The lateral vascular neck restraint demonstrated by soldiers of the Maldives Armed Forces
|Parent style||Judo and other various styles|
A chokehold, choke, stranglehold or, in Judo, shime-waza (Japanese: 絞技; English: constriction technique)1 is a general term for grappling hold that critically reduces or prevents either air (choking)2 or blood (strangling) from passing through the neck of an opponent. The restriction may be of one or both and depends on the hold used and the reaction of the victim. The lack of blood or air may lead to unconsciousness or even death if the hold is maintained. Chokeholds are used in martial arts, combat sports, self-defense, law enforcement and in military hand to hand combat applications. They are considered superior to brute-force manual strangling, which generally requires a large disparity in physical strength to be effective.3 Rather than using the fingers or arms to attempt to crush the neck, chokeholds effectively use leverage such as figure-four holds or collar holds that use the clothes to assist in the constriction.
The terminology used varies; in most martial arts, the term "chokehold" or "choke" is used for all types of grappling holds that strangle. This can be misleading as most holds aim to strangle not choke with the exception of "air chokes" (choking means "to have severe difficulty in breathing because of a constricted or obstructed throat or a lack of air"2). In Judo terminology, "blood chokes" are referred to as "strangleholds" or "strangles" while "air chokes" are called "chokeholds" or "chokes".1 In forensics the terms "strangle" and "stranglehold" designate any type of neck compression,3 while in law-enforcement they are referred to as "neck holds".4
An air choke or tracheal choke specifically refers to a "true" choke that compresses the upper airway (trachea, larynx or laryngopharynx), hence interfering with breathing, and leading to asphyxia. Although less effective at inducing unconsciousness than its vascular counterpart, the air choke causes excruciating pain and air hunger, and in combat sports a fighter will usually submit to such a submission hold. Air chokes have been associated with fractures of the larynx or hyoid bone, and are considered less safe than blood chokes to practice. The common law-enforcement arm bar choke is an air choke done by placing the forearm across the front of the neck from behind. The free hand grabs the wrist and pulls back the forearm, hence driving the forearm (usually the radius bone) into the front of the neck.citation needed
Blood chokes, carotid restraint or sleeper holds, are a form of strangulation that compress one or both carotid arteries and/or the jugular veins without compressing the airway, hence causing cerebral ischemia and a temporary hypoxic condition in the brain.5 A well applied blood choke may lead to unconsciousness in a matter of seconds. Compared to strangulation with the hands, properly applied blood chokes require little physical strength.6
Most chokeholds featured in combat sports and martial arts are blood chokes, although some air chokes or combinations occur as well. Blood chokes, especially the rear naked choke, triangle chokes, or gi chokes, are commonly used as submission holds in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. In Judo, chokeholds, known as shime-waza, are used but are often subject to restrictions based on age or rank. Chokeholds are not allowed in Sport Sambo but are allowed in Combat Sambo. The chokeholds used in Catch wrestling and Shoot wrestling are the inspiration for the "chokeholds" in modern professional wrestling performances. Due to the effectiveness of chokeholds and their popularity in a wide variety of martial arts, they are often used to force submissions in mixed martial art and submission grappling competitions.
The lateral vascular neck restraint (also called sleeper hold) is still a widely taught and utilized blood restriction hold in law enforcement, and can be performed from behind the suspect (or from the front when the officer is "on top" of the suspect) by putting an arm around the neck of the suspect, with the crook of the elbow over the midline of the neck. By pinching the arm together while assisting with the free hand, the carotid arteries and jugular veins are compressed on both sides of the neck. This hold does not put any pressure on the airway, of course, an improperly applied hold could quickly turn into an air choke if the person being strangled resists the hold by attempting to turn around.7
Due to risks of injuries, American law enforcement agencies restrict or in some "rare" instances, forbid its use. The Los Angeles Police Department, for example, prohibited its officers from using air chokes and restricted use of the carotid hold to instances where death or serious bodily injury was threatened, after routinely using chokeholds for many years.8 The Bay Area Rapid Transit Police are completely prohibited from using carotid holds.9
- Anaconda choke – Choke starting with attacker facing the opponent on all fours. Attacker passes his leading arm under the neck, and outside past one of the opponent's arms while then grabbing his own other arm's free arm biceps (resulting in similar arm positioning to a rear naked choke). The attacker then arches his back, bending backward to apply the choke.
- Arm triangle choke – Similar to the leg triangle choke except that it is performed from above a grounded opponent using the arms.
- D'arce Choke – the D'Arce choke, also known as the Brabo choke, is similar to the Anaconda choke, the main divergence being the choking arm is threaded under the near arm, in front of the opponent's neck, and on top of the far arm.
- Ezekiel choke – Attacker grabs inside their own sleeve around opponent's neck.
- Shime-waza choke – Any choke applied by using the opponents gi (i.e. uniform), most commonly used in Judo and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (Example: Ezequiel choke, slide choke, half nelson choke, bow and arrow choke, clock choke).
- Gogoplata – Performed from full guard by using an Omoplata setup to trap the top man's arm, then pulling the bottom man's foot past the top man's head, pressing the shin of that leg against the throat. The bottom man then pulls on his opponent's head, cutting off the airflow and forcing him to submit or risk passing out from lack of oxygen.
- Guillotine – Applied in front of and above the opponent, the attacker restricts air flow by lifting the forearm into the neck. A common finishing hold in mixed martial arts.10
- North–south choke – Applied from the north-south position with opponent facing up. Uses the shoulder and biceps to cut off air flow.
- Push Choke – This can be applied a prone opponent, facing the person applying, by simply placing a hand to the throat, and pushing down, as the name implies. This is an air choke, and if left applied for too long, will result in fracture of the Hyoid bone in the neck, and death. Because of the high likelihood of death to the opponent, it is often not used in most fighting, and is an outlawed hold within the wrestling community because of the high chance of it being misdelivered, resulting in death.
- Rear naked choke – Applied from behind the opponent, starting by looping one arm around the neck so that the crook of the elbow is under the opponents chin, then placing the hand of that arm on the opposite biceps. The other hand is then placed on the back of the opponent's head and pushes the opponent's head and neck forward into the crook of the flexed arm. Additional pressure may be applied by pinioning the opponent's lower body by locking the legs around the opponent's waist (referred to as "hooks") and arching the back to place more force against the neck. A simple and effective chokehold, it is the most common10 finishing hold in mixed martial arts competition.
- Triangle choke – Applied from full guard or from mount, the opponent's neck is trapped in a triangle formed by their own arm and the attacker's thigh and calf. A common finishing hold in Mixed martial arts.10
- Peruvian Necktie – another chokehold variant created by Peruvian MMA fighter Tony DeSouza in which the arms of the person applying the choke are laced around the neck with the opponent's bottom arm straight through the hold, the person applying then turns the opponent around, and drapes his legs over the back, applying the pressure to the choke, this hold is used mostly by American MMA fighters Eddie Alvarez and CB Dollaway.
- Shin choke – Used on a prone opponent, by simply placing the shin across the neck, resulting in constriction of airflow to the lungs, it will quickly result in the loss of consciousness of the opponent.
- Short Wrist Choke – In Judo, the rear naked choke is known as Hadaka-jime (裸絞め): "rear naked choke", one of the 36 constriction techniques of Kodokan Judo in the Shime-waza list. It digs the blade of the wrist into the carotid sinus similar to the hand clasp method and uses a lever motion helped by the underhand. It is faster to apply requiring less strength than the figure four/mixed-martial arts version but is more difficult to learn. It is not an air choke but a carotid choke created entirely by the attacker's arms.
- Von Flue Choke – this choke is mostly used in MMA, and some rare instances in wrestling, because of the rareity of its use, it is often overlooked in its effectiveness. The choke is applied with the opponent in a supine position, with his back against the mat, the person applying then laces his closest arm around the back of the head, and places his entire body weight against the neck, causing both air constriction, and restriction of blood flow to the brain, prolonged applying of this hold can result in loss of consciousness, either due to loss of blood flow to the brain, or loss of air to the lungs, if kept applied for too long, it can result in death to the opponent.
- Zev Yaroslavsky and Robert C. Farrell, Los Angeles City Council members in the 1970s, who worked to ban chokeholds in the Los Angeles Police Department.
- Force Science News #198: Vascular neck restraint: Reprieve for a bum-rapped technique
Kodokan Judo by Dr Jigoro Kano (Kodansha Publication) Shimewaza (strangle techniques) by Katsuhiko Kashiwazaki (Ippon Press)
- Ohlenkamp, Neil. Principles of Judo Choking Techniques. judoinfo.com. URL last accessed March 3, 2006.
- The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1999). Oxford University press. ISBN 0-19-861263-X.
- Jones, Richard. Asphyxia, Strangulation. www.forensicmed.co.uk. URL last accessed February 26, 2006.
- Reay, Donald; Eisele, John. Death from law enforcement neck holds. www.charlydmiller.com.URL last accessed March 3, 2006
- Koiwai, Karl. Deaths Allegedly Caused by the Use of "Choke Holds" (Shime-Waza). judoinfo.com. URL last accessed March 3, 2006.
- Koiwai, Karl. How Safe is Choking in Judo?. judoinfo.com. URL last accessed March 3, 2006.
- DiMaio, Vincent; DiMaio, Dominick (2001). Forensic Pathology, Second Edition. Selected Pages from CHAPTER 8 and from Deaths Occurring Following the Application of Choke or Carotid Holds. www.charlydmiller.com. URL last accessed March 2, 2006.
- Mitchell, Michael. "LAPD Chokehold history". Archived from the original on March 26, 2008. Retrieved December 4, 2006.
- "Bay Area Rapid Transit Police Department Policy Manual: Chapter 3 - General Operations: 300.2.5". BART Police. 2011-01-26. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- Sherdog.com. Top 20 most common fight endings www.sherdog.com. URL last accessed February 5, 2006.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Choking techniques.|
- Hadakajime - Air or Blood Choke?. Discussion about whether hadakajime can be classified as an air or blood choke.
- Joe Rogan doing a Blood choke http://www.spike.com/player?ifilmId=2685057&refsite=7063