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A grappling hold (commonly referred to simply as a hold; in Japanese referred to as katame-waza, 固め技, "grappling technique") is a grappling, wrestling, judo or other martial arts term for a specific grip that is applied to an opponent. Holds are principally used to control the opponent, and to advance in points or positioning. Holds may be categorized by their function such as clinching, pinning, pain compliance or submission, while others can be classified by their anatomical effect: chokehold, joint-lock or compression lock.
A clinch hold (also known as a clinching hold) is a grappling hold which is used in clinch fighting with the purpose of controlling the opponent. In wrestling it is referred to as the Tie-up. The use of a clinch hold results in the clinch. Clinch holds can be used to close in on the opponent, as a precursor to a takedown or throw, or to prevent the opponent from moving away or striking effectively. Typical clinch holds include:
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A pain compliance hold (also referred to as a pain compliance technique or sometimes a pain hold) is a grappling hold which uses painful joint lock, compression lock or pressure point technique to control a person or opponent. The mechanism of the techniques is the same of submission holds. However, citation needed and often taught as a self-defense technique in martial arts and combatives.
citation needed such techniques presume a rational adversary. Some altered states such as those caused by mental illness, extreme flexibility, psychoactive use,citation needed or extreme adrenaline may alter the subject's perception of pain or willingness to submit.
Like other forms of non-lethal force, pain compliance strategies are not perfect and may be abused as a form of torture with plausible deniability. For this reason the use of pain compliance holds is often subject to explicit rules of engagement designed to prevent abuse and avoid conflict escalation.
A pinning hold (also known as a hold down and in Japanese as osaekomi-waza, 押さえ込み技, "pinning technique") is a general grappling hold used in ground fighting which is aimed to subdue by exerting superior control over an opponent and pinning the opponent to the ground. Pinning holds where both the opponent's shoulders touch the ground are considered winning conditions in several combat sports.
An effective pinning hold is a winning condition in many styles of wrestling, and is known as simply a "pin". Pinning holds maintained for 25 seconds are also a winning condition in Judo. Pinning holds are also used in submission wrestling and mixed martial arts, even though the pinning hold itself is not a winning condition. The holds can be used to rest while the opponent tries to escape, to control the opponent while striking, a tactic known as ground and pound, or to control an opponent from striking by pinning them to the ground, also known as lay and pray.
A submission hold (colloquially referred to as a "submission") is a combat sports term for a grappling hold which is applied with the purpose of forcing an opponent to submit out of either extreme pain or fear of injury. Submission holds are used primarily in ground fighting and can be separated into constrictions (chokeholds, compression locks, suffocation locks) and manipulations (joint locks, leverages, pain compliance holds). When used as a form of self-defense, these techniques may cause dislocation, torn ligaments, bone fractures, unconsciousness or even death.
Common combat sports featuring submission holds are:
The same hold may be called by different names in different arts or countries. Some of the more common names for grappling holds in contemporary English include:
Joint lock: Any stabilization of one or more joints at their normal extreme range of motion.
- Can opener: A type of neck crank.
- Crucifix: A type of neck crank.
- Neck crank: Applies pressure to the neck by pulling or twisting the head.
- Nelson: (quarter, half, three-quarter and full): The arm is circled under the opponent's arm, and secured at the neck.
- Twister: A type of body bend and neck crank.
- Wristlock: A general term for joint locks on the wrist or radioulnar joint. Wristlocks form the trademark offense of Aikido, and are used in combination with Keylocks in catch wrestling.
- Small joint manipulation: Joint locks on the fingers or toes.
- Spine crank: Applies pressure to the spine by twisting or bending the body.
- Americana: BJJ term for a lateral keylock.
- Armbar: An armlock which hyperextends the elbow.
- Chicken wing: Term for various hammer/keylocks, especially among Shoot wrestling and Jeet Kune Do practitioners.
- Flying armbar: A type of armbar that is performed from a stand-up position.
- Hammerlock: Pins the opponent's arm behind the back, with wrist toward their own shoulder.
- Juji-Gatame: A type of armbar where the arm is held in between the legs.
- Keylock: A shoulderlock where the arm is turned like a key.
- Kimura: BJJ term for a medial keylock.
- Omoplata: BJJ term for a shoulder lock using the legs.
- Ankle lock: A leglock which hyper extends the ankle.
- Heel hook: A leglock which rotates the ankle.
- Kneebar: A leglock which hyperextends the knee.
- Toe hold: A type of leglock which hyper extends the ankle.
- Anaconda choke: A type of arm triangle choke.
- Arm triangle choke: A chokehold similar to the triangle choke except using the arms.
- Crosschoke: Athlete crosses own arms in "X" shape and holds onto opponent's gi or clothing.
- Gi Choke: or Okuri eri jime as it is known in Judo is a single lapel strangle.
- Ezequiel: Reverse of the rear naked choke, using the inside of the sleeves for grip.
- Guillotine choke: a facing headlock or choke, usually applied to an opponent from above.
- Gearlock: a modified sleeper hold that puts an incredible amount of force on the opponents windpipe, choking them out almost instantly if applied properly.
- Gogoplata: Performed by putting ones shin on the wind pipe of an opponent and pulling the head down. Typically set up from the rubber guard.
- Locoplata: A variation of the Gogo-plata that uses the other foot to push the shin into the windpipe and uses the arm to wrap around the back of the head to grab the foot to secure the choke.
- North–south choke: A chokehold applied from the north-south position with opponent facing up. Uses the shoulder and biceps to cut off air flow.
- Rear naked choke: A chokehold from the rear.
- Triangle choke: A chokehold which forms a triangle around the opponent's head using the legs.
- Bear hug: A clinching hold encircling the opponent's torso with both arms, pulling toward oneself.
- Collar tie: facing the opponent with one or both hands on the back of their head/neck.
- Muay Thai clinch: Holding the opponent with both arms around the neck while standing.
- Overhook: Holding over the opponents arm while standing.
- Pinch grip tie: Term for a particular harness hold, common in Greco-Roman wrestling circles.
- Underhook: Holding under the opponent's arm while standing.
- Tie: A transitional hold used to stabilize the opponent in preparation for striking or throwing.
- Achilles lock: A compression lock on the achilles tendon.
- Biceps slicer: A compression lock on the elbow joint and biceps.
- Leg slicer: A compression lock on the calf and thigh.
- Figure four: (also referred to as arm triangle, leg triangle) Term for arranging one's own arm or legs to resemble shape of numeral "4" when holding opponent.
- Chin lock: An arm hold on the chin that hurts the chin.
- Cradle: Compress opponent in a sit-up position to pin shoulders from side mount.
- Staple: Using the opponent's clothing to help pin them against a surface.
- Grapevine: twisting limbs around limbs in a manner similar to a plant vine.
- Harness: A hold which encircles the torso of an opponent, sometimes diagonally.
- Headlock: Circling the opponent's head with an arm, especially from the side. Also called a rear Chancery.
- Hooks: Wrapping the arm or leg around an opponent's limb(s) for greater control.
- Leg scissors: Causes compressive asphyxia by pressing the chest or abdomen.
- Scissor: places the opponent between the athlete's legs (like paper to be cut by scissors).
- Stack: Compress opponent in vertical sit-up position (feet up) to pin their shoulders to mat.
- Clinch fighting
- Compression lock
- Ground fighting
- Joint lock
- Judo techniques
- Jujutsu Techniques
- Professional wrestling holds
- Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu: Theory and Technique by Renzo Gracie and Royler Gracie (2001). ISBN 1-931229-08-2
- Championship Wrestling, Revised Edition. (Annapolis MD: United States Naval Institute, 1950).
- No Holds Barred Fighting: The Ultimate Guide to Submission Wrestling by Mark Hatmaker with Doug Werner. ISBN 1-884654-17-7
- Small-Circle Jujitsu by Wally Jay. (Burbank CA: Ohara Publications, 1989).
- Free Jiu-Jitsu and Submission Grappling Videos
- The Subtle Science of the Muay Thai Clinch By Roberto Pedreira Includes pictures of common Muay Thai clinching holds.
- Lessons in Wrestling and Physical Culture, a scan of the 1912 correspondence course from Martin 'Farmer' Burns.
- List of Submissions for MMA Grappling holds and submissions used in MMA. Each submission links to videos and step by step instruction.
- categorized judo techniques on video - Tournaments, champions, Olympics etc.
- Mixed Martial Arts Search Engine A search engine covering all things exclusive to MMA.
- MMA Training Free MMA Training help and advice.