 which evolved into the ongoing 2014 Hong Kong protests.
Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of autonomy, as its political and judicial systems operate independently from those of mainland China. In accordance with the Sino-British Joint Declaration, and the underlying principle of one country, two systems, Hong Kong has a "high degree of autonomy as a special administrative region in all areas except defence and foreign affairs."note 1 The declaration stipulates that the region maintain its capitalist economic system and guarantees the rights and freedoms of its people for at least 50 years after the 1997 handover.note 2 The guarantees over the territory's autonomy and the individual rights and freedoms are enshrined in the Hong Kong Basic Law, the territory's constitutional document, which outlines the system of governance of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, but which is subject to the interpretation of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC).8182
The primary pillars of government are the Executive Council, the civil service, the Legislative Council, and the Judiciary. The Executive Council is headed by the Chief Executive who is elected by the Election Committee and then appointed by the Central People's Government.8384 The civil service is a politically neutral body that implements policies and provides government services, where public servants are appointed based on meritocracy.8586 The Legislative Council has 70 members, 40 seats are directly elected by universal suffrage by permanent residents of Hong Kong according to five geographical constituencies and a District Council functional constituency. 30 seats from functional constituencies are directly elected by a smaller electorate, which consists of corporate bodies and persons from various stipulated functional sectors. The entire council is headed by the President of the Legislative Council who serves as the speaker.8788 Judges are appointed by the Chief Executive on the recommendation of an independent commission.1589
The implementation of the Basic Law, including how and when the universal suffrage promised therein is to be achieved, has been a major issue of political debate since the transfer of sovereignty. In 2002, the government's proposed anti-subversion bill pursuant to Article 23 of the Basic Law, which required the enactment of laws prohibiting acts of treason and subversion against the Chinese government, was met with fierce opposition, and eventually shelved.189091 Debate between pro-Beijing groups, which tend to support the Executive branch, and the Pan-democracy camp characterises Hong Kong's political scene, with the latter supporting a faster pace of democratisation, and the principle of one man, one vote.92
In 2004 the government failed to gain pan-democrat support to pass its so-called "district council model" for political reform.93 In 2009, the government reissued the proposals as the "Consultation Document on the Methods for Selecting the Chief Executive and for Forming the LegCo in 2012". The document proposed the enlargement of the Election Committee, Hong Kong's electoral college, from 800 members to 1,200 in 2012 and expansion of the legislature from 60 to 70 seats. The ten new legislative seats would consist of five geographical constituency seats and five functional constituency seats, to be voted in by elected district council members from among themselves.94 The proposals were destined for rejection by pan-democrats once again, but a significant breakthrough occurred after the Central Government in Beijing accepted a counter-proposal by the Democratic Party. In particular, the Pan-democracy camp was split when the proposal to directly elect five newly created functional seats was not acceptable to two constituent parties. The Democratic Party sided with the government for the first time since the handover and passed the proposals with a vote of 46–12.95
On 31 August 2014, China blocked moves by Hong Kong to move to full democracy, by ruling that only three candidates could run for elections as leader in 2017, and they would not be chosen by any process in Hong Kong, but by a nomination committee established by China.96
Legal system and judiciary
Hong Kong's legal system is completely independent from the legal system of mainland China. In contrast to mainland China's civil law system, Hong Kong continues to follow the English Common Law tradition established under British rule.97 The essence of English common law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying legal precedent (stare decisis) to the facts before them. For example, murder is a common law crime rather than one established by an Act of Parliament. Common law can be amended or repealed by Parliament; murder, for example, now carries a mandatory life sentence rather than the death penalty. According to Article 92dead link of the Basic Law, Hong Kong's courts may refer to decisions rendered by courts of other common law jurisdictions as precedents,1598 and judges from other common law jurisdictions, most commonly England, Canada and Australia, are allowed to sit as non-permanent judges of the Court of Final Appeal.1598
Structurally, the court system consists of the Court of Final Appeal, the High Court, which is made up of the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance, and the District Court, which includes the Family Court.99 Other adjudicative bodies include the Lands Tribunal, the Magistrates' Courts, the Juvenile Court, the Coroner's Court, the Labour Tribunal, the Small Claims Tribunal, and the Obscene Articles Tribunal.99 Justices of the Court of Final Appeal are appointed by Hong Kong's Chief Executive.1598 The Court of Final Appeal has the power of final adjudication with respect to the law of Hong Kong as well as the power of final interpretation over local laws including the power to strike down local ordinances on the grounds of inconsistency with the Basic Law.100101
The Department of Justice is responsible for handling legal matters for the government. Its responsibilities include providing legal advice, criminal prosecution, civil representation, legal and policy drafting and reform, and international legal co-operation between different jurisdictions.97 Apart from prosecuting criminal cases, lawyers of the Department of Justice act on behalf of the government in all civil and administrative lawsuits against the government.97 As protector of the public interest, the department may apply for judicial reviews and may intervene in any cases involving the greater public interest.102 The Basic Law protects the Department of Justice from any interference by the government when exercising its control over criminal prosecution.103104
Hong Kong continues to play an active role in the international arena and maintains close contact with its international partners. Under the Basic Law, Hong Kong is exclusively in charge of its external relations, whilst the Government of the People's Republic of China is responsible for its foreign affairs. According to the Basic Law, Hong Kong may on its own, using the name "Hong Kong, China", maintain and develop relations and conclude and implement agreements with foreign states and regions and relevant international organisations in the appropriate fields, including the economic, trade, financial and monetary, shipping, communications, tourism, cultural and sports fields.105
As a separate customs territory, Hong Kong maintains and develops relations with foreign states and regions, and plays an active role in such international organisations as World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in its own right under the name of Hong Kong, China. Under such special status, Hong Kong's international partners usually exercise particular policies to maintain relations with Hong Kong. Examples include United States-Hong Kong Policy Act.
There is a large foreign representation in Hong Kong, including 59 consulates-general, 62 consulates and 5 officially recognised international bodies, such as Office of European Union.106 Due to Hong Kong's unique status, some countries' consulates-generals operate independently of their embassies in Beijing, the Chinese capital. For example, the US Consulate General to Hong Kong is not under the jurisdiction of the Embassy in Beijing, and reports directly to the US Department of State. The British Consulate-General also reports directly to the Foreign Office, instead of going through the British Embassy in Beijing.107
Hong Kong's Basic Law in general provides Hong Kong a high level of civil liberties.108 The Hong Kong government generally respects the human rights of its citizens, although core issues remain.109 There are concerns over the freedom of assembly which is restricted by the Public Order Ordinance. The police have occasionally been accused of using heavy-handed tactics toward protestors110 and there is controversy regarding the extensive powers of the police.111 As to the right of privacy, covert surveillance remains the major concern.112
There is a lack of protection for gay men and lesbians due to the absence of a sexual orientation discrimination law, though there are currently no laws that criminalise homosexuality per se.113
Hong Kong has a unitary system of government; no local government has existed since the two municipal councils were abolished in 2000. As such there is no formal definition for its cities and towns. Administratively, Hong Kong is subdivided into 18 geographic districts, each represented by a district council which advises the government on local matters such as public facilities, community programmes, cultural activities, and environmental improvements.115
There are a total of 541 district council seats, 412 of which are elected; the rest are appointed by the Chief Executive and 27 ex officio chairmen of rural committees.115 The Home Affairs Department communicates government policies and plans to the public through the district offices.116
When China assumed sovereignty in 1997 the British barracks were replaced by a garrison of the People's Liberation Army, comprising ground, naval, and air forces, and under the command of the Chinese Central Military Commission. The Hong Kong Basic Law protects local civil affairs against interference by the garrison, and members of the garrison are subject to Hong Kong laws. The Hong Kong Government remains responsible for the maintenance of public order; however, it may ask the PRC government for help from the garrison in maintaining public order and in disaster relief. The PRC government is now responsible for the costs of maintaining the garrison.18118
Geography and climate
Hong Kong is located on China's south coast, 60 km (37 mi) east of Macau on the opposite side of the Pearl River Delta. It is surrounded by the South China Sea on the east, south, and west, and borders the Guangdong city of Shenzhen to the north over the Shenzhen River. The territory's 1,104 km2 (426 sq mi) area consists of Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula, the New Territories, and over 200 offshore islands, of which the largest is Lantau Island. Of the total area, 1,054 km2 (407 sq mi) is land and 50 km2 (19 sq mi) is inland water. Hong Kong claims territorial waters to a distance of 3 nautical miles (5.6 km). Its land area makes Hong Kong the 179th largest inhabited territory in the world.28
As much of Hong Kong's terrain is hilly to mountainous with steep slopes, less than 25% of the territory's landmass is developed, and about 40% of the remaining land area is reserved as country parks and nature reserves.119 Most of the territory's urban development exists on Kowloon peninsula, along the northern edge of Hong Kong Island, and in scattered settlements throughout the New Territories.120 The highest elevation in the territory is at Tai Mo Shan, 957 metres (3,140 ft) above sea level.121 Hong Kong's long and irregular coast provides it with many bays, rivers and beaches.122 On 18 September 2011, UNESCO listed the Hong Kong National Geopark as part of its Global Geoparks Network. Hong Kong Geopark is made up of eight Geo-Areas distributed across the Sai Kung Volcanic Rock Region and Northeast New Territories Sedimentary Rock Region.123
Despite Hong Kong's reputation of being intensely urbanised, the territory has tried to promote a green environment,124 and recent growing public concern has prompted the severe restriction of further land reclamation from Victoria Harbour.125 Awareness of the environment is growing as Hong Kong suffers from increasing pollution compounded by its geography and tall buildings. Approximately 80% of the city's smog originates from other parts of the Pearl River Delta.126
Though it is situated just south of the Tropic of Cancer, Hong Kong has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa). Summer is hot and humid with occasional showers and thunderstorms, and warm air coming from the southwest. Summer is when typhoons are most likely, sometimes resulting in flooding or landslides. Winters are mild and usually start sunny, becoming cloudier towards February; the occasional cold front brings strong, cooling winds from the north. The most temperate seasons are spring, which can be changeable, and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry.127 Hong Kong averages 1,948 hours of sunshine per year,128 while the highest and lowest ever recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory are 36.1 and 0.0 °C (97.0 and 32.0 °F), respectively.129
|Climate data for Hong Kong (Hong Kong Observatory)|
|Record high °C (°F)||26.9
|Average high °C (°F)||18.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.3
|Average low °C (°F)||14.5
|Record low °C (°F)||0.0
|Rainfall mm (inches)||24.7
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||5.37||9.07||10.90||12.00||14.67||19.07||17.60||16.93||14.67||7.43||5.47||4.47||137.65|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||143.0||94.2||90.8||101.7||140.4||146.1||212.0||188.9||172.3||193.9||180.1||172.2||1,835.6|
|Percent possible sunshine||42||29||24||27||34||36||51||47||47||54||54||51||42|
|Source: Hong Kong Observatory (normals 1981–2010, extremes 1884–1939 and 1947–present)130131|
As one of the world's leading international financial centres, Hong Kong has a major capitalist service economy characterised by low taxation and free trade. The currency, Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth most traded currency in the world as of 2010.25 Hong Kong was once described by Milton Friedman as the world's greatest experiment in laissez-faire capitalism, but has since instituted a regime of regulations including a minimum wage.132 It maintains a highly developed capitalist economy, ranked the freest in the world by the Index of Economic Freedom every year since 1995.133134135 It is an important centre for international finance and trade, with one of the greatest concentrations of corporate headquarters in the Asia-Pacific region,136 and is known as one of the Four Asian Tigers for its high growth rates and rapid development from the 1960s to the 1990s. Between 1961 and 1997 Hong Kong's gross domestic product grew 180 times while per-capita GDP increased 87 times over.137138139
The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the seventh largest in the world, with a market capitalisation of US$2.3 trillion as of December 2009.140 In that year, Hong Kong raised 22 percent of worldwide initial public offering (IPO) capital, making it the largest centre of IPOs in the world 141 and the easiest place to raise capital. The Hong Kong dollar has been pegged to the US dollar since 1983.142
The Hong Kong Government has traditionally played a mostly passive role in the economy, with little by way of industrial policy and almost no import or export controls. Market forces and the private sector were allowed to determine practical development. Under the official policy of "positive non-interventionism", Hong Kong is often cited as an example of laissez-faire capitalism. Following the Second World War, Hong Kong industrialised rapidly as a manufacturing centre driven by exports, and then underwent a rapid transition to a service-based economy in the 1980s.143 Since then, it has grown to become a leading centre for management, financial, IT, business consultation and professional services.
Hong Kong matured to become a financial centre in the 1990s, but was greatly affected by the Asian financial crisis in 1998, and again in 2003 by the SARS outbreak. A revival of external and domestic demand has led to a strong recovery, as cost decreases strengthened the competitiveness of Hong Kong exports and a long deflationary period ended.144145 Government intervention, initiated by the later colonial governments and continued since 1997, has steadily increased, with the introduction of export credit guarantees, a compulsory pension scheme, a minimum wage, anti-discrimination laws, and a state mortgage backer.132
The territory has little arable land and few natural resources, so it imports most of its food and raw materials. Imports account for more than 90% of Hong Kong's food supply, including nearly all of the meat and rice available there.146 Agricultural activity—relatively unimportant to Hong Kong's economy and contributing just 0.1% of its GDP—primarily consists of growing premium food and flower varieties. Hong Kong is the world's eleventh largest trading entity,147 with the total value of imports and exports exceeding its gross domestic product. It is the world's largest re-export centre.148 Much of Hong Kong's exports consist of re-exports,149 which are products made outside of the territory, especially in mainland China, and distributed via Hong Kong. Its physical location has allowed the city to establish a transportation and logistics infrastructure that includes the world's second busiest container port and the world's busiest airport for international cargo. Even before the transfer of sovereignty, Hong Kong had established extensive trade and investment ties with the mainland, which now enable it to serve as a point of entry for investment flowing into the mainland. At the end of 2007, there were 3.46 million people employed full-time, with the unemployment rate averaging 4.1% for the fourth straight year of decline.150 Hong Kong's economy is dominated by the service sector, which accounts for over 90% of its GDP, while industry constitutes 9%. Inflation was at 2.5% in 2007.151 Hong Kong's largest export markets are mainland China, the United States, and Japan.2
As of 2010 Hong Kong is the eighth most expensive city for expatriates, falling from fifth position in the previous year.152 Hong Kong is ranked fourth in terms of the highest percentage of millionaire households, behind Switzerland, Qatar, and Singapore with 8.5 percent of all households owning at least one million US dollars.153 In 2011, Hong Kong was ranked second in the Ease of Doing Business Index, behind Singapore.154
Hong Kong's transportation network is highly developed. Over 90% of daily travels (11 million) are on public transport,28 the highest such percentage in the world.29 Payment can be made using the Octopus card, a stored value system introduced by the Mass Transit Railway (MTR), which is widely accepted on railways, buses and ferries, and accepted like cash at other outlets.155156
The city's main railway company (KCRC) was merged with MTR in 2007, creating a comprehensive rail network for the whole territory (also called MTR).157 The MTR rapid transit system has 152 stations which serve 3.4 million people a day.158 Hong Kong Tramways, which has served the territory since 1904, covers the northern parts of Hong Kong Island.159
Hong Kong's bus service is franchised and run by private operators.why? Five privately owned companies provide franchised bus service across the territory, together operating more than 700 routes. The largest are Kowloon Motor Bus, providing 402 routes in Kowloon and New Territories, and Citybus, operating 154 routes on Hong Kong Island; both run cross-harbour services. Double-decker buses were introduced to Hong Kong in 1949, and are now almost exclusively used; single-decker buses remain in use for routes with lower demand or roads with lower load capacity. Public light buses serve most parts of Hong Kong, particularly areas where standard bus lines cannot reach or do not reach as frequently, quickly, or directly.160
The Star Ferry service, founded in 1888, operates two lines across Victoria Harbour and provides scenic views of Hong Kong's skyline for its 53,000 daily passengers.161 It acquired iconic status following its use as a setting on The World of Suzie Wong. Travel writer Ryan Levitt considered the main Tsim Sha Tsui to Central route one of the most picturesque in the world.162 Other ferry services are provided by operators serving outlying islands, new towns, Macau, and cities in mainland China. Hong Kong is famous for its junks traversing the harbour, and small kai-to ferries that serve remote coastal settlements.163164 The Port of Hong Kong is a busy deepwater port, specialising in container shipping.165
Hong Kong Island's steep, hilly terrain was initially served by sedan chairs.166 The Peak Tram, the first public transport system in Hong Kong, has provided vertical rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since 1888.167 In Central and Western district, there is an extensive system of escalators and moving pavements, including the longest outdoor covered escalator system in the world, the Mid-Levels escalator.168
Hong Kong International Airport is a leading air passenger gateway and logistics hub in Asia and one of the world's busiest airports in terms of international passenger and cargo movement, serving more than 47 million passengers and handling 3.74 million tonnes (4.12 million tons) of cargo in 2007.169 It replaced the overcrowded Kai Tak Airport in Kowloon in 1998, and has been rated as the world's best airport in a number of surveys.170 Over 85 airlines operate at the two-terminal airport and it is the primary hub of Cathay Pacific, Dragonair, Air Hong Kong, Hong Kong Airlines, and Hong Kong Express.169171
The territory's population in 2011 is 7.07 million, with an average annual growth rate of 0.6% over the previous 5 years.4 Residents from mainland China do not have the right of abode in Hong Kong, nor are they allowed to enter the territory freely.90 However, the influx of immigrants from mainland China, approximating 45,000 per year, is a significant contributor to its population growth – a daily quota of 150 Mainland Chinese with family ties in Hong Kong are granted a "one way permit".172 Life expectancy in Hong Kong is 79.16 years for males and 84.79 years for females as of 2009, making it one of the highest life expectancies in the world.2
About 93.6% of the people of Hong Kong are of Chinese descent,4 the majority of whom are Taishanese, Chiu Chow, other Cantonese people, and Hakka. Hong Kong's Han majority originate mainly from the Guangzhou and Taishan regions in Guangdong province.10 The remaining 6.4% of the population is composed of non-ethnic Chinese.4 There is a South Asian population of Indians, Pakistanis and Nepalese; some Vietnamese refugees have become permanent residents of Hong Kong. There are also Britons, Americans, Canadians, Japanese, and Koreans working in the city's commercial and financial sector.note 3 In 2008, there were an estimate of 252,500 foreign domestic helpers from Indonesia and the Philippines working in Hong Kong.174
Hong Kong's de facto official language is Cantonese, a Chinese language originating from Guangdong province to the north of Hong Kong.175 English is also an official language, and according to a 1996 by-census is spoken by 3.1 percent of the population as an everyday language and by 34.9 percent of the population as a second language.176 Signs displaying both Chinese and English are common throughout the territory. Since the 1997 handover, an increase in immigrants from mainland China and greater integration with the mainland economy have brought an increasing number of Mandarin speakers to Hong Kong.177
A majority of residents of Hong Kong would claim no religious affiliation, professing a form of agnosticism or atheism.178 According to the US Department of State only 43 percent of the population practices some form of religion.179 Some figures put it higher, according to a Gallup poll, 64% of Hong Kong residents do not believe in any religion,180181 and possibly 80% of Hong Kong claim no religion.182 In Hong Kong teaching evolution won out in curriculum dispute about whether to teach other explanations, and that creationism and intelligent design will form no part of the senior secondary biology curriculum.183184
Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of religious freedom, guaranteed by the Basic Law. Hong Kong's main religions are Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism; a local religious scholar in contact with major denominations estimates there are approximately 1.5 million Buddhists and Taoists.179 A Christian community of around 833,000 forms about 11.7% of the total population;185 Protestants forms a larger number than Roman Catholics at a rate of 4:3, although smaller Christian communities exist, including the Latter-day Saints186 and Jehovah's Witnesses.187 The Anglican and Roman Catholic churches each freely appoint their own bishops, unlike in mainland China. There are also Sikh, Muslim, Jewish, Hindu and Bahá'í communities.188 The practice of Falun Gong is tolerated.189
Statistically Hong Kong's income gap is the greatest in Asia Pacific. According to a report by the United Nations Human Settlements Programme in 2008, Hong Kong's Gini coefficient, at 0.53, was the highest in Asia and "relatively high by international standards".190191 However, the government has stressed that income disparity does not equate to worsening of the poverty situation, and that the Gini coefficient is not strictly comparable between regions. The government has named economic restructuring, changes in household sizes, and the increase of high-income jobs as factors that have skewed the Gini coefficient.192193
Hong Kong's education system used to roughly follow the system in England,194 although international systems exist. The government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction" (Chinese: 母語教學) in which the medium of instruction is Cantonese,195 with written Chinese and English, while some of the schools are using English as the teaching language. In secondary schools, 'biliterate and trilingual' proficiency is emphasised, and Mandarin-language education has been increasing.196 The Programme for International Student Assessment ranked Hong Kong's education system as the second best in the world.197
Hong Kong's public schools are operated by the Education Bureau. The system features a non-compulsory three-year kindergarten, followed by a compulsory six-year primary education, a compulsory three-year junior secondary education, a non-compulsory two-year senior secondary education leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examinations and a two-year matriculation course leading to the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examinations.198 The New Senior Secondary academic structure and curriculum was implemented in September 2009, which provides for all students to receive three years of compulsory junior and three years of compulsory senior secondary education.199200 Under the new curriculum, there is only one public examination, namely the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education.201
Most comprehensive schools in Hong Kong fall under three categories: the rarer public schools; the more common subsidised schools, including government aids-and-grant schools; and private schools, often run by Christian organisations and having admissions based on academic merit rather than on financial resources. Outside this system are the schools under the Direct Subsidy Scheme and private international schools.200
There are eight public and one private universities in Hong Kong, the oldest being the University of Hong Kong (HKU), established in 1910–1912.202 The Chinese University of Hong Kong was founded in 1963 to fulfill the need for a university with a medium of instruction of Chinese.203 Competition among students to receive an offer for an undergraduate programme is fierce as the annual number of intakes is limited, especially when some disciplines are offered by only select tertiary institutions, like medicine which is provided by merely two medical schools in the territory, the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine at the University of Hong Kong and the Faculty of Medicine of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. In addition to the public post-secondary institutions there are also a number of private higher institutions which offer higher diplomas and associate degree courses for those who fail to enter a college for a degree study so as to boost their qualification of education, some of whom can have a second chance of getting into a university if they have a good performance in these sub-degree courses.204205
There are 13 private hospitals and more than 40 public hospitals in Hong Kong.206 There is little interaction between public and private healthcare.207 The hospitals offer a wide range of healthcare services, and some of the territory's private hospitals are considered to be world class.208 According to UN estimates, Hong Kong has one of the longest life expectancies of any country or territory in the world.209 As of 2012, Hong Kong women are the longest living demographic group in the world.210
There are two medical schools in the territory, one based at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the other at the University of Hong Kong.211212 Both have links with public sector hospitals.211213 With respect to postgraduate education, traditionally many doctors in Hong Kong have looked overseas for further training, and many took British Royal College exams such as the MRCP(UK) and the MRCS(UK). However, Hong Kong has been developing its own postgraduate medical institutions, in particular the Hong Kong Academy of Medicine, and this is gradually taking over the responsibility for all postgraduate medical training in the territory.
Since 2011, there have been growing concerns that mothers-to-be from mainland China, in a bid to obtain the right of abode in Hong Kong and the benefits that come with it, have saturated the neonatal wards of the city's hospitals both public and private. This has led to protest from local pregnant women for the government to remedy the issue, as they have found difficulty in securing a bed space for giving birth and routine check-ups. Other concerns in the decade of 2001–2010 relate to the workload medical staff experience; and medical errors and mishaps, which are frequently highlighted in local news.214
Hong Kong is frequently described as a place where "East meets West", reflecting the culture's mix of the territory's Chinese roots with influences from its time as a British colony.215 Concepts like feng shui are taken very seriously, with expensive construction projects often hiring expert consultants, and are often believed to make or break a business.216 Other objects like Ba gua mirrors are still regularly used to deflect evil spirits,217 and buildings often lack any floor number that has a 4 in it,218 due to its similarity to the word for "die" in Cantonese.219 The fusion of east and west also characterises Hong Kong's cuisine, where dim sum, hot pot, and fast food restaurants coexist with haute cuisine.220
Hong Kong is a recognised global centre of trade, and calls itself an "entertainment hub".221 Its martial arts film genre gained a high level of popularity in the late 1960s and 1970s. Several Hollywood performers, notable actors and martial artists have originated from Hong Kong cinema, notably Bruce Lee, Jackie Chan, Chow Yun-fat, Michelle Yeoh, Maggie Cheung and Jet Li. A number of Hong Kong film-makers have achieved widespread fame in Hollywood, such as John Woo, Wong Kar-wai, and Stephen Chow.221 Homegrown films such as Chungking Express, Infernal Affairs, Shaolin Soccer, Rumble in the Bronx, In the Mood for Love and Echoes of the Rainbow have gained international recognition. Hong Kong is the centre for Cantopop music, which draws its influence from other forms of Chinese music and Western genres, and has a multinational fanbase.222
The Hong Kong government supports cultural institutions such as the Hong Kong Heritage Museum, the Hong Kong Museum of Art, the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts, and the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra. The government's Leisure and Cultural Services Department subsidises and sponsors international performers brought to Hong Kong. Many international cultural activities are organised by the government, consulates, and privately.223224
Hong Kong has two licensed terrestrial broadcasters – ATV and TVB. There are three local and a number of foreign suppliers of cable and satellite services.225 The production of Hong Kong's soap dramas, comedy series, and variety shows reach audiences throughout the Chinese-speaking world. Magazine and newspaper publishers in Hong Kong distribute and print in both Chinese and English, with a focus on sensationalism and celebrity gossip.226 The media in Hong Kong is relatively free from official interference compared to Mainland China, although the Far Eastern Economic Review points to signs of self-censorship by media whose owners have close ties to or business interests in the People's Republic of China and states that even Western media outlets are not immune to growing Chinese economic power.227
Hong Kong offers wide recreational and competitive sport opportunities despite its limited land area. It sends delegates to international competitions such as the Olympic Games and Asian Games, and played host to the equestrian events during the 2008 Summer Olympics.228 There are major multipurpose venues like Hong Kong Coliseum and MacPherson Stadium. Hong Kong's steep terrain and extensive trail network with expansive views attracts hikers, and its rugged coastline provides many beaches for swimming.229
Sports in Hong Kong are a significant part of its culture. Due mainly to British influence going as far back as the late 19th century, Hong Kong had an earlier introduction to Western athletics compared to other Asia regions. Football, basketball, swimming, badminton, table tennis, cycling and running have the most participants and spectators. In 2009, Hong Kong successfully organised the V East Asian Games and was the biggest sporting event ever held in the territory. Other major international sporting events including the Equestrian at the 2008 Summer Olympics, Hong Kong Sevens, Hong Kong Marathon, AFC Asian Cup, EAFF East Asian Cup, Hong Kong Tennis Classic, Premier League Asia Trophy, and Lunar New Year Cup are also held in the territory. Hong Kong athletes continue to strive for improvements, as of 2010, there were 32 Hong Kong athletes from seven sports ranking in world's Top 20, 29 athletes in six sports in Asia top 10 ranking. Moreover, Hong Kong athletes with disabilities are equally impressive in their performance as of 2009, having won four world championships and two Asian Championships.230
According to Emporis, there are 1,223 skyscrapers in Hong Kong, which puts the city at the top of world rankings.231 It has more buildings higher than 500 feet (150 m) than any other city. The high density and tall skyline of Hong Kong's urban area is due to a lack of available sprawl space, with the average distance from the harbour front to the steep hills of Hong Kong Island at 1.3 km (0.81 mi),232 much of it reclaimed land. This lack of space causes demand for dense, high-rise offices and housing. Thirty-six of the world's 100 tallest residential buildings are in Hong Kong.233 More people in Hong Kong live or work above the 14th floor than anywhere else on Earth, making it the world's most vertical city.2627
As a result of the lack of space and demand for construction, few older buildings remain, and the city is becoming a centre for modern architecture. The International Commerce Centre (ICC), at 484 m (1,588 ft) high, is the tallest building in Hong Kong and the third tallest in the world, by height to roof measurement.234 The tallest building prior to the ICC is Two International Finance Centre, at 415 m (1,362 ft) high.235 Other recognisable skyline features include the HSBC Headquarters Building, the triangular-topped Central Plaza with its pyramid-shaped spire, The Center with its night-time multi-coloured neon light show; A Symphony of Lights and I. M. Pei's Bank of China Tower with its sharp, angular façade. According to the Emporis website, the city skyline has the biggest visual impact of all world cities.236 Also, Hong Kong's skyline is often regarded to be the best in the world,237 with the surrounding mountains and Victoria Harbour complementing the skyscrapers.238239 Most of the oldest remaining historic structures, including the Tsim Sha Tsui Clock Tower, the Central Police Station, and the remains of Kowloon Walled City were constructed during the 19th and early 20th centuries.240241242
There are many development plans in place, including the construction of new government buildings,243 waterfront redevelopment in Central,244 and a series of projects in West Kowloon.245 More high-rise development is set to take place on the other side of Victoria Harbour in Kowloon, as the 1998 closure of the nearby Kai Tak Airport lifted strict height restrictions.246 The Urban Renewal Authority is highly active in demolishing older areas, including the razing and redevelopment of Kwun Tong town centre, an approach which has been criticised for its impact on the cultural identity of the city and on lower-income residents.
- Section 3(2) of the Sino-British Joint Declaration states in part: "The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region will enjoy a high degree of autonomy, except in foreign and defence affairs which, are the responsibilities of the Central People's Government."
- Section 3(5) of the Sino-British Joint Declaration states that the social and economic systems and lifestyle in Hong Kong will remain unchanged, and mentions rights and freedoms ensured by law. Section 3(12) states in part: "The above-stated basic policies of the People's Republic of China ... will remain unchanged for 50 years."
- The results of the 2006 census showed that the "white" population had declined from 46,584 in 2001 to 36,384, a decline of 22 percent.173
- Section 3(1) of the Official Languages Ordinance (Cap 5) provides that the "English and Chinese languages are declared to be the official languages of Hong Kong." The Ordinance does not explicitly specify the standard for "Chinese". While Mandarin and Simplified Chinese characters are used as the spoken and written standards in mainland China, Cantonese and Traditional Chinese characters are the long-established de facto standards in Hong Kong.
- "Hong Kong". The World Factbook. CIA. 23 August 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
- "Mid-year Population for 2014". Census and Statistics Department (Hong Kong). 12 August 2014.
- (PDF) 2011 Population Census – Summary Results (Report). Census and Statistics Department. February 2012. http://www.census2011.gov.hk/pdf/summary-results.pdf. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- "Hong Kong". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Human Development Report 2009 – Gini Index". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Geography and Climate, Hong Kong". Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 10 January 2007.
- Ash, Russell (2006). The Top 10 of Everything 2007. Hamlyn. p. 78. ISBN 0-600-61532-4.
- Fan Shuh Ching (1974). "The Population of Hong Kong". World Population Year (Committee for International Coordination of National Research in Demography): 18–20. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- Second paragraph reads, "The first wave of refugees came to Hong Kong in the 1930s to escape from the Chinese Civil War and the Sino-Japanese War, but it wasn't until 1949, during the Chinese exodus, when an estimated one million-plus mainland Chinese started coming into the city via the northern borders. Many people, mostly anti-communist Kuomintang officials and capitalists, rushed to Hong Kong in search of refuge." "A history of refugees in Hong Kong". Time Out Hong Kong – Know your City. 18 June 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- Page 16, "The turmoil on the mainland, leading to the defeat of the Nationalists and takeover by the Communists in 1949, unleashed a torrent of refugees – both rich and poor -into Hong Kong."Hong Kong: Facts about Hong Kong -History (10th ed.). Hong Kong: Lonely Planet. 2002. p. 16. ISBN 1864502304.
- "Veterans who fled mainland for Hong Kong in 1970s tell their stories". South China Morning Post (Hong Kong). Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- Carroll, John (2007). A Concise History of Hong Kong. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 127. ISBN 978-0742534223.
- "Basic Law, Chapter IV, Section 4". Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- Russell, Peter H.; O'Brien, David M. (2001). Judicial Independence in the Age of Democracy: Critical Perspectives from around the World. University of Virginia Press. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-8139-2016-0.
- "The UK's relations with Hong Kong: 30 years after Joint Declaration". UK Parliament. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Basic Law, Chapter II". Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- Ghai, Yash P. (2000). Autonomy and Ethnicity: Negotiating Competing Claims in Multi-ethnic States. Cambridge University Press. pp. 92–97. ISBN 978-0-521-78642-3.
- "Democracy Index 2013". Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- SCMP (21 March 2013). "Hong Kong upgraded to 'flawed democracy' on Economist index". SCMP. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "2014 Global Cities Index and Emerging Cities Outlook" (PDF). Retrieved April 2014.
- "Global Competitiveness Index 2012–2013". 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- "Triennial Central Bank Survey: Report on global foreign exchange market activity in 2010". Monetary and Economic Department (Bank for International Settlements): 12. December 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "Vertical Cities: Hong Kong/New York.". Time Out. 3 August 2008. Archived from the original on 16 January 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "Home page". Skyscraper Museum. 14 July 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "Public Transport Introduction". Transport Department, Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 7 July 2008. Retrieved 13 July 2008.
- Lam, William H. K.; Bell, Michael G. H. (2003). Advanced Modeling for Transit Operations and Service Planning. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-08-044206-8.
- "Health Effects of Air Pollution in Hong Kong". Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Room, Adrian (2005). Placenames of the World. McFarland & Company. p. 168. ISBN 0-7864-2248-3. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- Bishop, Kevin; Roberts, Annabel (1997). China's Imperial Way. China Books and Periodicals. p. 218. ISBN 962-217-511-2. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- Fairbank, John King (1953). Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast: The Opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842–1854 (2nd ed.). Harvard University Press. pp. 123–128. ISBN 978-0-8047-0648-3.
- Hongkong Government Gazette, Notification 479, 3 September 1926
- "GovHK: Residents". Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "The Trial Excavation at the Archaeological Site of Wong Tei Tung, Sham Chung, Hong Kong SAR". Hong Kong Archaeological Society. January 2006. Retrieved 21 August 2010.dead link
- 港現舊石器製造場 嶺南或為我發源地 [Paleolithic site appears in Hong Kong, Lingnan perhaps discovered our birthplace]. People's Daily (in Chinese). 17 February 2006. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- Tang, Chung (2005). 考古與香港尋根 [Archaeologist help find Hong Kong's Roots]. New Asia Monthly (in Chinese) (New Asia College) 32 (6): 6–8. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- Li, Hui (2002). 百越遺傳結構的一元二分跡象 [The genetic structure of Baiyue divide in half]. Guangxi Ethnic Group Research (in Chinese) 70 (4): 26–31. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- "2005 Field Archaeology on Sham Chung Site". Hong Kong Archaeological Society. January 2006. Retrieved 21 August 2010.dead link
- "Declared Monuments in Hong Kong – New Territories". Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong Government. 13 January 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- "Characteristic Culture". Invest Nanhai. Retrieved 26 August 2010.dead link
- Ban Biao; Ban Gu; Ban Zhao. "地理志" [Treatise on geography]. Book of Han (in Chinese). Volume 28. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- Peng, Quanmin (2001). 從考古材料看漢代深港社會 [Archaeological material from the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Society of Han]. Relics From South (in Chinese). Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- Keat, Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 932. ISBN 1-57607-770-5. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- "Archaeological Background". Hong Kong Yearbook (Hong Kong Government) 21. 2005. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- Siu Kwok-kin. 唐代及五代時期屯門在軍事及中外交通上的重要性 [The importance of Tuen Mun during Tang and Five Dynasties period for foreign traffic and military]. From Sui to Ming (in Chinese) (Education Bureau, Hong Kong Government): 40–45. Archived from the original on 29 August 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Sweeting, Anthony (1990). Education in Hong Kong, Pre-1841 to 1941: Fact and Opinion. Hong Kong University Press. p. 93. ISBN 962-209-258-6.
- Barber, Nicola (2004). Hong Kong. Gareth Stevens. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-8368-5198-4.
- Porter, Jonathan (1996). Macau, the Imaginary City: Culture and Society, 1557 to the Present. Westview Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8133-2836-2.
- Edmonds, Richard L. (2002). China and Europe Since 1978: A European Perspective. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-521-52403-2.
- Hayes, James (1974). "The Hong Kong Region: Its Place in Traditional Chinese Historiography and Principal Events Since the Establishment of Hsin-an County in 1573". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch 14: 108–135. Retrieved 31 August 2010.dead link
- "Hong Kong Museum of History: "The Hong Kong Story" Exhibition Materials". Hong Kong Museum of History. Retrieved 30 August 2010.dead link
- Courtauld, Caroline; Holdsworth, May; Vickers, Simon (1997). The Hong Kong Story. Oxford University Press. pp. 38–58. ISBN 978-0-19-590353-9.
- Hoe, Susanna; Roebuck, Derek (1999). The Taking of Hong Kong: Charles and Clara Elliot in China Waters. Routledge. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-7007-1145-1.
- John Thomson 1837–1921,Chap on Hong Kong, Illustrations of China and Its People (London,1873–1874)
- Info Gov HK. "Hong Kong Gov Infodead link." History of Hong Kong. Retrieved on 16 February 2007.
- Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: A-M. ABC-CLIO. p. 499. ISBN 0-313-34102-8.
- Linda Pomerantz-Zhang (1992). "Wu Tingfang (1842–1922): reform and modernization in modern Chinese history". Hong Kong University Press. p.8. ISBN 962-209-287-X
- Wiltshire, Trea (1997). Old Hong Kong. Volume II: 1901–1945 (5th ed.). FormAsia Books. p. 148. ISBN 962-7283-13-4.
- "History of Hong Kong". Global Times. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 31 August 2010.dead link
- Scott, Ian (1989). Political change and the crisis of legitimacy in Hong Kong. University of Hawaii Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-8248-1269-0.
- L, Klemen (1999–2000). "Chronology of the Dutch East Indies, 7 December 1941 – 11 December 1941". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
- L, Klemen (1999–2000). "Chronology of the Dutch East Indies, 25 December 1941 – 31 December 1941". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
- Bradsher, Keith (17 April 2005). "Thousands March in Anti-Japan Protest in Hong Kong". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- Moore, Lynden (1985). The growth and structure of international trade since the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-521-46979-1. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- Forsyth, Neil, dir. Underground Pride. Mass Transit Railway Corporation, 1990. Film. 21 November 2013
- Wei, Shang-Jin (January 2000). "Why Does China Attract So Little Foreign Direct Investment?" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. pp. 6–8. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- Dodsworth, John; Mihaljek, Dubravko (1997). Hong Kong, China: Growth, Structural Change, and Economic Stability During the Transition (International Monetary Fund). p. 54. ISBN 1-55775-672-4.
- "Links between SARS, human genes discovered". People's Daily. 16 January 2004. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
- Lee, S. H. (2006). SARS in China and Hong Kong. Nova Publishers. pp. 63–70. ISBN 978-1-59454-678-5.
- "Summary of probable SARS cases with onset of illness from 1 November 2002 to 31 July 2003". World Health Organization. 31 December 2003. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
- 疫情衝擊香港經濟損失巨大 [The impact of economic losses in the great epidemic] (in Chinese). BBC News. 28 May 2003. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- Yau, Cannix (11 March 2005). "Tung's gone. What next?". The Standard. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
- "Appointment of Chief Executive". GN(E) (Hong Kong Government). 21 June 2005. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
- "Donald Tsang wins Chief Executive election". Hong Kong Government. 25 March 2007. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
- "Chinese Taipei Wins God Medal in Men's 400-Meter Relay". Kuomintang. 14 December 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
- The Economist Intelligence Unit (2 January 2008). "Hong Kong politics: China sets reform timetable". The Economist. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
- "Thousands of Hong Kong students start week-long boycott". BBC News. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
- "Basic Law, Chapter VIII". Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- Chen, Wenmin; Fu, H. L.; Ghai, Yash P. (2000). Hong Kong's Constitutional Debate: Conflict Over Interpretation. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 235–236. ISBN 978-962-209-509-0.
- "Basic Law, Chapter IV, Section 6". Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- "Civil Service". Information Services Department, Hong Kong Government. June 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
- "Basic Law, Chapter IV, Section 1". Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- Burns, John P. (2004). Government Capacity and the Hong Kong Civil Service. Oxford University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-19-590597-7.
- "Basic Law, Chapter IV, Section 3". Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- Madden, Frederick (2000). The End of Empire: Dependencies since 1948. Part 1: The West Indies, British Honduras, Hong Kong, Fiji, Cyprus, Gibraltar, and the Falklands. Volume VIII: Select Documents on the Constitutional History of the British Empire and Commonwealth. Greenwood Publishing. pp. 188–196. ISBN 978-0-313-29072-5.
- Gaylord, Mark S.; Gittings, Danny; Traver, Harold (2009). Introduction to Crime, Law and Justice in Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-962-209-978-4.
- "Right of Abode in HKSAR—Verification of Eligibility for Permanent Identity Card". Immigration Department, Hong Kong Government. 5 June 2007. Archived from the original on 19 January 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
- "Presentation to Legislative Council on Right of Abode Issue". Hong Kong Human Rights Monitor. 10 May 1999. Retrieved 20 January 2007.
- Cohen, Warren I.; Li, Zhao (1997). Hong Kong Under Chinese Rule: The Economic and Political Implications of Reversion. Cambridge University Press. pp. 220–235. ISBN 978-0-521-62761-0.
- Ming, Sing (August 2006). "The Legitimacy Problem and Democratic Reform in Hong Kong". Journal of Contemporary China (Informa) 15 (48): 517–532. doi:10.1080/10670560600736558.
- "Public Consultation on the Methods for Selecting the Chief Executive and for Forming the Legislative Council in 2012". Hong Kong Government. 11 June 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- Balfour, Frederik; Lui, Marco (25 June 2010). "Hong Kong Lawmakers Approve Tsang's Election Plan". Businessweek. Bloomberg. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
- "Hopes for full democracy in Hong Kong dealt blow by Beijing". Hong Kong Herald. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "The Legal System in Hong Kong". Department of Justice, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 20 September 2008.dead link
- Ash, Robert F. (2003). Hong Kong in Transition: One Country, Two Systems. Volume 11: RoutledgeCurzon Studies in the Modern History of Asia. Psychology Press. pp. 161–188. ISBN 978-0-415-29954-1.
- "Introduction". Hong Kong Judiciary. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
- "Basic Law Bulletin Issue No. 10 Part 3" (PDF). Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- "About Us: Organisation chart of the Secretary for Justice's Office". Department of Justice, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 5 September 2008.dead link
- "Basic Law, Chapter IV, Section 2". Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- Weisenhaus, Doreen; Cottrell, Jill; Yan, Mei Ning (2007). Hong Kong Media Law: A Guide for Journalists and Media Professionals. Hong Kong University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-962-209-808-4.
- Article 151, Hong Kong Basic Law
- Chapter 1, Hong Kong Year Book 2011
- Hong Kong Economic Journal, 3 July 2007, Page 34.
- "Country Report 2009". Freedom House. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "2008 Human Rights Report: China (Hong Kong)". US Department of State. Archived from the original on 23 January 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Protest against HK rail link". The Straits Times. 17 January 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2010.dead link
- Yahoodead link
- "Sexual Orientation and Human Rights in Hong Kong". Hong Kong Human Rights Monitor. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- Barme, Geremie R.; Ye, Sang (1 February 1996). "The Great Firewall of China". Wired.com. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- "Hong Kong– The Facts: District Administration". Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- "Mission". Home Affairs Department, Hong Kong Government. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- Brief Information on Proposed Grade I Items, pp. 53-54
- Rioni, S. G. (2002). Hong Kong in Focus: Political and Economic Issues. Nova Publishers. pp. 154–163. ISBN 978-1-59033-237-5.
- Morton, Brian; Harper, Elizabeth (1995). An Introduction to the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. p. 9. ISBN 9789622093881.
- "2006 Population By-census". Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
- "Tai Mo Shan Country Park". Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, Hong Kong Government. 17 March 2006. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
- "Hong Kong". Olympic Council of Asia. Retrieved 14 November 2009.dead link
- "Geopark leaflet" (PDF). Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- "Chief Executive pledges a clean, green, world-class city". Hong Kong Trade Development Council. November 2001. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
- "HK harbour reclamation reprieve". BBC News. 9 January 2004. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
- Bradsher, Keith (5 November 2006). "Dirty Air Becomes Divisive Issue in Hong Kong Vote". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
- "Climate of Hong Kong". Hong Kong Observatory. 4 May 2003. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
- "Hong Kong in Figures 2008 Edition". Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government. 27 February 2008. Retrieved 7 May 2008.
- "Extreme Values and Dates of Occurrence of Extremes of Meteorological Elements between 1884–1939 and 1947–2006 for Hong Kong". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
- "Monthly Meteorological Normals for Hong Kong". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2012-01-03.
- "Extreme Values and Dates of Occurrence of Extremes of Meteorological Elements between 1884-1939 and 1947-2011 for Hong Kong". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2012-08-12.
- "End of an experiment". The Economist. 15 July 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- "Hong Kong ranked world's freest economy for 18th consecutive year". Government of Hong Kong. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "2008 Index of Economic Freedom". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 February 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2008. clarification needed
- "Top 10 Countries". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
- Bromma, Hubert (2007). How to Invest in Offshore Real Estate and Pay Little Or No Taxes. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-07-147009-4.
- Preston, Peter Wallace; Haacke, Jürgen (2003). Contemporary China: The Dynamics of Change at the Start of the New Millennium. Psychology Press. pp. 80–107. ISBN 978-0-7007-1637-1.
- Yeung, Rikkie (2008). Moving Millions: The Commercial Success and Political Controversies of Hong Kong's Railways. Hong Kong University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-962-209-963-0.
- "The Global Financial Centres Index 1 Executive Summary". City of London. March 2007. p. 6. Archived from the original on 5 June 2007. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
- "World Federation of Exchanges – Statistics/Monthly". World Federation of Exchanges. Archived from the original on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
- "Hong Kong IPOs May Raise Record $48 Billion in 2010, E&Y Says". Bloomberg. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
- Hong Kong's Linked Exchange Rate System. Hong Kong Monetary Authority. p. 33. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
- Tsang, Donald (18 September 2006). "Big Market, Small Government" (Press release). Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 6 October 2010.dead link
- "Hong Kong's Export Outlook for 2008: Maintaining Competitiveness through Supply Chain Management". Hong Kong Trade Development Council. 6 December 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- "HKDF –Has Hong Kong Lost its Competitiveness?". Hong Kong Democratic Foundation. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
- Kong, Daniel (8 August 2013). "Hong Kong Imports Over 90% of Its Food. Can It Learn to Grow?". Modern Farmer. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- "About Hong Kong". Hong Kong government. April 2006. Archived from the original on 19 January 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
- "The Panama Canal: A plan to unlock prosperity". The Economist. 3 December 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- Dhungana, Gita (29 December 2006). "Growth in exports defies predictions". The Standard. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
- Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics, Hong Kong Government, March 2008
- Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2009: Addressing Triple Threats to Development. United Nations Publications. 2009. pp. 94–99. ISBN 978-92-1-120577-0.
- "Worldwide Cost of Living survey 2009". Mercer. 29 June 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "Global Wealth Continues Its Strong Recovery with $9 Trillion Gain, but Pressures on Wealth Managers Persist, Says Study by The Boston Consulting Group" (Press release). Finance Twitter. 31 May 2011.
- "Explore Economies". World Bank. 2010. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- "Octopus Card Information". Octopus Cards Limited. Retrieved 10 December 2008.
- Poon, Simpson; Chau, Patrick (February 2001). "Octopus: The Growing E-payment System in Hong Kong". Electronic Markets (Informa) 11 (2): 97–106. doi:10.1080/101967801300197016.
- "Press Release: Government has reached understanding with MTRCL on the terms for merging the MTR and KCR systems". Hong Kong Government. 11 April 2006. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
- "Tourist Information". Mass Transit Railway. Retrieved 29 April 2008.dead link
- "The Company". Hong Kong Tramways. Archived from the original on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2008.
- Cullinane, S. (January 2002). "The relationship between car ownership and public transport provision: a case study of Hong Kong". Transport Policy 9 (1): 29–39. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(01)00028-2.
- Ng, Tze-wei (10 November 2006). "Not even HK's storied Star Ferry can face down developers". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 1 September 2010.dead link
- "Ferry is amongst the world's best". BBC News. 19 October 2004. Retrieved 29 April 2008.
- Fitzpatrick, Liam. "Hong Kong: 10 Things to Do in 24 Hours". Time. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- Cushman, Jennifer Wayne (1993). Fields from the sea: Chinese junk trade with Siam during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. SEAP Publications. p. 57. ISBN 0-87727-711-7.
- "HIT:: Hongkong International Terminals". Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- Thomson, John (1873). Illustrations of China and Its People. Sampson Low, Marston, Low, and Searle. p. 96.
- Cavaliero, Eric (24 July 1997). "Grand old lady to turn 110". The Standard. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
- Gold, Anne (6 July 2001). "Hong Kong's Mile-Long Escalator System Elevates the Senses: A Stairway to Urban Heaven". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- "About Us". Hong Kong International Airport. Archived from the original on 21 August 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2008.
- "International travellers have voted Hong Kong the best airport in the world". Skytrax. 8 August 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2008.
- "Air Cargo and Aviation Logistic Services". Hong Kong International Airport. p. 1. Retrieved 31 August 2010.dead link
- "Who is entitled to sponsor family members to come to live in Hong Kong? If I am a lawful resident of Hong Kong, can my family members in the Mainland (or elsewhere) apply to immigrate to Hong Kong?". Community Legal Information Centre. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
- "Counting Expat Numbers a Complex Task (Hong Kong)". Global Auto Industry. July 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- International Labour Office (2009). Application of International Labour Standards 2009 (I). International Labour Organization. p. 640. ISBN 92-2-120634-3.
- Westra, Nick (5 June 2007). "Hong Kong as a Cantonese speaking city". Journalism and Media Studies Centre, University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
- "ICE Hong Kong". University College London. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
- Yum, Cherry (2007). "Which Chinese? Dialect Choice in Philadelphia's Chinatown". Haverford College. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "Hong Kong". Bmm.org. 1 July 1997. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- "China (Includes Tibet, Hong Kong, Macau)". State.gov. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- Carballo, Marita. "RELIGION IN THE WORLD AT THE END OF THE MILLENNIUM". Gallup International Association. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- "Apostasy". Countdown.org. Retrieved 2 November 2011.dead link
- "Do Hong Kong youth know how to practice safe sex?". Slidefinder.net. 14 January 2010. Retrieved 2 November 2011.dead link
- "Evolution wins out in Hong Kong curriculum dispute". Nature.com. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- "Victory for Darwin – Creationism rejected in new guidelines on the biology curriculum | 香港獨立媒體". Inmediahk.net. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- "Hong Kong Year Book (2010): Chapter 18 – Religion and Custom" (PDF). Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- "Hong Kong China Temple". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
- "2007 Report of Jehovah's Witnesses Worldwide". The Watchtower. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – Hong Kong". United States Department of State. 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2009.
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2006 – Hong Kong". United States Department of State. 2006. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
- Piboontanasawat, Nipa (23 October 2008). "Hong Kong Has Highest Income Disparity in Asia, UN Report Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
- "State of the World's Cities 2008/2009" (Press release). United Nations Human Settlements Programme. 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- "Subcommittee to Study the Subject of Combating Poverty". Legislative Council of Hong Kong. 23 June 2005. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- "Policies in Assisting Low-income Employees". Commission on Poverty (Legislative Council of Hong Kong). 23 January 2006. Retrieved 30 August 2010.dead link
- Chan, Shun-hing; Leung, Beatrice (2003). Changing Church and State Relations in Hong Kong, 1950–2000. Hong Kong University Press. p. 24. ISBN 962-209-612-3.
- 母語教學小冊子 [Mother Tongue Instruction Handbook] (in Chinese). Education Bureau, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 4 November 2009.dead link
- "Policy for Secondary Schools -Medium of Instruction Policy for Secondary Schools". Education Bureau, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 4 November 2009.dead link
- "PISA 2006 Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. Retrieved 14 December 2007.
- "Kindergarten, Primary and Secondary Education". Education Bureau, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 1 February 2008.dead link
- "Programme Highlights". Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- Li, Arthur (18 May 2005). "Creating a better education system". Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 3 March 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- "HKDSE". Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority. 12 October 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- "History of HKU".
- "Report of the Fulton Commission, 1963: Commission to Advise on the Creation of a Federal-Type Chinese University in Hong Kong". Minerva 1 (4): 493–507. Summer 1963. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- Tan, Hwee Ann (5 June 2013). "Hong Kong Says International Schools Can't Meet Primary Demand". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
- Hsu, Cathy (12 November 2012). Global Tourism Higher Education: Past, Present, and Future. Routledge. pp. 139–142. ISBN 9781136448478.
- "Clusters, Hospitals & Institutions". Hospital Authority. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Health & safety". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Private Hospitals in Hong Kong". The New Economy. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Life Expectancy Around the World". LiveScience. 1 August 2012.
- "Longest Life Expectancy In World: Women In Hong Kong Now Outlast Japan". Huffington Post. 26 July 2012.
- "Milestones". Chinese University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 10 May 2013.dead link
- "Education". University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Educational objectives". University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- LaFraniere, Sharon (22 February 2012). "Mainland Chinese Flock to Hong Kong to Give Birth". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
- "24 hours in Hong Kong: Urban thrills where East meets West". CNN. 8 March 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2009.
- "Feng shui used in 90% of RP businesses". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 17 February 2009. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
- Fowler, Jeaneane D.; Fowler, Merv (2008). Chinese Religions: Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-84519-172-6.
- Xi, Xu; Ingham, Mike (2003). City Voices: Hong Kong writing in English, 1945–present. Hong Kong University Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-962-209-605-9.
- Chan, Cecilia; Chow, Amy (2006). Death, Dying and Bereavement: a Hong Kong Chinese Experience. Volume 1. Hong Kong University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-962-209-787-2.
- Stone, Andrew; Chow, Chung Wah; Ho, Reggie (15 January 2008). Hong Kong and Macau. Lonely Planet. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-74104-665-6.
- "Hong Kong calls itself Asia's entertainment hub". Monsters and Critics. 23 March 2007.
- Corliss, Richard (24 September 2001). "Hong Kong music circles the globe with its easy-listening hits and stars". Time. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
- "General Information". Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong Government. 15 October 2009. Archived from the original on 16 November 2004. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- "About the Museum". Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong Government. 25 May 2010. Retrieved 31 August 2010.dead link
- "Broadcasting: Licences". Commerce and Economic Development Bureau, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
- Li, Jinquan (2002). Global Media Spectacle: News War Over Hong Kong. State University of New York Press. pp. 69–74. ISBN 978-0-7914-5472-5.
- Walker, Christopher; Cook, Sarah (12 October 2009). "China's Export of Censorship". Far Eastern Economic Review. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
- "Hong Kong Olympic Equestrian Venue (Beas River & Shatin)". Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
- Macdonald, Phil (2006). National Geographic Traveler: Hong Kong (2nd ed.). National Geographic Society. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-7922-5369-3.
- "Legislative Council Panel on Home Affairs Sports Development Policy and Objectives". Home Affairs Bureau. October 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- "Cities with the most skyscrapers". Emporis. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- Tong, C. O.; Wong, S. C. (August 1997). "The advantages of a high density, mixed land use, linear urban development". Transportation 24 (3): 295–307. doi:10.1023/A:1004987422746.
- "World's Tallest Residential Towers". Emporis. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- "International Commerce Centre". Emporis. Retrieved 2 September 2008.
- "Two International Finance Centre". Emporis. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- "Emporis Skyline Ranking". Emporis. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- "The world's top 20 city skylines, CNNGo.com". Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- "Best Skyline Poll". Retrieved 8 February 2008.
- Gramsbergen, Egbert; Paul Kazmierczak. "The World's Best Skylines". Retrieved 8 February 2008.
- "Declared Monuments in Hong Kong – Hong Kong Island". Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong Government. 13 January 2010. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- "Declared Monuments in Hong Kong – Kowloon Island". Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong Government. 13 January 2010. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- Sinn, Elizabeth (1990). "Kowloon Walled City: Its Origin and Early History". Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 27: 30–31. Retrieved 20 June 2012.dead link
- "Tamar Development Project". Hong Kong Government. 23 April 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2010.dead link
- "Central Waterfront Design Competition". Designing Hong Kong. Retrieved 26 April 2008.
- "West Kowloon Cultural District Public Engagement Exercise". Home Affairs Bureau, Hong Kong Government. 26 August 2008. Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
- "Kai Tak building height restrictions lifted". Hong Kong Government. 10 July 1998. Retrieved 26 April 2008.
- Endacott, G. B. (1964). An Eastern Entrepot: A Collection of Documents Illustrating the History of Hong Kong. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. p. 293. ASIN B0007J07G6. OCLC 632495979.
- Fu, Poshek; Deser, David (2002). The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Cambridge University Press. p. 346. ISBN 978-0-521-77602-8.
- Hanstedt, Paul (2012). Hong Konged: One Modern American Family's (Mis)adventures in the Gateway to China. Avon, Massachusetts: Adams Media. ISBN 9781440540738.
- Lui, Adam Yuen-chung (1990). Forts and Pirates – A History of Hong Kong. Hong Kong History Society. p. 114. ISBN 962-7489-01-8.
- Liu, Shuyong; Wang, Wenjiong; Chang, Mingyu (1997). An Outline History of Hong Kong. Foreign Languages Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-7-119-01946-8.
- Ngo, Tak-Wing (1 August 1999). Hong Kong's History: State and Society Under Colonial Rule. Routledge. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-415-20868-0.
- Tsang, Steve (1995). Government and Politics: A Documentary History of Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. p. 312. ISBN 962-209-392-2.
- Tsang, Steve (4 September 2007). A Modern History of Hong Kong. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-419-0.
- Welsh, Frank (1993). A Borrowed place: the history of Hong Kong. Kodansha International. p. 624. ISBN 978-1-56836-002-7.
|Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Hong Kong at Encyclopædia Britannica
- HongKong at UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Hong Kong entry at The World Factbook
- Hong Kong at DMOZ
- Hong Kong from the BBC News
- Wikimedia Atlas of Hong Kong
- Key Development Forecasts for Hong Kong from International Futures
- GovHK Hong Kong SAR Government portal
- Discover Hong Kong – Official site of the Hong Kong Tourism Board