An older Chen Fake plays the "xin jia" form he introduced to the world
Chenjiagou, Henan, China
|Died||1957 (aged 69–70)|
|Teacher(s)||Chen Yanxi (陈延熙)|
|Rank||9th gen. Grandmaster of
|Notable relatives||Chen Changxing,
|Notable students||Chen Zhaopi (陈照丕),
Chen Zhaokui (陈照奎),
Feng Zhiqiang (冯志强),
Tian Xiuchen (田秀臣),
Tian Jianhua (田剑华),
Li Zhongyin (李忠阴),
Lei Muni (雷慕尼),
Gu Liuxin (顾留馨),
Li Jingwu (李经梧),
Xiao Qinglin (肖庆林),
|Part of a series on|
|Chinese martial arts (Wushu)|
|List of Chinese martial arts|
|Wushu in the world|
Chen Fake or Ch'en Fa-k'e (陳發科; 1887–1957) was a Chinese martial artist par excellence and a dedicated teacher of his family art of Chen-style t'ai chi ch'uan.1 Born and raised in Chen Family Village (Chenjiagou, 陳家溝) in Henan province (河南省). Through hard work and dedication, Chen earned a reputation as a martial artists like his father and grandfather before him. In 1928, Chen Fake moved to Beijing to teach his family’s inheritance. After defeating all challengers, Chen attracted a group of students that included many already well known martial artists. Chen Fake was a martial artists and not a scholar and so he did not leave a written record of his achievements. His life story was recorded and told by his sons or students, notably Hong Junsheng. By the time of his death in 1957, Chen had established a martial arts tradition of Chen-style t'ai chi ch'uan that is being practiced around the world.
Chen Fake (陳發科), courtesy name Fusheng (福生), was born in 1887, in the village known as Chen Jia Gou (陳家溝) Wen County (溫县), Henan Province (河南). This area was known for their martial arts expertise since the establishment of the village in 1374. 23
Chen’s great grandfather was Chen Changxing (陳長興 Chén Chángxīng, Ch'en Chang-hsing, (1771–1853) who taught Yang Luchan (1799–1871) the founder of Yang-style t'ai chi ch'uan. Chen Fake’s father, Chen Yanxi (陈延熙; 1820 ? - ), was an armed escort by profession. This occupation required him to maintain a stellar martial arts reputation as he traveled around the country protecting his convoys.
Chen Fake was born when his father was in his sixties and both of his older brothers had died. As a result, he lived a relatively pampered life. When Chen was young, he was often sick and sometimes had to rest in bed. Despite his illness, he did not practice his family’s martial art.
This all changed when his father went to Shangdong Province (山东省) to teach martial arts to the family of Yuan Shikai (袁世凱; 1859-1916) around 1900 when Chen Fake was fourteen. Since this position required Chen Yanxi to be away for an extended period, Yanxi asked his relatives to look after his family. One evening, Chen Fake heard his relatives criticizing his weakness suggesting that he failed to live up to the expectations of his ancestors. (「延熙这一支，辈辈出高手，可惜到发科这一辈就完了，他都十四岁了，还这么虚弱，不能下工夫，这不眼看完了吗？」2 ) This disturbed Chen greatly. He wanted to prove his relatives wrong but feared it was too late. He was very poor in terms of martial arts ability, when he compared himself to others within Chen village. This question hounded him until he realized that if he dedicated himself to the practice of his family’s art he can improve his skills. For the next three years, while others rested or relaxed after their daily chores, Chen would practice the various forms in Chen’s family tai chi chuan. If he had any questions, he would ask every one around him for help. His single minded focus made him one of the best practitioner’s in Chen village. His father was pleased with Fake’s achievements when his father returned for a visit. From his struggles, Chen Fake realized that real kung fu is obtained through hard work. This would be the basis of his teachings of Chen Family t'ai chi ch'uan.
For two generations, the Yang family of Yang Lu-ch'an and the Wu family of Wu Quanyou spread the fame of the martial art of t'ai chi ch'uan throughout the Qing Empire. The Qing government ended by a revolution and similar disruption were happening throughout Chinese society. It was during these turbulent times that Chen Zhaopei (陈照丕; 1893–1972) went to Beijing to teach Chen's style Tai Chi Chuan in 1928. Chen Zhaopei’s instructions attracted considerable interest and in 1930 he was invited to teach in Nanjing. Zhaopei did not want to leave his Beijing students so he suggested that they invite his uncle Chen Fake to take his place.23 It was through this twist of fate that Chen Fake moved from a small village in Henan Province to the thriving metropolis of Beijing.
Before the arrival of Chen Fake, the public perception of t'ai chi ch'uan was based on the views of the Yang style and Wu style. This meant that the t'ai chi ch'uan forms were practiced as slow and relaxed movements. Chen Fake showed a different type of training that at times can include fast vigorous actions and explosive moves. So in the beginning, many within the Beijing martial arts community doubt the authenticity of Chen Fake’s quan. According to Chinese tradition, when Chen first arrived in the Chinese capital, he was openly challenged by other martial artists in order to establish his credibility. In those impromptu competitions, there were no rules and no preparations so they could be quite dangerous. For the next thirty years, Chen remained undefeated. Chen not only established an unparalleled martial arts reputation but earned the public’s respect for his morality and integrity.
According to his student, Hong Jung Shen, Chen Fake never criticizes other martial artists either publicly or privately. Chen would also admonish his students for criticizing others. Master Chen was quoted as saying: “The pillar of socialization is loyalty and the method of dealing with people should be based on modesty and cooperation. Loyalty fosters trust; modesty encourages progress; and cooperation befriends people. Modesty and cooperation should be based on loyalty not on hypocrisy.” 4
Hong recalls an anecdote which illustrates the character of Chen Fake.3 Chen Fake was an adviser to a Leitai Tournament in Beijing. The tournament was well attended with several hundred competitors. This large number of participants leaded to the problem of how to decide the winner and the length of time for each match. The initial time period of fifteen minutes and even the shorten time of three minutes appears to be quite unmanageable. Chen Fake then suggested that any martial arts match can be decided by a three count or even a one count. He reasoned “Real martial arts is seen right away”. To prove his point, Li Jinghua (李剑华), seasoned martial artists, touched Chen on the elbow only to have Chen bounce this two hundred pound martial artist several feet into a wall. Chen explained “ … when the gonfu is deep, there is no need for power to come out. The oncoming force will cause an automatic reaction to cause the attacker to fall forward or backward into emptiness. With Jianhua’s power, I enticed and then issued. …”3
There were many stories about the remarkable abilities of Chen Fake but what is unquestioned is his establishment of a Chen t'ai chi ch'uan tradition outside of Chen Village. During his teaching career in Beijing, he trained hundreds of students, some of which were already well known martial artists. By the time of Chen’s death in 1957, his students became respected as Chen Stylists in their own right and later trained the next generation of Chen Tai Chi Chuan practitioners.
Some of the more prominent and recognized students of Chen Fake are his two sons and daughter as many well known martial artists.
- Chen Zhaoxu (陈照旭 , 1912 - 1959) was the second son of Chen Fake. His older brother, Chen Zhào Guān (陈照冠) died when he was young. He trained with his father at an early age and later helped his father by leading some of the training sessions. At his father’s request, he went back to Chen village to teach. He suffered during the turbulent times of the Cultural revolution and as a result died quite young.5 His boxing legacy is continued by his two sons. The second son, Chen Xiaowang (陳小旺, b. 1945 - ) is living in Australia and is recognized as one of the leading proponents of Chen style tai chi chuan.6 His third son, Chen Xiaosing (陈小星 b. 1952) is now the head instructor at Chen Village (陈家沟太极拳学校校长).7Chen Xiaosing's son, Chen Ziqiang (陳自強)8 and other family members 9 are teaching in Chen village.
- Chen Yu Xia (陈豫侠, 1924-1986) was the only daughter of Chen Fake. She started to train with her father when she was eight. She obtained a high level of proficiency in Chen t'ai chi ch'uan. In the 1980s, when the students of Hong Junsheng asked Hong about the Chen Sword Form. Hong identified Yu Xia as the expert who still understood the intricacy of the Chen Sword Form and the students of Hong all practiced the form that was taught by Yu Xia. Until her death, she was regarded as a well known authority on Chen t'ai chi ch'uan.10
- Chen Zhaokui (陈照奎, 1928 – 1981) was the third son of Chen Fake. He trained many of the current Chen style t'ai chi ch'uan practitioners throughout China11 His son, Chen Yu (陈俞, 1962 - ) is teaching Chen style around the world.1213
- Chen Zhao Pi （陈照丕, 1893一1972）, courtesy name Ji Fu (绩甫), was a close relative of Chen Fake. Zhao Pi was born in a respected martial arts family. The son of Chen Dengke (陈登科) who was also an established martial artist. Zhao Pi trained extensively with Chen Fake in the Chen village when he was young while his father was away on business. At the age of 21, he left to go to Gansu, Hebei (甘肃, 河北) to teach boxing. In 1928, he was invited to teach in Beijing. By 1930, he was invited by the mayor of Nanjing and the Nanjing government to teach his skills. Not wanting to leave his Beijing students, he suggested that they invite Chen Fake to teach them instead. Zhao Pi continued to teach across China despite the chaos of the war. In 1958, at the age of sixty-five, he retired and headed back to teach in Chen Village. Zhao Pi faced considerable hardship during the turmoil’s of the Cultural Revolution. Persecuted and banned from teaching a bourgeois and decadent art, Zhao Pi nevertheless preserved in preserving the legacy of Chen Family t'ai chi ch'uan. He authored four books: Cases of Chen style t'ai chi ch'uan (陈氏太极拳汇宗), Beginner’s guide to t'ai chi ch'uan (太极拳入门), Illustrated guide to Chen style t'ai chi ch'uan （陈氏太极拳图解） and Thirteen theory of Chen Style t'ai chi ch'uan （陈氏太极拳理论十三篇）. The four leading proponents of Chen Style t'ai chi ch'uan from Chen village, Chén Zhèng Léi (陈正雷), Chén Xiǎo Wàng (陈小旺), Zhū Tiān Cái (朱天才)and Wáng Xī' An (王西安)are his students.14
- Jiazhen Shen (沈家桢. 1891 - 1972) was an engineer by profession. He was one of the first students of Chen Fake and studied with him for a decade. He wrote a book titled Chen Style Tai ji chuan (陈氏太极拳) 15 with fellow Chen stylists, Guo Liu Xing (顾留馨). He was a relentless promoter for the art unfortunately, like many traditional martial artists, he was persecuted, punished and endured great hardship during the era of the Cultural Revolution. 16
- Yang Yichen (杨益臣. 1904-1959), courtesy name DeFu (德福), was of Manchu descent. His family was part of the Yellow Banners (黃旗) in the Qing court. Yichen grew up in a martial arts family. Yichen and his five brothers were already proficient in the martial arts at an early age. He was training with Liu Musan (刘慕三) in Wu style before switching to Chen style under Chen Fake. He trained diligently with Fake until the civil unrest of 1937 where he moved his family to Xian for safety. In Xian, Yichen continued to teach according to the principles of Fake. Hong Junsheng considered Yichen to have learned the essences of Chen Fake. Many other Chen practitioners often seeks Yichen for advice. Despite his early death, Yichen left behind many students that continues the Chen tradition. 17
- Zhang Xuan, (张瑄, 1905-1984), born in a martial arts family that worked with the Qing court. He was training in Xingyi, Badua and Tam Tui with Zhang Jianquan (张剑泉). He was working at the Beijing telegrapth when Chen Fake started to teach his Chen Style. Zhang trained with Chen for three years before he relocated to Xi'an. He continued to teach martial arts with his friend and fellow Chen Fake student, Yáng Yìchén (杨益臣). He spend the rest of his life spreading the art of Chen style tai chi chuan. 18
- Pan Yong-Zhou (潘詠周: 1906–1996, alias Zuo-Min. Taiwan) was a start at Beijing University. He started to study Yang style t'ai chi ch'uan, then Wu style t'ai chi ch'uan with Liu Musan. Just like his classmate, Hong Junsheng, Pan switched to studying Chen style when Chen Fake arrived in Beijing. He studied with Fake until circumstances forced Pan to emigrate to Taiwan. In Taiwan, together with Wang He-Lin (王鶴林), Wang Meng-Bi (王夢弼, alias Mu-Zhao) and Guo Qing-Shan (郭青山, alias Yang-Zhi) established a strong Chen style tradition in Taiwan. He wrote a book titled " Chen Taijiquan encyclopedia" summarizing his understanding of the art. 1920
- Hong Junsheng (洪均生, 1907 – 1996) was one of the longest serving students of Chen Fake. Starting in 1930, Hong trained uninterrupted with Fake until 1945 when Hong moved to Jinan (济南), Shandong Province (山东省). ) 21 Through a period of tremendous hardship, Hong toiled tirelessly to teach the traditional martial arts system of his teacher. Near the end of his life, Hong summarized his experience and understanding in one book, Chen Tai Chi Practical Method (Chén shì tàijí quán shíyòng quánfǎ, 陈式太极拳实用拳法).2 Portion of this book was translated in to English by Hong's student Joseph Chen Zhonghua in 2006. 3 Hong used the words "Practical method" ("实用拳法") to emphasize the martial aspects of the art which he felt was the key function of the t'ai chi ch'uan of his teacher.
- Gu Liuxin (顧留馨; 1908–1991)22
- Li Jingwu (李经悟; 1912–1997)23
- Lei Muni (雷慕尼; 1911–1986)24
- Zhōng Mínggāo (钟鸣高, 1911-1998), courtesy name Tiānshēng (天声), once enrolled in the Whampoa Military Academy (黄埔军校) and continued serving in the military and various political offices. He trained with Chen Fake when he was in Beijing. 25
- Tian Xiuchen (田秀臣; 1917–1984) initially studied Shaolin Boxing when he was young. Later, he studied Xingyi quan master, Tangfeng Ting (唐凤亭). He switched to studying Chen style t'ai chi ch'uan after meeting Chen Fake in 1941. He begin teaching Chen style after the death of Chen Fake.26His nephew, Tian Qiumao (田秋茂, b.1945 - ) who also trained with Feng Zhiqiang, continues to teach Chen style in Beijing. 27
- Feng Zhiqiang (冯志强; 1928–2012 ) was already proficient in Xinyi Quan under the tutelage of Hu Yaozhen (1879 – 1973) before he started to train with Chen Fake in 1953. After Fake's death, Feng became one of the leading proponents of Chen style t'ai chi ch'uan first within China then internationally. He summarized his understanding of martial arts to create a new training program which he called Hunyuantaiji (混元太极). This new system is being practiced world wide. 28 29
- Wang He-Lin (王鶴林; Taiwan)30
Conventional history credits Chen Fake with the creation of the New Frame (Xin Jia, 新架) of Chen t'ai chi ch'uan that are currently practice by some branches of Chen t'ai chi ch'uan practitioners. 31 He is also given the credit of promoting the Old Frame (老架) which is the form he taught when he first arrived in Beijing. 32 Each instructor after Chen Fake also performs and teaches the form slightly differently. This proliferation of styles has lead to the obvious argument about the authenticity of the forms. As an extension of this question, the t'ai chi ch'uan community also tried to debate the merits of the different t'ai chi ch'uan Styles or even the difference between Internal and External martial arts. 33 This quest for authenticity and efficacy is one attempt to prove the legitimacy of the training within the traditional Chinese martial arts. 34
For Chen style t'ai chi ch'uan, Chen Fake did not leave any written material to indicate his view on the matter of form. Hong Jung Shen noted that Chen Fake changed his teaching method over his thirty years career. 2 Hong also notice that his fellow students such as Chen Zhaoxu, Chen Zhaokui and Feng Zhiqiang all practice their forms differently from him. Hong finally asked Chen Fake about this issue during his last meeting with his teacher in 1957. Chen told Hong to ignore the external appearance of the form but focused on the idea that any correct t'ai chi ch'uan form should be based on the same fundamental principle and that each element of a form should have a purpose. Accordingly, the external appearance is not important as long as those two requirements are met. In Chen Fake’s words: “This set of Taijiquan does not have one technique which is useless. Everything was carefully designed for a purpose.” (“这套拳没有一个 动作是空的, 都是有用的”) . This principle, according to Hong, can be derived from “The Taijiquan Treatise” (太极拳论) by Wang Zongyue (王宗岳). This idea is expressed by the phrase “Although there are myriad variations, there is only one underlying principles.” (“虽变化万端, 而理为一贯”).2
Chen Fake and his generation were probably the last true traditional Chinese martial artists. It is only through a series of fortunate coincidences that he was able to teach his art in the capital of the Chinese nation. He attracted and cultivated a group of exceptional students and those students ensure that his knowledge and skills continued to shine. Even through the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution and the eventual international dissemination, this selected group and now their students continues to teach according to their master’s instructions. This dedication provided the strong foundation needed to foster a thriving and sustainable Chen style t'ai chi ch'uan community. Chen t'ai chi ch'uan practitioners can now be found all over that world. This is the enduring legacy of Chen Fake.
The lineage tree is a simplified representation of the student-master relationships for t'ai chi ch'uan. The real story is considerable more complex because some students studied under many teachers. What is the most important point from the lineage tree is the pivotal role of Chen Fake and his contribution to the dissemination of Chen t'ai chi ch'uan outside of Chen village. A minor error in the tree is the linkage between Chen Zhaopi (陈照丕). Chen Zhaopi did not trained with the father of Chen Fake (Chen Yanxi, 陈延熙) but rather Zhaopi’s own father Chen Dengke (陈登科). Chen Dengke was of the same generation as Chen Fake. Chen Dengke’s father is Chen Yannian (陈延年) who was the brother of Chen Fake’s father, Chen Yanxi (陈延熙). The father of both Yannian and Yanxi was Chen Gengyun (陈耕耘). 35 As the tree shows, Gengyun was the same generation as the other t'ai chi ch'uan luminaries such as Yang Luchan (杨露禅) and Chen Qingping (陈清萍). Both Luchan and Gengyun were students of Chen Changxing (陈长兴).
- This lineage tree is not comprehensive, but depicts those considered the 'gate-keepers' & most recognised individuals in each generation of Chen-style.
- Although many styles were passed down to respective descendants of the same family, the lineage focused on is that of the Chen style & not necessarily that of the family.
- Names denoted by an asterisk are legendary or semi-legendary figures in the lineage; while their involvement in the lineage is accepted by most of the major schools, it is not independently verifiable from known historical records.
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