Gatka

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Gatka
GatkaSikhProcessionBedford.JPG
Gatka demonstration in Bedford, England (2007)
Also known as Gat-ka
Focus Weaponry
Country of origin India India
Pakistan Pakistan
Famous practitioners Guru Hargobind
Emperor Akbar
Guru Gobind Singh
Bhai Daya Singh
Sahibzada Ajit Singh
Sahibzada Jujhar Singh
Mai Bhago
Baba Deep Singh
Phula Singh
Olympic sport No

Gatka (Punjabi: ਗਤਕਾ gatkā) is a traditional South Asian form of combat-training in which wooden sticks are used to simulate swords in sparring matches.1 In modern usage, it commonly refers to the northern Indian martial arts, which should more properly be called shastar vidiyā (ਸ਼ਸਤਰ ਵਿਦਿਆ, from Sanskrit sastra-vidya or "knowledge of the sword"). In English, the terms gatka and shastar vidya are very often used specifically in relation to the Panjabi-Sikh method of fighting. In actuality, the art is not unique to any particular ethno-cultural group or religion but has been the traditional form of combat throughout north India and Pakistan since at least the 6th century BC. Attacks and counterattacks vary from one community to another but the basic techniques are the same.1 This article will primarily use the extended definition of gatka, making it synonomous with shastar vidya.

Gatka can be practiced either as a sport (khela) or ritual (rasmi). The sport form is played by two opponents wielding wooden staves called gatka. These sticks may be paired with a shield. Points are scored for touches on vital spots. The other weapons are not used for sparring, but their techniques are taught through preset routines.2 The Mughal style called fari gatka uses a sword and shield. The Manipuri style, known as cheibi gatka, is usually practiced with a 2-foot leather-encased cudgel which may be paired with a leather shield measuring one metre in diameter. The ritual form is purely for demonstration and is performed to music during occasions such as weddings.

History

Origins

Gatka originated in what is now northern India and neighbouring Pakistan where the regional system of fighting is today most commonly termed shastra-vidiya, originally a classical Sanskrit word for armed combat. Its creation is attributed to the god Shiva and his devotees. Indeed, the oldest manual on the northern Indian fighting system was said to have been the Shiva Dhanurveda, at present no longer extant. The sage Vasistha is said to have based his own work, the Dhanuveda Samhita, on the aforementioned manual. Early Shaivite sages and Kapalika are credited as progenitors and disseminators of the art of combat, even the most peaceful of whom are recorded as being fierce when confronted by enemies.3

By the 6th century BC, ten fighting styles were said to have already been in existence, developed in different regions for use in different terrain. Their convergence is traditionally traced to the city of Takshashila in present-day West Punjab, Pakistan. Held in high regard by the eastern janapada for its connection to the ancient epics, Takshashila quickly became a hub of trade and higher education. Known especially for its schools of law, medicine and military sciences, the city attracted students from throughout. Takshashila provides the earliest tangible evidence of the teaching of systemised combat, particularly but not exclusively archery. But as a city built on scholarship with little in the way of natural defences, Takshashila witnessed a string of foreign rulers throughout its history before finally being sacked by the White Huns in the 5th century AD. The rest of India was spared from the Huns in large part due to the efforts of the rulers of Malwa, the Maukharis, the Vardhanas and others as the Indian kings rose up against the conquerors.

Beginning in the 10th century Muslim raiders began invading northern India, resulting in violent confrontations which would continue for centuries. The kshatriya dharma enjoined by the warrior caste gave rise to numerous warriors and communities regarded as heroes of the martial ethos, such as the Gurjaras and their later Rajput successors. In one famous battle, Muhammed of Ghor duelled Govinda-raja of Delhi. Each on horseback, Govinda lost his front teeth to the Ghorid's lance, but eventually won the contest by piercing his opponent's arm with his spear. Ultimately, the increasing number of Turkic adventurers from Central Asia brought most of north India under Muslim rule. Consequently, Middle Eastern weapons were adopted by the Indians, such as the talwar and shamshir. The South Asian of these weapons incorporated them into the indigenous techniques, making them unique rather than borrowing from the original Middle Eastern fighting style.

Sikh era

With the spread of Sikhism during the 15th-16th century, Sikhs in particular became renowned throughout South Asia for their stature, comparatively large build, and heavily militarized culture. Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh religion, was born into a kshatriya family and according to Nihang tradition was taught the art of combat by Natha sadhus, a sect of ascetics. His successor, Guru Angad Dev, taught followers to train the body physically, mentally and spiritually, encouraging the practice of martial arts. One of Guru Nanak's early disciples, Baba Buddha, taught the boy who would eventually become the sixth Sikh patriarch, Guru Hargobind. He founded the original Sikh fighting school, the Ranjit Akhara (lit. "invincible training hall") at Amritsar, with its armed force known as the Akal Sena or "invincible army". He propagated the theory of the warrior-saint (miri-piri) and emphasized the need to practice fighting for self-defence against the Mughal rulers, during the reign of Aurangazeb, due to growing animosities. The Mughals themselves were patrons of gatka; Emperor Akbar is recorded as practicing with a sword and shield everyday.

The tenth patriarch, Guru Gobind Singh was a master of armed fighting who galvanized the martial energies of the Sikh community by founding the Khalsa brotherhood in 1699. The Khalsa's aims were to fight oppression, assist the poor, worship the one God, abandon superstition, and defend the freedom of faiths. This is symbolised by the kirpan or dagger, one of the five Ks which every baptised Sikh is required to carry. In regards to training the brotherhood, Guru Gobind Singh pledged that he would "teach the sparrow to fight the hawk". Women faced no restriction from learning the use of weapons, due to the Guru's teaching of gender equality. The Nihang, a stricter order of Sikh warriors, exemplified his principles of combining spirituality with combat training.

Following the Second Anglo-Sikh War of 1848 to 1849 and the establishment of the British Raj, the Sikh martial traditions and practitioners suffered greatly. Ever wary of the Sikhs, the British ordered effective disarmament of the entire Sikh community. The Nihang, considered the keepers of all Sikh traditions, were regarded as disloyal to the colonists. More than 1,500 Nihang were killed by the British for plotting rebellion. According to folklore, some fled and spent the rest of their lives in the northern mountains.

During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Sikhs assisted the British in crushing the mutiny. As a consequence of this assistance, restrictions on fighting practices were relaxed, and gatka re-emerged after 1857.4 The old method of sword training was used by the Khalsa Army in the 1860s as practice for hand-to-hand combat. Richard F. Burton describes gatka matches in which the swordsmen fight with a ribboned stick in one hand and a small shield in the other.

As Sikh colleges opened during the 1880s, European rules of fencing were applied to create what is now called khela or sport gatka. The European colonists also brought Sikhs from India to other British colonies to work as soldiers and security guards. Gatka is still practiced by the Sikh communities of former British colonies and neighbouring countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong and Thailand. Due to the large overseas Panjabi-Sikh community, it is has become a common misconception that gatka is practiced only by Sikhs.

Gatka today

Since India's independence from colonial rule, gatka has been managed and promoted in India by the Panjab Gatka Association and the Gatka Federation of India. The latter organization formulated and standardized rules and regulations for gatka as a sport, and providing free training through seminars, workshops and camps under the new rules. The Panjab & Chandigarh Education Departments have introduced gatka into the school sports calendars in the state, while the School Games Federation Of India also incorporated gatka into the 56th national school games calendar 2011-2012. Gatka is still practiced by some communities in Punjab, Pakistan but it does not get much support from the government. To promote and popularize the art outside India, the Asian Gatka Federation, Commonwealth Gatka Federation and World Gatka Federation have also been constituted. From 2011, the Panjabi University Patiala have started to host All India inter-varsity gatka championships annually.

Today gatka is most often showcased during Sikh festivals, as well as Independence Day and Republic Day celebrations in the Panjab. Gatka is one of the competitions held during an annual sporting event in the rural Indian city of Kila Raipur, and the Sikh community of Malaysia often holds gatka demonstrations during certain festivals. Once considered a diminishing art by UNESCO and SAARC, the intense and concerted efforts of these gatka federations has popularized it amongst the students in north India.


Weapons

The correct use of melee weapons is central to gatka, with techniques depending on the nature of the weapon. The curved sword is gatka's main weapon, often paired with a shield or another sword. The following lists some examples of the weapons used in gatka.

18th-century katara (dagger)
  • Talwar: curved one-sided sword, measuring about 3 feet long
  • Tegha: longsword, similar in appearance to the talwar but measuring ten hands long
  • Khanda: straight double-edge sword
  • Dhala: circular water buffalo-hide shield, 9 inches in diameter. It is paired with any one-handed weapon, but the shield itself can also be used offensively
  • Chakram: circular edged weapon that can be thrown or used in-close
  • Katara: push-dagger with a H-shaped handle
  • Bagh nakh: "tiger claw", a spiked weapon worn on the hand
  • Kirpan: dagger worn by baptised Sikhs at all times
  • Flexible weapons, such as whips, chains, and flails.
  • Lathi: stick of bamboo measuring one to three meters in length
  • Bow and arrow, either traditional steel recurve bows or true composite bows made of wood, horn and sinew. Fletched reed arrows with tanged steel points are typically used.
  • Barcha: spear
  • Nagni barcha: javelin
  • Bothati: training lance used from horseback
  • Gurj: a flanged or spiked mace made out of steel. The head may also be connected to a chain
  • Khukuri: bent sword which broadens towards the point
  • Maru: a stabbing weapon inspired by deer horns
Young Nihangs (Bhujangi) showing Aara Skills during Gatka

Training

Gatka groups today often practice in modern studios, but in India they may use a traditional akhara.5 Sikhs may train in a religious or semi-religious situation, such as in a gurdwara (Sikh temple). Gatka emphasizes having something in both hands, e.g. two sticks, a stick and a sword, a sword and a shield or any other combination.5 Training with "both hands full" is believed to be an excellent exercise for coordinating the two halves of the body, a concept also found in Filipino martial arts. Students are taught stances and forms before they progress to free sparring. The individual's preference for weapons, combination of weapons, and movement patterns leads to the development of individual fighting methods.5

By conception, gatka is defensive as well as offensive2 The foundation of the art is a movement methodology for the use of the feet, body, arms and weapons in unison. Gatka favors rhythmic movement, without hesitation, doubt or anxiety. The attacking and defense methods are based upon the positions of the hands, feet and weapon(s) during the dexterity regimen.5

Chanting of holy verses may accompany these exercises. The three-beat-per-cycle played by a drummer adds to the coordination during practice.5

Forms

Forms in gatka are referred to as yudhan or pentra which may differ from one school to another. As with Silat Pattani, most shastra-vidiya schools make use of mainly freestyle routines each governed by particular principles rather than the preset forms of other systems. There are altogether ten pentra which when taken as a whole collect all the techniques and strategies of gatka. The first six forms imitate animals and are grouped under Khat Ang Yudhan meaning "six parts" or "six limbs". The seventh form collates the previous six into a seamless whole. The final forms are based on the gods and are grouped as Deva Ang Yudhan meaning "limbs of the gods". Each builds upon the last, requiring that trainees progress through them systematically in a specific order. Many pentra also have an opposing form which acts as counter and complement to the other. Higher forms not only include more weapons and techniques but also enrich the understanding of the lower forms. Every pentra has its own characteristic weapons and unarmed techniques. They can be practiced individually, in pairs, in groups, or formerly, as an army.

Boar

The boar style or Varahayuddha is associated with the varaha avatar of Vishnu. It specializes in close-quarter combat and short explosive strikes with the fists, elbows, knees, feet and single knuckles. As the first pentra, it teaches basic principles such as body positioning, misalignment, and hitting vital areas to end the fight quickly. The boar is the simplest and easiest style to master, but provides the foundation for all succeeding forms. Its weapons are the gada (mace) and daggers, taking advantage of the form's short movements.

Snake

The snake style is known as Sheshanagayuddha, named after the serpent lord Shesha. Acting as a counter and complement of the boar style, it is based on the cobra (naga) and python (ajagara). In contrast to the straightforward blows of its counterpart, the snake style is subtle and focuses on parrying attacks and striking at vital points with looping motions. Characteristic of the snake style is the entangling of limbs, locks, joint manipulation and chokeholds. Its weapons include scarves, knives, axes and spears.

Bird

Garudayuddha is variously rendered in English as the bird style, eagle style or garuda style. It is named after the garuda, a mythical species of bird-men. It imitates four different birds, namely the peacock (mayura), eagle (garuda), goose (hamsa) and rooster (kukkuta). It specializes in hit-and-run tactics, mimicking a bird flying at its prey. In imitation of a bird in flight, it is characterized with angling from side to side and attacking the opponent's limbs. Attacks are delivered with the feet and hands, particularly sweeps to knock and adversary to the ground and then stomping on them while they're down. The garuda style is most notable as the basic sword-fighting form and the first pentra in which upper body armor may be worn. Categorized as a skirmishing style, it can be employed either on foot or horseback. The garuda leads with the tip of the sword, stabbing at the opponent's arms and hands like a bird pecking. It is most suited to the talwar. Weapons include any combination of the sword, axe, dagger, shield, and spear.

Bull

The bull style is named Nandiyuddha after Nandi, the mount and gatekeeper of Shiva. The counter and complement of garuda, the bull is also a skirmishing style which can be used on foot or horseback. Like its counterpart, Nandi also employs the motion of angling from left to right in order to find the correct trajectory. The difference between them is that the more aggressive bull style favours infighting and grappling, using leverage to damage the opponent's back with spinal twists, knees, and heavy fist strikes. As with garuda, the bull style includes a variety of attacks against a fallen opponent such as stomps and knee drops. Weapons include daggers and curved swords. To counter the garuda stabbing from a safe distance, Nandi instead closes in and attacks with the centre of the blade.

Lion

Narasinghayuddha is named after the Narasingha avatar of Vishnu, variously depicted as a man with the head and claws of a lion or tiger. It was used to support the vanguard during battle and therefore favours armed combat and specializes in fighting heavily armoured opponents. Practitioners may also wear heavier armour than in previous forms, including chainmail. Narasingha is categorized as a duelling pentra and its wide entrenched stance is well-suited for swampy terrain. Imitating the agility and attack style of big cats, it is highly evasive and constantly seeks to reach the opponent's head and neck. Aside from swords, the most characteristic weapons of Narasingha are the large heavy shield and the long-handled battle-axe.

Monkey

The monkey style or Hanumanyuddha is named after the monkey god Hanuman. As counter and complement to Narasingha, the monkey style is also a duelling pentra and once provided support to the vanguard. It employs a similar wide stance as its counterpart, but with the hips sunk in lower. Using momentum to redirect an opponent's energy while grappling, it also teaches to advance while avoiding the opponent's attacks, and eventually trample them when they have been knocked down. Primary targets are the lower body, particularly the legs and groin. Primarily an armed form, weapons of the monkey style include the gada (mace) and curved daggers.

Leopard

The leopard or panther form is called Bagh-yuddha in Hindi and is associated with the mount of Durga. It is regarded as the seventh animal style although it is not a proper pentra in its own right. As with the corresponding style in Burmese bando, the leopard is actually a more advanced application of all the previous forms and teaches how they may be combined into one single system. Taught at both the shota (immature) and vada (mature) levels, it possesses great speed and agility. The most famous application of the leopard form is loh-musti or iron-fist boxing in which the boxers wield a steel ring (kara) on one hand.

Eight-armed goddess

Ashtabuja Devi, meaning "eight-armed goddess", is the first of the Deva Ang Yudhan. Partly out of respect and partly out of practicality, only the finest and most advanced weapons are used in this style. It is divided into four sub-styles, representing the various aspects of the devi. The first sub-style is that of Chandika, known for its graceful, elegant movements imitating the goddess as a beautiful young girl. Chandi is well-suited for fighting multiple opponents and specializes in gatti sakti, using their own energy against them. Kali's style is a more direct and aggressive version of Chandi, which aims to kill as quickly as possible. The World-Mother form makes use of quick footwork to circle around the opponent while its more aggressive counterpart is the Whirlwind Kali form. The goddess's weapons include various blades such as swords and daggers, as well as the spear and the bow.

Primordial god

Adi Deva Yudhan is divided into four sub-styles, each mimicking a different deity. In contrast to the goddess form, Adi Deva represents akarshan sakti or gravitational energy. The Shiva style specializes in unbalancing and manipulating their centre of gravity. The Ganesha style is much the same but with a focus on grappling and facing a larger opponent. The Jaganatha form focuses on quickly moving in on the opponent and striking at pressure points while avoiding their attacks. The highest of the Adi Deva forms is that of Mahakala which was traditionally employed by an army's vanguard. Like the other sub-styles, it also relies on misalignment while closing in, but with an emphasis on snapping the opponent's neck.

All-time

The final yudhan is named after the androgynous composite of Shiva and Parvati, Ardhanarishvara. It combines all the forms into a single system, to the point that the exponent reacts spontaneously without thinking and all forms become "formless". Achieving mastery of this final form is traditionally compared to attaining enlightenment or ascending Mount Kailash.


See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Donn F. Draeger and Robert W. Smith (1969). Comprehensive Asian Fighting Arts. Kodansha International Limited. 
  2. ^ a b Sikh martial art `Gatka' takes the West by storm. (Press Trust of India). The Hindu
  3. ^ William R. Pinch (2006). Warrior Ascetics And Indian Empires. Cambridge University Press. 
  4. ^ [v MILITARY SIKHS: The Education of a Sikh Warrior. Victoria and Albert Museum.] 'An introduction to Shastar Vidiya - the education of a Sikh warrior' was a lecture by Nidar Singh, given as part of the Sikh Arts and Heritage Lecture Series at the V&A, 10 October 2001.
  5. ^ a b c d e Singh, Arjun (2006). Gatka. Atlanta Martial Arts Directory.

References

  • Nanak Dev Singh Khalsa & Sat Katar Kaur Ocasio-Khalsa (1991) Gatka as taught by Nanak Dev Singh, Book One - Dance of the Sword (2nd Edition). GT International, Phoenix, Arizona. ISBN 0-89509-087-2

External links